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Massachusetts, who regarded him as their worst enemy.
He was killed by a party of English soldiers who sur-
prised the village at Norridgewock in 1724.

See CONVHRS FRANCIS, " Life of Sebastian Rale."

Raleigh, raw'le, (ALEXANDER,) D.D., a British divine,
born near Castle Douglas, Scotland, January 3, 1817.
He was educated at the Lancashire Independent College,
and held various Congregational pastorates in Scotland
and in London. He published " The Story of Jonah,"
"The Little Sanctuary," "Quiet Resting- Places," etc.
Died April 19, 1880.

Raleigh, raw'le, (CAREW,) a son of Sir Walter, was
born in the Tower of London in 1604. He was educated
at Oxford. After the accession of Charles I. an act was
passed to " restore him in blood ;" but he failed to obtain
the paternal estate. He wrote a vindication of his father,
(1645,) and a "Brief Relation of Sir Walter Raleigh's
Troubles." In 1659 he was appointed Governor of
Jersey. Died in 1666.

Raleigh or Ralegh, (Sir WALTER,) a famous English
navigator, author, courtier, and commander, was Born
at Hayes, in Devonshire, in 1552. He was a son of
Walter Raleigh, Esq., and Catherine Champernon, who
by a former marriage was the mother of Sir Humphrey
Gilbert. He studied for a short time at Oriel College,
Oxford, and in 1569 joined a company of volunteers,
with whom he fought for the Huguenots in France for
five years. He took part in several great battles of that
war. In 1580, as commander of a company, he served
with distinction against the Irish insurgents. He is
supposed to have gained the favour of Queen Elizabeth
by an act of gallantry, of which we have no evidence but
tradition. According to this tradition, the queen, in her
progress from the royal barge to the palace, came to a
spot where the ground was so wet that she hesitated.
Raleigh immediately covered the place with his richly-
embroidered cloak, on which she stepped with much
complacency. It is stated that he received a grant of
twelve thousand acres of forfeited land in Ireland soon
after he attracted the notice of the queen. One of his
biographers observes that " all the more important and
interesting transactions and occurrences of his life are
involved in obscurity or perplexed with doubt."

In 1584 he obtained a royal patent investing him with
ample powers to colonize and govern any territories he
might acquire in the unoccupied parts of North America.
An exploring party in his service discovered in 15843
region to which the queen gave the name of Virginia.
He sent out in 1585 a body of colonists who attempted
to settle on or near Roanoke Island, but failed, and re-
turned before the end of 1586. He renewed the enter-
prise in 1587 ; but this colony did not prosper, and those
colonists who escaped disease and famine were killed
by the natives. In 1589 he transferred his patent and
colonial privileges to a company of merchants. Accord-
ing to some writers, he distinguished himself in several
contests with the Spanish Armada in 1588, and rendered
important services to the queen as a member of Parlia-
ment The introduction of the potato and tobacco into
Europe is generally attributed to him.

About 1590 he became intimate with the poet Spenser,
and married privately a daughter of Sir Nicholas Throg-
morton. She was a maid of honour to the queen, who
showed her resentment by confining Raleigh in the
Tower for several weeks. Being excluded from the
royal favour through his marriage, his ambitious and

adventurous spirit was attracted by a project for the
discovery and conquest of El Dorado, a fabled paradise
of gold-seekers, which was supposed to exist in South
America. He sailed from Plymouth with five vessels in
February, 1595, and ascended the Orinoco in boats about
sixty leagues, but his farther progress is said to have
been prevented by the sudden rise of the water. Having
returned to England before the end of 1595, he published
a rather fabulous narrative, entitled "The Discovery of
the Large, Rich, and Beautiful Empire of Guiana."

Raleigh was restored to the royal favour soon after
his return, and served as rear-admiral at the capture
of Cadiz, in 1596, to which his skill greatly contributed.
He had the chief command of the fleet which took Fayal
in 1597. He was appointed Captain of the Guard and
Governor of Jersey about 1597. It is stated by some of
his biographers that he received large sums of money
from the condemned partisans of the Earl of Essex, who
bribed him to intercede for them with the queen. The
death of Elizabeth terminated the prosperity of Raleigh,
who had rendered himself very unpopular by his enmity
to Essex and perhaps by his habitual haughty demeanour.
It appears that James I. was prejudiced against him by
the insinuations of his rival Cecil. Accused of com-
plicity in Lord Cobham's treason, Sir Walter was
arrested in July, 1602, and convicted, without sufficient
proof, in 1603. During his trial the public sentiment
was converted from hostility to warm sympathy and

In expectation of a speedy death, he wrote to his wife
an affecting letter, which is praised by William Penn.
Near the close of it he writes thus : " I can say r.o
more : Time and Death call me away. The everlasting
God, powerful, infinite, and inscrutable, God Almighty,
who is goodness itself, the true light and life, keep thee
and thine, have mercy on me, and send us to meet in his
glorious kingdom." He was, however, reprieved, and
confined in the Tower, where he remained thirteen years
and wrote his chief work, "The History of the World,"
(from the creation to the year 150 B.C.) "The Greek
and Roman story," says Hallam, " is told more fully and
exactly than by any earlier English writer, and with a
plain eloquence which has given this book a classical
reputation in our language." Another eminent critic
(Hume) pronounces Raleigh "the best model of our
ancient style." He wrote several short poems, which are

In 1615 he obtained his release by bribery and by an
offer to open a mine of gold in Guiana. He conducted
a fleet of thirteen vessels to Guiana in 1617, and sent an
exploring party up the Orinoco. They encountered at
Saint Thomas a body of Spaniards, in a fight with whom
Raleigh's son Walter was killed ; but their search for
the gold-mine was unsuccessful. Raleigh sailed for New-
foundland, intending to refit and to obtain provisions i
but he was forced by his mutinous crew to return to
England, where he arrived in July, 1618. He was soon
after arrested, and a demand was made by the Spanish
court that he should be punished for the attack on Saint
Thomas. The king at that time courted the alliance of
the Spanish monarch, and sacrificed the required victim
to promote his policy. He resolved to execute the
sentence which had been passed on him in 1603, and
for which pardon had never been granted. Raleigh was
beheaded in October, 1618. His stature was tall, his
features handsome, and his presence imposing. Hii
moral character seems to have been deformed by several
vices. Impartial writers agree that truth and probity
were not always his guiding principles.

" The name of Sir Walter Raleigh," says the " Edin-
burgh Review," "is unquestionably one of the most
renowned and attractive, and, in some respects, the most
remarkable, in English story. . . . His mind presents a
surprising union of strength and versatility, of intellect-
ual and practical power, and of an observing, reflective,
and philosophical with a highly imaginative or poetical

An able French critic and geographer, M. Walckenaer,
defends Raleigh from the charge of falsehood and ex-
aggeration : "The details which he has published on
his voyage [to Guiana in 1595] include nothing which

i, \, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; n8t; good: moon



has not been confirmed by suosequent explorers : they
are definite, exact, important, and do honour to his
sagacity as well as his truthfulness."

See MACVEY NAPIER, "Lord Bacon and Sir Waller Raleigh,"
1853; EDWARD EDWARDS, " Life of Raleigh," 1868 ; ARTHUR CAY-
LBY, " Life of Sir W. Raleigh," 1805 ; W. OLDYS, " Life of Sir W.

England from 1603 to 1616," chap. ii. ; " Edinburgh
for April, 1840; " Fraser's Magazine" for July, 1832.

Ralph OF ESCURES, an English prelate, who was
elected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1114. He had a
high reputation for learning and virtue. Died in 1122.

See W. F. HOOK. " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,"
vol. ii. chap. iv.

Ralph, (JAMES,) an English pamphleteer and poetas-
ter, born at Philadelphia. He emigrated to England
in 1725 in company with Benjamin Franklin, and pub-
lished a poem on "Night" in 1728, which was ridiculed
by Pope in these lines of the " Dunciad :"

"Silence, ye wolves, while Ralph to Cvnthia howls
And makes night hideous ; answer him, ye owls 1"

He afterwards wrote several dramas and political pam-
phlets. His continuation of Guthrie's " History of
England" (2 vols., 1744-46) is a work of some value.
Died in 1762.

Ralph, (JULIAN,) an American author, was born
at New York in 1853. He became a journalist on the
"Daily Graphic" in 1875, and served on other New
York papers until 1896, being a correspondent in
South Africa in 1900. He wrote several books of
travel and description, as "Alone in China," (1896,)
"Dixie," (1896,) etc.

Ralston, rawl'ston, (WILLIAM RALSTON SHEDDEN,)
an English author, born in 1828. He graduated at
Trinity College, Cambridge, was an assistant librarian in
the British Museum, 1853-75, and devoted himself largely
to Russian literature. He published " Kriloff and his
Fables," (1869,) " Liza," (1869, a translation of his friend
TurgenefFs novel " Dvoryanskoe Gnyezdo,") "Songs
of the Russian People," " Russian Folk-Tales," and
" Early History of Russia." Died August 8, 1889.

Ram. See RAMA.

Ram, de, deh r&N, (PIERRE FRANC.OIS XAVIER,) a
Belgian historian, born at Louvain in 1804, published " Sy-
nodicon Belgicum," (1828-58,) etc. Died in 1865.

Rama, ra'ma, often called Ram (rim) by the modern
Hindoos, [a Sanscrit word signifying " pleasing," " dear,"
"beloved," from the verb ram, to "play,] called also
Rama Chandra, (chun'dra,) in the Hindoo mythology,
the name of the seventh avatar of Vishnu, who on this
occasion appeared as a great hero and warrior. It is
generally supposed that, with the exception of Krishna,
this is the most glorious of all the manifestations of the
preserving deity. The great Hindoo epic entitled Ra-
mayana (ri-ma'ya-na) is chiefly occupied with the ad-
ventures and exploits of Rama and his famous minister
Ha'numa'n, the monkey king. The consort of Rama was
Sita, (see'tl,) eminent for her purity and other virtues.
Her deliverance from the power of the great giant Ra-
vana, and the triumphant issue of the ordeal by fire, by
which her perfect virtue was completely established, form
perhaps the most interesting portion of the great poem
or romance above named. They are also among the
most popular subjects for pictures among the Hindoos.

Ramage, ram'ej, (ADAM,) a distinguished mechani-
cian, born in Scotland in 1770, settled in America. He
was the inventor of a printing-press called by his name.
Died in 1850.

Ramanuja or Ramanoudja, ra-ma-noo'ja, a Hindoo
philosopher, a votary of Vishnu and adversary of Bood-
dhisin. He is supposed to have lived in the tenth century.

Ramayana. See RAMA, and VALMIKI.

Ramazzini, ra-mat-see'nee, (BERNARDO or BERNAR-
DINO,) an eminent Italian physician, born at Carpi in
1633. He became professor of medicine at M6dena
about 1680, and removed to Padua in 1700. He ob-
tained the first chair of medicine at Padua in 1708. He

wrote, besides other works, a popular treatise "On the
Diseases of Artisans," (" De Morbis Artificum," 1701,)
which was often reprinted, and was translated into
French by Fourcroy. Died in 1714.

See ETTMULLHR, "Viede B. Ramazzini," 1711; a "Memoir of
Ramazzini," prefixed to his collected works (" Opera Omnia'*} by
his nephew, BART. RAMAZZINI, London, 1716; FABRONI, " Vita
Italorum doctrina excellentium:" NIC^RON, "Mdmoires."

Rambaldi, ram-bal'dee, (CARLO,) an Italian painter
of history, born at Bologna in 1680 ; died in 1717.

Rambaud, (ALFRED NICOLAS,) a French histo-
rian, born at Besangon in 1842. He became minister
of public instruction in 1896. He wrote works on
Russia and France, and, with Lavisse, " Histoire
Generale du IV. Siecle," (12 vols., 1893 et seg.)

Ramberg, ram'be'RG, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a German
painter and engraver, born at Hanover in 1763, studied
in London under Sir Joshua Reynolds. He was after-
wards appointed court painter at Hanover. He excelled
in caricature, and produced, among other works, illus-
trations of " Reineke Fuchs." Died in 1840.

Ram'bha' or Rem'bha', [ modern Hindoo pron.
rumb'ha',] sometimes incorrectly written Rhemba, [ety-
mology obscure,] the name, in the Hindoo mythology,
of a famous Apsara, produced by the churning of the
ocean. (See APSARA and KORMA.) Rambha is some-
times identified with Lakshmi.

Rambouillet, de, deh roN'boo'y^', (CATHERINE de
Vivonne deh ve'von',) MARQUISE, a French lady,
born in 1588, became mistress of the Hotel Rambouillet,
in which she presided over a celebrated reunion of the
(lite of Paris, the first which in France united the aris-
tocracy of rank and of genius in one circle. Her house
was frequented by Malherbe, La Rochefoucauld, Voiture,
Balzac, Corneille, and many other literati of successive
generations. The court over which she presided was
recognized as the arbiter of taste and propriety in
language, manners, etc. Died in 1665. Her daughter,
JULIA D'ANGENNES, (doN'zhe'n',) was celebrated for
her beauty and accomplishments. She was married to
the Duke of Montausier. (See MONTAUSIER.)

See " Nouvelle Biographic G^n^rale."

Rambour, rflN'booR', (ABRAHAM,) a French Prol
estant minister, born at Sedan about 1590. He became
professor of Hebrew at Sedan in 1620, and published
several works. Died in 1651.

Rambuteau, de, deh rSN'bii'to', (CLAUDE PHILIBERT
Barthelot bSRt'lo',) COUNT, a French administrator,
born at Charnay in 1781. He was prefect of trie depart-
ment of Seine from 1833 to 1848. Died April 23, 1869.

Rameau, rt'mo', (JEAN PHILIPPE,) a celebrated
French composer and writer on music, was born at
Dijon in October, 1683. He received his first lessons
in music from his father, and visited Milan in 1701.
Having joined a company of itinerant actors or singers,
he performed on the violin in various cities of France.
He became organist of the cathedral of Clermont (Au-
vergne) about 1718, and settled in Paris in 1722. He
established his reputation as a theorist by a " Treatise
on Harmony," (1722,) and "New System of Theoretic
Music," (1726,) in which he developed his theory of
basse fondamentale. In 1733 he composed the music
of the opera " Hippolyte et Aricie," which was very
successful and produced a great excitement in the
musical world. The partisans of Lulli were indignant
at the innovations of Rameau. He produced in 1737
the opera of " Castor and Pollux," which is called his
master-piece. Among his numerous operas are " Dar-
danus," (1739,) and "Zoroaster," (1749.) Died in 1764,

SeeMARET, "filoge historique de Rameau," 1766: Ftfris, " Bio-
graphie Universelle des Musiciens:" "Nouvelle Biographic G^n4-

Ramee. rl'ma', (DANIEL,) an architect, born at Ham-
burg in 1806, was a son of Joseph Jacques. He re-
stored the cathedrals of Noyon, Senlis, and Beauvais.
He published a " Manual of the History of Architec-
ture," (2 vols., 1843,) and other works. Died in 1887.

Ramee, La. See RAMUS.


Ramel, rf'me'l', (JEAN PIERRE,) a French general,
born at Cahors in 1768, was assassinated in August, 18151
at Toulouse, of which he was then the commandant

eas/f; casr: %hard; g as ;', G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: sasz; th as in Mir. (i5^P"See Explanations, p. 23.}




Ramelli, ra-mel'lee, (AGOSTINO,) an Italian mecha-
nician, born at Milan about 1530, served as engineer in
the army of Charles V. Died in 1590.

Ramelli, (FELICE,) an Italian priest and painter in
miniature, born in Piedmont in 1666. He worked at
Rome. Died in 1740.


Ram'e-ses, Ram'ses, or Ra-mes'ses, (i.e., "rising
sun.") The name of thirteen Egyptian monarchs.
RAMESES I., the first king of the nineteenth dynasty,
lived, according to Lepsius and Mariette, in the fifteenth
century B.C. RAMESES II., his grandson, was the great-
est of the Egyptian kings. He conquered Ethiopia,
defeated the Hittite confederates, captured Jerusalem,
and reigned sixty-six years at Thebes, where his mummy
was discovered in 1881. RAMESES III., the second king
of the twentieth dynasty, was also a ruler of great mag-
nificence and a far-conquering soldier. The other kings
of this name were comparatively unimportant Rameses
XIII., the last of them, died about 1000 B.C.

Ramey, rfm^', (CLAUDE,) a French sculptor, born
at Dijon in 1754. He gained the grand prize in 1782.
Among his works are statues of Napoleon and Riche-
lieu. Died in Paris in 1838. His son, F-TIENNE JULES,
born in 1796, was also a successful sculptor. He adorned
the Louvre with several works, and was admitted into
the Institute in 1829. Died in 1852.

Ramirez, ra-mee'rSth, (JosE,) a Spanish painter, born
at Valencia in 1624 ; died in 1692.

Ramiro (ra-mee'io) I., King of Asturias, was a son
of Bermudez. He began to reign in 842 A.D., and
defeated the Normans in 843. Died in 850.

Ramiro U., King of Asturias and Leon, began to
reign about 930 A.D. He defeated a large army of the
caliph Abderrahman III. in 939 A.D. on the plain of
Simancas. Died in 950 A.D.

Ramler, ram'ler, (KARL WILHELM,) a German post,
born at Kolberg, on the Baltic Sea, in 1725. He was for
many years professor of belles-lettres at Berlin. His
works are chiefly lyrics, and are remarkable for elegance
of language. His " Death of Jesus," one of his most
esteemed pieces, was set to music by Graun. He also
translated Horace, Martial, Catullus, and Sappho's odes.
Died in Berlin in 1798.

See HEINSIUS, " Biopraphische Skizze Ramlers," 1798; LONG-
FELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" GHRVINUS, "Geschichte
der Deutschen Dichtung:" HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarisches
Handbuch ;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ram'mo-hfin' Roy, (RAJAH,) also called RXjA Ram
Mohan Rai, a Hindoo reformer and linguist, was born
near Burdwan, in Bengal, in 1772. His parents were
Brahmans of high rank. He was master of Sanscrit,
Persian, Arabic, Hindostanee, and English. At an early
age he renounced the Brahmanical religion. He believed
in Christ as a divine teacher, but held Arian or Unitarian
views. He wrote several works against the prevailing
superstitions of India, and published in 1820 "The Pre-
cepts of Jesus the Guide to Peace and Happiness," which
consists of selections from the New Testament. In 1830
he founded a society which was afterwards developed
'nto the famous Brahmo Somaj, (or Brahma Samaj.) In
the same year he was sent by the King of Delhi as
ambassador to London. Died near Bristol in 1833.

See LANT CARPENTER, " Review of the Labours, Opinions, and
Character of Rammohun Roy :" " Last Days in England of the
Rajah Rammohun Roy," edited by MARY CARPENTER, London,
1867; " Biackwood's Magazine" for November, 1818.

Ramond de Carbonnieres, raViAN' deh kiVbo'-
ne-aiR', (Louis FRANC.OIS, ) BARON, a distinguished
French savant and politician, born at Strasburg in 1755.
He was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1791,
and sat in the corps llgislatif from 1800 to 1806. He
wrote several able scientific and descriptive works,
among which is "Travels in the Pyrenees," (iSoi,)
which treats of geology, etc. Died in 1827. Cuvier
wrote a eulogy on him.

Ramondiui, ra-mon-dee'nee, (VINCENZO,) an Italian
naturalist, born at Messina in 1758, was professor at
Naples. Died in 1811.

Ramorino. See REMORINO.

Ramos, ra'mos, (ENRIQUE,) a Spanish writer, bom
at Alicante in 1738, was an officer of the army. He

wrote successful tragedies, named "Guzman," (1780,)
and " Pelagius" or " Pelayo," (1784.) Died in 1801.

Rampalle, roVpil', (N.,) a French poet, whom Boi-
leau, in his " Art Poe'tique," mentions among authors
who were no longer read in his time. Died about 1660.

Rampen, ram'pen, (HENDRIK,) a Flemish theologian,
born at Hui in 1572 ; died at Louvain in 1641.

Rampinelli, ram-pe-nel'Iee, (RAMIRO,) an Italian
mathematician, born at Brescia in 1697 ; died at Milan
in 1759.

a French general, born at Saint-Fortunat (Ardeche) in
1759. He distinguished himself as general of brigade
at Montenotte, Roveredo, and Arcola, (1796.) For his
services at the battle of the Pyramids and in Syria he
was made general of division in 1800. Died in 1842.

Ramsay, ram'ze, (ALEXANDER,) born in England
about 1760, emigrated to America, where he died in
1824. He published an " Anatomy of the Heart, Brain,
etc.," (1813.)

Ramsay, ram'ze, (ALLAN,) a distinguished Scottish
poet, born of poor parents in Lanarkshire in 1685. He
was successively a barber and bookseller in Edinburgh.
He published in 1721 a volume of poems, whicn were
well received. His principal work is a pastoral poem
called "The Gentle Shepherd," (1729,) which has been
greatly admired. Died in 1758.

See CHAMBERS, *' Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen :"
CAMPBELL, "Specimens of British Poets;" ALLIBONB, "Dictionary
of Authors;" "Monthly Review" for March, 1762.

Ramsay, (ALLAN,) a portrait-painter, a son of the
preceding, was born in Edinburgh in 1713. He became
principal painter to George III. in 1767, and surpassed
most of his British contemporaries in his art. He wrote
several political tracts, and visited Rome four times.
On his return from his last journey he died at Dover, in
1784, leaving a son, who became a general in the army.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Ramsay, (Sir ANDREW CROMBIE,) a Scottish geolo-
gist, born at Glasgow, January 31, 1814. In 1841 he
went upon the British geological survey, of which he was
made director in 1845 anc ' director-general in 1872. In
1848 he became professor of geology in University Col-
lege, London, and in 1851 took the geological chair in
the School of Mines. He was author of several works,
chiefly on British geography. Died December 9, 1891.

Ramsay, [Fr. pron. roN'zJ',] (ANDREW MICHAEL,)
called CHEVALIER RAMSAY, was born at Ayr, in Scot-
land, in 1686. He was converted by Fenelon from
skepticism to Roman Catholicism about 1709, and be-
came tutor to the Prince de Turenne. He acquired
distinction by his writings, which are in French and
are admired for purity of style. His chief works are
"Travels of Cyrus," ("Voyages de Cyrus," 1727,) which
is an imitation of Fe'nelon's " Telemachus," a valuable
"Life of Fenelon," (1723,) and a "Life of Turenne,"
(1735.) Died in France in 1743.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;"
" Biographia Britannica."

Ramsay, ram'ze, (DAVID,) an American historian and
physician, born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in
1749. Having graduated in 1765 at Princeton College,
he studied medicine in Philadelphia under Dr. Rush.
He soon after removed to Charleston, and became a
member of the legislature of South Carolina, and in 1782
was elected to the Continental Congress. He published
in 1785 his "History of the Revolution in South Caro-
lina," which was followed in 1790 by the "History of
the American Revolution." His "Life of Washington"
appeared in 1801. He also wrote a "Eulogium on Dr.
Rush," and other works on various subjects. He was
mortally wounded by a lunatic in the streets of Charles-
ton in 1815. His work entitled "Universal History
Americanized" was published after his death. He wrote
"Memoirs of Martha Laurens Ramsay."

See the " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americana,
vol. iii. ; ALLIBONB, " Dictionary of Authors."

Ramsay, (EDWARD BANNERMAN,) a Scottish writer,
born about 1793. He became an Episcopal minister in
Edinburgh in 1830. Among his works are "Reminis-
cences of Scottish Life and Character," (1857,) and

i e, T, 6. u, y, long; 4. e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mft; not; good; m<58:i-




"Thomas Chalmers, D.D. a Biographical Notice,"
(1867.) Died December 27, 1872.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 251 of 425)