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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Poli, and attained the dignity of cardinal in 1706. He
succeeded Clement XI. as pope in 1721, and exercised
his power so prudently that his subjects regretted the
brevity of its duration. He died in 1724, and his place
was supplied by Benedict XIII.

See BRUYS, " Histoire des Papes," 1735 ; " Leben Pabst Innocent
XIII. ," Cologne, 1724.

InnocentiuB. See INNOCENT.

Innocenz. See INNOCENT.

Innocenzo. See INNOCENT.

I'no, [Gr. "Ivii,] a daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia,
was the wife of Athamas, King of Thebes. According
to tradition, she incurred the enmity of Juno, who de-
prived Athamas of his reason. In a fit of insanity he
killed a son of Ino, who threw herself into the sea and
was changed into a sea-goddess, named Leucothea. Her
story was dramatized by several Greek poets.

Inocencio. See INNOCENT.

Inouye, (KAORU,) COUNT, a Japanese statesman,
horn in 1839. Making a secret journey in Europe with
Count Ito, he became a strong advocate of Western
civilization. He was in office from 1868 onward, was
minister of public works in 1878, afterwards in the
foreign office, retired in 1887, and was recalled as
minister of the interior in 1892.

In'skip, (JOHN S.,) a Methodist preacher, born at
Huntingdon, England, August 10, 1816, was brought to
the United States when five years old, began a religious
life in 1832, and in 1835 commenced to preach. He
acquired great note as a conductor of camp-meetings,
and became editor of the "Christian Standard." Died
t Ocean Grove, New Jersey, March 7, 1884.

Interiano de Ayala, en-ta-re-a'no da I-a'15, (JUAN,)
a Spanish author and monk, born in 1656, became
preacher to the king. He published, besides other works,
(mostly in Spanish,) "Pictor Christianus Eruditus,"
(1730,) in which he exposes the prevalent errors of
painters who treat of religious subjects. His style is
pure and elegant Died in 1730.

Inthiema, in-te-a'mi, (HERO,) a Dutch poet and jurist,
born in 1576; died in 1623.

Intieri, en-te-a'ree, ( BARTOLOMMEO, ) an Italian
economist and mechanician, born at Pistoia about 1674.
He founded a chair of political economy at Naples, and
wrote "On the Conservation of Grain." Died in 1757.

Inveges, en-va'jes, (AUGUSTIN,) a Sicilian historian

and ecclesiastic, born at Sciacca in 1595, published a
"History of Palermo," (3 vols., 1649-51,) which was
much esteemed. Died in 1677.

In'wood, (CHARLES FREDERICK,) son of William
Inwood, noticed below, was born in 1798. He co-operated
with his father as architect of Westminster Hospital and
other edifices. Died in 1840.

In-wood, (HENRY WILLIAM,) an English architect, a
brother of the preceding, was born in 1794. He was
associated in his profession with his father, and pub-
lished " Studies of the Architect from Nature," and an
illustrated work on Athenian architecture, called "The
Erechtheion at Athens," (1827.) He perished by ship-
wreck in 1843, while making a voyage to Spain.

Inwood, (WILLIAM,) an English architect, born about
1770, was employed on many buildings in London, and
also followed the profession of surveyor. He was assisted
in his architectural labours by his two sons, noticed
above. Saint Pancras Church, London, finished in 1822,
was erected by him and his son Henry. He published
"Tables for Purchasing Estates," etc. Died in 1843.

I'o, [Gr. 'Iu,] a fabulous personage, whom the Greek
poets represent as a daughter of Inachus and a priestess
of Juno. It was said that, having been transformed by
Jupiter into a white cow, she was tormented by a gadfly,
(sent by Juno,) to escape from which she swam across
the Ionian Sea and wandered through various parts of
the world. Her story is related by ^ischylus in his

I-o-la'ua [Gr. 'lo/aocl or I'p-las, [Gr. 'loAoc,] a per-

sonage of classic mythology, was a relative and faithful
companion of Hercules, whom he aided in his contest
against the Lernean Hydra.

I'o-le, [Gr. 'Io?J7,] the daughter of Eurytus, King of
CEchalia, who promised her in marriage to Hercules.
But, Eurytus having afterwards refused to perform his
L-ment, lole was forcibly carried off by her lover.
On the death of the latter, caused by Dejanira's jealousy,
(see DEJANIRA,) lole was married to Hyllus, the son of

I'on, [Gr. 'luv,] the mythical ancestor of the lonians,
was supposed to be the son of Apollo and Creusa. His
story was dramatized by Euripides.

Ion, ["luv,] a Greek tragic poet, who was born at
Chios, (Scio,) and flourished about 450 B.C. He lived
at Athens, where he became a friend of ^schylus and
gained a prize for one of his tragedies. He composed,
besides tragedies, elegies, lyric poems, and some prose
works, all of which are lost He was included in the
canon of the five Athenian tragic poets by the Alexan-
drian critics.

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grzca ;" KAYSER, " Historia cn-
lica Tragicorum Gnecorum," 1845 : KARL NIEBERDING, " De lonit
Chii Vita, Moribus et Studiis," 1836.

I'o-phon, [Gr. 'lo^uv,] an Athenian tragic poet, a soi.
of Sophocles the poet, lived about 420 B.C. He gained
the second prize in 429, when Euripides received the
first prize. Among the titles of his plays are " Achilles,"
" Actaeon," and " Pentheus." His works are not extant
Died after 405 B.C.

See KAVSER, " Historia critica Tragicorum Gntcorum," 1845.

louzef or louzaf. See YOOSUF.

Iphicrate. See IPHICRATES.

I-phic'ra-tes, [Gr. 'I^ocpan/c ; Fr. IPHICRATE, e'le
kRJtt',] a skilful Athenian general, who rose from a
humble rank in society and obtained the chief command
of the Athenian army. About 392 B.C. he defeated the
Spartans near Corinth, and afterwards gained applause
by his defence of Corcyra against the Spartans and Syra-
cusans. He made important changes in the armour anci
tactics of his troops, by exchanging the heavy buckler
for a light target and increasing the length of the speai
and the sword. He was associated with Timotheus and
Chares in the command of an expedition against Byzan-
tium about 357 B.C.

See GROTB, " History of Greece :" CORNBLIUS NEPOS, " Iphi-
crates :" DIODORUS SICULUS, books xiv., rv., and xvi. ; XENOPHOM.
" Hellenica," books iv. and vi. ; REHDANTZ, "Vita: Iphicratis, Cha-
briae et Timothei," Berlin, 1845.

Iph-I-e-nI'a or Iph-I-ge-nei'a, [Gr. 'tytytvoa; Fr.
IPHIGENIE, e'fe'zha'ne',] a daughter of Agamemnon and

a, e, J, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon;



Clytemnestra. The ancient poets relate that Diana
detained the Greek fleet at Aulis by a calm, because
Agamemnon had offended her, and that the soothsayer
Calchas declared Diana could be appeased only by the
sacrifice of Iphigenia. When she was on the point of
being immolated, she was rescued, it is said, by Dinna,
who carried her to Tauris, where she became a prie?tess
In the temple of the goddess. Her story is the subject
of two of the dramas of Euripides.

Iphigenie. See IPHIGENIA.

Iphl-tus, [Gr. 'tyiTOf,.] a king of Elis, who revived
the Olympic games about 884 B.C., four hundred and
seventy years after their first institution. They were
celebrated every fifth year, at Olympia, on the banks
of the Alpheus. Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, was
associated with Iphitus in this affair.

Ipparco, the Italian of HIPPARCHUS, which see.

Ippocrate. See HIPPOCRATES.

Ippolito. See HIPPOLYTUS.

Irailh, e'rjl', (AucusTiN SIMON,) a French historical
writer, born at Puy-en-Velay in 1719, became canon
of Monistrol. He wrote an interesting work entitled
"Literary Quarrels, or Memoirs of the Revolutions in
the Republic of Letters from the Time of Homer to
the Present," (4 vols., 1761,) also a "History of the
Reunion of Bretagne with France," (2 vols., 1764.) Died
in 1794.

Ir'by, (CHARLES LEONARD,) an English officer in the
royal navy, was born October 9, 1789. In conjunction
with James Mangles, he wrote a valuable work entitled
" Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and the Holy Land,"
(1823.) Died December 3, 1845. ( See MANGLES,

Ire'dell, ir'del, (JAMES,) a distinguished jurist,
born in England in 1751, settled in North Carolina in
1768. He was admitted to the bar in 1770, and from
1777 to 1779 was judge of the supreme court of North
Carolina. He was one of the ablest members of the
constitutional convention of 1787, and from 1790 till
his death, in 1799, was judge of the supreme court of
the United States. He published the " Laws of North
Carolina, 1715-1790."

Iredell, (JAMES,) a lawyer, a son of the preceding,
was born at Edenton, North Carolina, in 1788. He was
Governor of North Carolina in 1827, and was a Senator
of the United States from 1828 to 1831. He was sub-
sequently reporter to the supreme court of his native
State, and published thirteen volumes of law and eight
of equity reports. Died in 1853.

Ire'land, (JOHN,) D.D., an English writer, born at
Ashburton in 1761, became prebendary of Westminster
in 1802, and Dean of Westminster and rector of Islip in
1816. He founded a professorship at Oxford, and several
scholarships. He was a contributor to the " London
Quarterly Review," and the author of several approved
works of divinity, among which is " Paganism and Chris-
tianity Compared." Died in 1842.

Ireland, (JOHN,) an English writer, born in Shrop-
shire, removed to London, where he became a con-
noisseur of art and a dealer in pictures. He compiled
"Memoirs of Henderson" the actor, and published
" Hogarth Illustrated," which was favourably received.
Died in 1808.

Ireland, (JOHN,) an American ecclesiastic, born
in Ireland in 1838. He was brought to the United
States as a boy, studied theology in France, was or-
dained priest in the Roman Catholic Church in 1861,
became bishop, and in 1888 archbishop of St. Paul,
Minnesota. He became well known as a lecturer on
temperance and a writer and speaker for the Repub-
lican party, and published "The Church and Modern

Ireland, (SAMUEL,) born in London, was a weaver
of Spitalfields in his youth. He became subsequently a
dealer in rare prints, curiosities, etc. Having acquired
some skill in drawing and engraving, he employed it
in illustrating various countries, of which he published
" Picturesque Tours." He was the author of " Graphic
Illustrations of Hogarth," and the publisher of the Shak-
speare Papers forged by his son. (See below.) Died
in 1800.

Ireland, (WILLIAM HENRY,) a son of the preceding,
was born in London in 1777. He acquired notoriety
in 1795 by forging legal documents under the seal of
Shakspeare, and by practising on the public credulity in
relation to dramas which he pretended to have found at
Stratford. One of these, called " Vortigern," was pur-
chased by Sheridan, and performed at Drury Lane before
the imposture was detected. The audience were ex-
tremely disgusted at the quality of the play, and Ireland,
being required to explain how he had obtained it, con-
fessed the forgery to his father, and afterwards published
a written confession, which displays more vanity than
penitence. Died in 1835.

Ireuaeus, e-ra-na'us, (FALKOVSKI,) a learned Russian
prelate and writer on theology, born in 1762; died in

IrenaEus, (KLEMENTIEVSKI,) a Russian theologian,
born in 1753, became Archbishop of Pskof. He wrote
commentaries on Scripture, and translated from the
Greek some works of the Fathers. Died in 1818.

Iren^us, ?r-e-nee'us, [Gr. E/pizvoiof; Fr. IRENEE, e'ri'-
na'; It. IRENEO, e-ri-na'o,] SAINT, a Christian martyr,
born about 130 or 140 A.D., was a Greek by birth, and
was probably a native of Asia Minor, as he was a pupil
of the eminent Bishop Polycarp of Smyrna. About 177
he became Bishop of Lyons, (Lugdunum,) in France, in
place of Pothinus, who was the first that occupied that
see. He ministered to his churches with wisdom and
general acceptance. To counteract the errors of the
Gnostics and others, he wrote a treatise against Heresies,
which is still extant, (in a Latin translation.) He also
wrote several Letters, and other works, which are lost,
except some fragments. It is generally supposed that
he suffered martyrdom under Septimus Severus ; but
the learned are not agreed whether it occurred in 2OJ
or 208. He was well versed in ancient philosophy, as
well as in evangelical doctrine. His book on Heresies
is highly appreciated as a historical monument and a
vindication of the primitive faith. He was a believer in
the Millennium, and entertained opinions on that subject
which some consider extravagant.

See SAINT JEROME, " De Viria illustrious ;" EUSBBIUS, " Historic
Ecclesiastical" HENRY DODWELL, " Dissertationes in Irenseum,"
1689; GERVAISE, "Vie de S. Ire'ne'e, second Evgque de Lyon," 1723;
J. M. PRAT, "Histoire de Saint-Ire'ne'e," 1843; JAMES BRAVEW,
" Account of the Life and Writings of Saint Iren;eus."

I-re'ae, [Gr. Zlpijvn ; Fr. iRiNE, e'rjn',] Empress of
Constantinople, was born at Athens about 752, of very
obscure parentage, and in 769 A.D. became the wife of
Leo IV., Emperor of the East. At his death, in 780, he
left a son of ten years, named Constantine, during whose
minority Irene acted as regent. She was remarkable for
her beauty, energy, and talents. In order to decide the
quarrel between the Iconoclasts and their opponents, to
whom she was partial, she assembled a council in 787,
which formally sanctioned the worship of images. When
her son attained his majority, her ambition so far pre-
vailed over natural affection that she dethroned him and
deprived him of sight. In 802 she was deposed by a
conspiracy of her subjects, and Nicephorus was chosen
emperor. She died in exile in 803.

See LB BEAU, "Histoire du Bas- Empire;" VINCENT MIGNOT,
" Histoire de I' I mpeVatrice Irene," 176:1 ; GIBBON, " History of the
Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."

Irenee. See IREN^US.

Ireneo. See IREN^US.

Ireton, Ir'tpn, (HENRY,) an eminent English repub-
lican, born in 1610. He was a student of law when the
civil war began, in which he became an ardent leader
of the popular cause. Entering the army as captain of
cavalry, he was rapidly promoted, and became highly
distinguished for his courage and capacity both in the
battle-field and the council-chamber. At the battle of
Naseby, (1645,) with the rank of commissary-general, he
commanded the left wing, and was wounded and taken
prisoner ; but, his friends having gained the victory, he
recovered his liberty the same day. In 1646 he married
Bridget, daughter of Oliver Cromwell. The latter, as
Hume remarks, "had great deference for the counsels
of Ireton ;" and the republicans generally reposed the
highest confidence in him, as a statesman of incorruptible
honour. About 1646 he was elected to Parliament, where

c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. lJ[^ = See Explanations, p. 23.)



he projected various wise legal and constitutional re
forms and was eminent for his skill in drafting ordi-
nances. While Charles I. was a prisoner at Hampton
Court, he had conferences with Cromwell and Ireton,
who, it is said, were inclined to reinstate him in a limited
royalty, until they intercepted one of his letters which
convinced them of his insincerity. Ireton was a member
of the court which tried the king ; and he signed the
warrant for his execution, January, 1649. In reference
to this affair, Burnet says, " Ireton was the person that
drove it on ; for Cromwell was all the while in some
suspense about it." In July, 1649, he went to Ireland
as second in command under Cromwell, who, returning
after the lapse of a few months, left to Ireton the chief
command, with the title of lord deputy. After gaining
several victories and taking Limerick, he died there of
the plague in 1651. Hume, who was not partial to his
cause, denominates him "a memorable personage, much
celebrated for his vigilance, industry, capacity even for
the strict execution of justice in that unlimited command
which he possessed in Ireland. It was believed by many
that he was animated by a sincere and passionate love
of liberty." (" History of England.")

See, also, " Biographia Britannica ;" GUIZOT, " Histoire de la
Revolution d'Angleterre."

Iriarte or Yriarte, e-re-an'ta, (BERNARDO,) nephew
of Don Juan de Iriarte, noticed below, was born in Tene-
riffe about 1734. He became a member of the council
of state, and held other important offices under the
Spanish government Died in 1814.

Iriarte, (DOMINGO,) brother of the preceding, born
in Teneriffe in 1746, was sent as minister plenipotentiary
of Spain to Poland, and employed in other embassies.
Died in 1795.

Iriarte, (FRANCISCO DIEGO DE Ainsay In-sl',) a
Spanish writer, born at Huesca, published an account
of his native city, entitled "Fundacion, Eccelencias,
Grandezas, etc. de la antiquisima Ciudad de Huesca,"

Iriarte, (IGNACIO,) a celebrated Spanish landscape-
painter, born in Guipuscoa in 1620, was a pupil of the
elder Herrera. He worked in Seville, and became a
friend of Murillo, who painted the figures for some of his
landscapes. He was one of the founders of the Academy
of Seville. Iriarte was regarded as the best landscape-
painter of his country and his time. Connoisseurs admire
in his works the lightness of the foliage, the transparency
of the sky, the limpidity of the water, and the mastery
of chiaroscuro. Died in 1685.

See RAPHAEL MHNGS, " Las Obras," etc., 1780 ; QUILLIBT, " Dic-
tionuaire des Peintres Espagnols."

Iriarte, de, da e-re-aR'ti, (Don JUAN,) an eminent
linguist and scholar, born in the island of Teneriffe in
1702. He studied in Paris at the College of Louis le
Grand, and subsequently visited London and Madrid,
where he was appointed in 1732 one of the librarians
in the Royal Library. He became official translator to
the principal secretary of state in 1740, and in 1743 was
elected a member of the Royal Academy. Among his
works may be named a " History of the Canary Islands,"
(in manuscript,) a collection of Spanish proverbs in
Latin verse, and translations from Martial. Iriarle is
said to have added two thousand manuscripts and more
than ten thousand printed volumes to the Royal Library
during the thirty-nine years in which he officiated as
librarian. Died in 1771.

Iriarte, de, (ToMAS,) youngest brother of Bernardo,
noticed above, was born in Teneriffe about 1750. He be-
came a proficient in the ancient and modern languages
under the tuition of his uncle, and subsequently became
archivist to the principal secretary of state, and editor
of the " Madrid Mercury." He was author of a poem
entitled "La Musica," (1779,) which was received with
great favour and translated into the principal European
languages, and " Literary Fables," (" Fabulas literarias.")
The latter are written in various metres, and are re-
markable for their graceful versification. They enjoyed
great popularity at the time, and are still ranked among
the classics of the language. An English version of
.hese fables, by George H. Devereux, appeared in 1855.
Iriarte also published a comedy entitled "The Spoiled

Child," ("El Sefiorito mimado,") a number of sonnets
and critical essays, and a metrical translation of Horace's
"Art of Poetry." Died about 1790.

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" IOLY, no-
tice of the Life of Tomas de Iriarte, in the " Repertoire de Litte'ra-
ture. "

Irico, e-ree'ko, (GIOVANNI ANDREA,) an Italian priest
and savant, born at Trino in 1704. He wrote se/eral
religious and antiquarian works. Died in 1782.

I'ria, [Gr. 'Ip'f.J in Greek mythology, the goddess of
the rainbow, said to be a daughter of Thaumas, and
sometimes called Thaumantias. Homer represents her
as the messenger of the gods, employed to carry mes-
sages from Ida to Olympus and from gods to men. She
was the attendant of the goddess Hera, or Juno.

Irland, CR'ION', (BONAVENTURE,) a French jurist, of
Scottish dsscent, born at Poitiers in 1551 ; died in 1612.

Irnerius, eR-na're-us, sometimes written Warnerius,
a celebrated Italian jurisconsult, born at Bologna in the
eleventh century. He became the renovator or restorer
of the Roman law, which had been neglected, and on
which he wrote commentaries, called " Glossae." He
obtained the office of judge, and was sent by the emperor
to Rome in 1118 to expedite the election of a pope.

See B. NIHUSIUS, "Irnerius," Cologne, 1642; FANTUZZI, " Serif
tori Bolognesi."

Iron Mask. See MASQUE DE FER.

I'rgns, (WILLIAM JOSIAH,) D.D., an English author,
born at Hoddesdon, Herts, September 12, 1812. He
graduated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1833, became
a prebendary of Saint Paul's in 1860, and in 1870 rural
dean, rector of Wadingham, and Bampton Lecturer.
He published various theological and philosophical
works, and made a noted translation of the " Dies Irae."
Died June 18, 1883.

Ir'vlne, (WILLIAM,) a general, born near Enniskillen,
Ireland, about 1742, emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1763.
He became a colonel in 1776, and a brigadier-general
in 1779. From 1781 to 1783 he commanded the troops
stationed at Fort Pitt for the defence of the western
frontier. He was chosen a member of Congress in 1787,
and again in 1793. Died in 1804.

Ir'ving, (DAVID,) LL.D., a Scottish biographer and
writer on law. He published " Lives of Scottish Poets,"
(1804,) " Lives of the Scottish Writers," (1839,) and "The
Table-Talk of John Selden," (1854.) He was born at
Langholm, December 5, 1778; died at Edinburgh, March
10, 1860.

Irving, (EDWARD,) a celebrated and eloquent Scottish
pulpit orator, born at Annan in 1792, was a graduate of
the University of Edinburgh. Having been employed
as rector of an academy at Kirkaldy about seven years,
he was ordained a Presbyterian minister. From 1819 to
1822 he was engaged as assistant in the pulpit of Dr.
Chalmers, Glasgow, where he acquired a good reputation.
He accepted a call from the Scottish Church, Cross
Street, London, in 1822, and soon became an admired
and fashionable preacher. His original genius and his
extraordinary eloquence attracted crowded audiences,
among whom were found the most eminent authors and
statesmen, and nobles of the highest rank. In 1823 he
published a series of discourses entitled "For the Ora-
cles of God, Four Orations," etc In 1829 he removed
into a larger church built for him in Regent Square. A
charge of heresy having been preferred against him in
the presbytery of London in 1830, he was condemned
by that body, and ejected from the church, in 1832.
After this event he obtained another place, and attracted
crowds by his exhibition of the gift of unknown tongues,
which he ascribed to divine inspiration. He published
" Babylon and Infidelity Foredoomed of God," and other
theological treatises. Died at Glasgow in December,
1834. " He was unquestionably," says De Quincey, "by
many degrees the greatest orator of our times." It is
probable that his devotion was sincere, but not guided
by discretion, and that in the latter part of his career
his mind was affected with insanity. Carlyle, who was
his friend, thinks that "bodily and spiritually, perhaps,
there was not (in that November, 1822) a man more full
of genial, energetic life in these islands." He left three
children. The collected writings of Edward Irving have

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; mjt; nit; good; moon;





been published under the editorship of his nephew, the
Rev. G. Carlyle, London, 1864-65.

See "Life of Irving," by MRS. OLIPHANT, 1862 ; DR QUINCHY,
'Literary Reminiscences," vol. ii. ; "Edinburgh Review" For Octo-
ber, 1862: "Edward Irving, an Ecclesiastical and Literary Biogra-
phy," by W. WILKS ; CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Emi-
nent Scotsmen," (Supplement;) MICHAEL HOHL, " Bruchstucke aus
dem Leben und den Schriften E. Irving's," 1839 ; LEHMAMN, " Ueber
die Irvingianer," 1853; "Westminster Review" for January, 1824;
" Biackwood's Magazine" for November, 1858, and June, 1862;
" Fraser's Magazine" for January, 1835; "North British Review"
for August, 1862.

Irving, (Sir HENRY BRODRIBB,) an English actor,
whose family name is Brodribb, was born at Keinton,
in Somersetshire, February 6, 1838. He first appeared
on the stage in 1856, and rapidly attained distinction as
a first-rate comedian. His " Hamlet," first played in
1874, greatly divided public opinion, but at present his
high rank as a tragedian is very generally conceded.
Since 1883 he has frequently visited the United States.

Ir'ving, (JOHN TREAT,) an American judge and writer,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 25 of 425)