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Ramsay, (WILLIAM,) an eminent classical scholar,
born at Edinburgh in 1806. He became professor of
humanity in the University of Glasgow in 1831, and
published, besides other works, a "Manual of Roman
Antiquities," (1851.) He was one of the principal con-
tributors to Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman
Biography." Died in 1865.

Ramsay, (WILLIAM,) a British chemist, was born
at Glasgow, October 2, 1852. He became professor
of chemistry in University College, London, in 1887.
In 1894 he shared with Lord Rayleigh the honour of
the discovery of argon, and in 1895 obtained helium
from the mineral cleveite.

Ramsay, (WILLIAM MITCHELL,) a British geogra-
pher, was born at Glasgow in 1851. He travelled
widely in Asiatic Turkey 1880-91, and wrote "The
Historical Geography of Asia Minor," (1890,) " Im-
pressions of Turkey," (1897,) and works of Biblical
geography. He was made professor of classical art
in Oxford University in 1885, and Levering lecturer
in Johns Hopkins University in 1894.

Rami'den, (JESSE,) an eminent English optician and
maker of astronomical instruments, was born near
Halifax, Yorkshire, in 1735. He settled in London
about 1755, married a daughter of Mr. Dollond, and
became master of a manufactory of instruments about
1764. He improved the sextant, and invented a dividing
machine for the graduation of instruments, for which he
received a premium of six hundred and fifteen pounds
from the board of longitude in 1777. Among his re-
markable productions were telescopes erected at the
Observatories of Blenheim, Paris, Gotha, and Dublin.
He improved the theodolite, equatorial, micrometer,
barometer, etc. He was elected Fellow of the Royal
Society in 1786. Died at Brighton in 1800.

See THOMSON, " History of the Royal Society;" "Nouvelle
Biographic Generale."

Ramses. See RAMESES.

Ramus, ri'miis', (JOSEPH MARIUS,) a French sculp-
tor, born at Aix in 1805. He obtained a first medal in
1839, and other decorations. Died June 3, 1888.

Ramus, ri'mus', (PETER,) or Pierre de la Ra-
mee, pe-aiR' deh IS rS'ma', a French philosopher and
classical scholar, born in Vermandois in 1515. or. as
others say, in 1502. He was a son of poor parents,
who employed him to tend sheep in his boyhood.
Prompted by a thirst of knowledge, he ran away from
home and entered the College of Navarre, in Paris, as
a servant He showed his independence of mind at
college by writing a thesis to prove that Aristotle was
not infallible. He incurred much persecution from the
partisans of Aristotle, and was accused of impiety. In
1543 he published a "Treatise on Logic," which ob-
tained great success. He was appointed by the king
professor of philosophy and eloquence in the College of
France in 1551. About 1562 he avowed his attachment
to the Reformed religion. He published many works
on grammar, mathematics, philosophy, theology, etc.,
among which is " Dialectique," (1555.) His disciples,
called Ramists, were numerous in France and England.
He perished in the Massacre of Saint Bartholomew, at
Paris, in 1572. He is called the precursor of Descartes.

Ramusio, rl-moo'se-o, or Rannusio, ran-noo'se-o,
(GiAMBATTiSTA,) an Italian compiler and translator,
was born at Treviso in 1485. He was for many years
secretary to the Venetian Council of Ten. He pub-
lisfc:d i valuable collection of narratives of voyages and
discoveries made in ancient and modern times, entitled
" Collection of Navigations and Journeys," (" Raccolta
di Navigazioni e Viaggi," 3 vols., 1550-59.) He trans-
lated into Italian those narratives which were written in
other languages, and inserted some prefaces and dis-
courses written by himself. Died in 1557.

Ranc, r6N, (JEAN,) a French painter, born at Mont-
pellier in 1674. He was patronized by Philip V. of
Spain. Died at Madrid in 1735.

Ranee, de, deh rSN'si', (ARMAND JEAN le Bouthil-



lier leh boo'te'ye-i/,) a French abbe\ born in Paris in
627, was noted as the reformer of the monks of La
Trappe. He subjected them to the practice of great
austerities and the endurance of extreme privations,
iis followers are called "Trappists of the Ranc< re-
orm." Died in 1700.

Ranchin, roN'shiN', (FRANCOIS,) a French physician,
born at Montpellier in 1564 ; died in 1641.

Ranconet, de, deh roN'ko'nV, (AiMAR,) a learned
French jurist, born 'at Pe>igueux about 1498, was a
Greek and Latin scholar. He wrote "Treasure of the
French Language," (" Tremor de la Langue Fran s aise,
1606.) Died at Paris in 1559.

Rand, (EDWARD SPRAGUE,) an American lawyer, born
n Boston, Massachusetts, October 20, 1834. He gradu-
ated at Harvard College in 1855, and at the Dane Law
School in 1857. Besides a volume of poems, (1859,) he
published " Flowers for the Parlor and Garden," " Garden
Flowers," " Greenhouse Plants," " Orchids," etc,

Randa, ran'da, (ANTONIO,) an Italian painter, born
at Bologna, painted sacred history. Died in 1650.

Ran'dall, (GEORGE MAXWELL,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Warren, Rhode Island, November 23,
1810, graduated at Brown University in 1835, and at the
General Theological Seminary, New York, in 1838. In
1839 he was ordained a presbyter of the Episcopal
Church, and in 1865 was consecrated Bishop of Colo
rado. Died at Denver, September 28, 1873.

Randall, (JAMES RYDER,) an American journalist and
poet, born in Baltimore, Maryland, January I, 1839. His
spirited lyric " My Maryland," written in 1861, was very
popular during the civil war.

Ran'dall, (JOHN,) an English divine, born in Bucks.
He was chosen a Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford, in
1587, after which he preached in London. He pub-
lished Sermons and other works. Died in 1622.

Randall, (SAMUEL JACKSON,) an American Demo-
cratic statesman, born in Philadelphia, October 10, 1828.
He enlisted in the Federal army in the civil war, and
was chosen to Congress in 1862, after which time he was
constantly re-elected until his death, He was Speaker
of the House from 1876 to 1882. Died April 13, 1890.

Randall, (SAMUEL S.,) an American lawyer and
author, born at Norwich, New York, May 27, 1809. He
was educated at Hamilton College. He was for many
rs a prominent officer of the public school systems
New York city, of Brooklyn, and of the State of
New York. Among his works are " Mental and Moral
Culture," (1844,) "Digest and Code of the Educational
Laws of New York," (1851,) "Popular Education,"
(1868,) "History of the School System of New York,"
(1871,) "Conduct and Character," a series of school
reading-books, etc. Died in New York, June 3, 1881.

Randi, ran'dee, (LORENZO,) an Italian cardinal, born
at Bagnacavallo, June 12, 1818, in 1875 was created a
cardinal-deacon.

Ran'dolph, (ALFRED MAGILL,) D.D., an America.,
bishop, born at Winchester, Virginia, August 31, 1836.
He graduated at William and Mary College in 1855, and
at the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1858. He took
orders as a presbyter of the Episcopal Church in 1860.
In 1883 he was consecrated Assistant Bishop of Virginia.

Ran'dolph, (EDMUND,) a son of John Randolph,
(who left the country with Lord Dunmore at the breaking
out of the Revolution,) was elected Governor of Virginia
in 1786, and was a member of the Convention Which
formed the Federal Constitution in 1787. In 1789 he wa*
appointed attorney-general. He was a political friend
of Jefferson, whom he succeeded as secretary of state in
January, 1794. Having been accused of bribery and a
corrupt intrigue on the evidence of an intercepted de-
spatch from Fauchet, the French envoy, he resigned in
August, 1795, and published a vindication of his course.
Died in 1813.

Randolph, (GEORGE W.,) an American politician,
born in King George county, Virginia, March 10, 1818,
was a son of Governor Thomas M. Randolph. He was
a lawyer before the civil war, took arms against the
Union in 1861, and became a brigadier-general. HP
was secretary of war of the Confederate States from
March to November, 1862. Died April 10, 1878.



as<$: 9asj; gharJ: gas ;', G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; v.,trilled: sasz; th as in //&;>. (J^="See Explanations, p. 23.)



RANDOLPH



2028



RANKINh



Ran'dolph, (JOHN,) an English prelate, born in 1749,
was a son of Thomas, (1701-83.) He became Bishop
of Oxford in 1799, of Bangor in 1807, and of London
(or York) in 1809. Died in 1813.

Randolph, QOHN,) OF ROANOKE, an American orator,
born at Cawsons, in Chesterfield county, Virginia, in
June, 1773, was a son of John Randolph. He claimed to
be a descendant of Pocahontas the Indian princess. He
studied at Princeton and Columbia College, New York,
for short periods. In 1799 he was elected a member of
Congress to represent the Charlotte district. He was
a Democrat, a partisan of State rights, and a political
friend of Jefferson. He was re-elected many times to
Congress, and gained a high reputation as a debater.
About the end of 1804 he was appointed chief manager
to conduct the trial of Judge Chase, who was impeached
before the Senate. He became estranged from Jefferson
about 1806, separated from his political associates, tried
to defeat the election of Madison, and opposed the war
of 1812. He was defeated at the next election, (1813,)
but was again elected in 1814 or 1815. He opposed the
charter of the United States Bank in 1816. In a letter
dated September, 1818, he says, " When I speak of my
country, I mean the commonwealth of Virginia." He
spoke against the Missouri Compromise bill of 1820,
because it prohibited the extension of slavery north of
the line 36 30'. At the same time he stigmatized the
Northern members who voted for it as " dough-faces,"
a term which has since come into general use in the
United States. He was elected a Senator of the United
States in December, 1824,10 fill a vacancy for two years.
In a speech against the President in 1826, he insulted
Mr. Clay by allusion to a "combination of the Puritan
with the blackleg." His apologist Garland admits that
"he indulged in language of the grossest personal in-
sult." He was challenged by Mr. Clay, and a duel ensued.
Randolph's pistol went off before the word, Clay fired
without effect, and his adversary then threw away his
fire. He was defeated in the election of Senator in 1827.
In a letter dated May 27, 1828, he wrote, "The country
is ruined, thanks to Mr. Jefferson and Mr. Ritchie." He
supported General Jackson for the Presidency in 1828,
and was appointed minister to Russia in 1830. He re-
turned home, in very feeble health, in the autumn of 1831.
He sympathized with the nullifiers of South Carolina,
and in December, 1832, denounced the proclamation of
President Jackson, which he called " the ferocious and
bloodthirsty proclamation of our Djezzar Pacha." He
died, in 1833, in Philadelphia, to which he went to take
passage for Europe. He was never married. He owned
about three hundred slaves, whom he manumitted by his
last will. In 1803, as chairman of a committee of Con-
gress, he reported against the introduction of slaves into
Indiana, as not calculated to promote the prosperity of
the territory. He was a man of decided genius, and was
distinguished for his ready wit, which, joined to his
mastery of the weapons of sarcasm and invective, ren-
dered him a formidable opponent in debate. " He was
like an Ishmaelite," says Garland, "his hand against
every man, and every man's hand against him."

See HUGH A. GARLAND, "Life of John Randolph,'* 2 vols.,
1850: JAMES PARTON, "Famous Americans of Recent Times,"
1867; National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," ToL
iv. ; " Edinburgh Review" for October, 1807 ; " North American
Review" for July, 1866.

Randolph, (PEYTON,) an American jurist and states-
man, born in Virginia in 1723, was first president of
the American Congress which met in 1774. He was
re-elected president of that body in May, 1775. Died
In Philadelphia, October, 1775.

Randolph, (Sir THOMAS,) an able British diploma-
tist, born in Kent about 1525. He performed many
missions to Scotland, France, and Russia in the reign
of Elizabeth, and was an adept in political intrigues.
He married a sister of Walsingham. Died in 1590.
His Letters, which are of great historical importance,
are preserved in the British Museum, and are largely
quoted by Froude in his " History of England."

Randolph, (THOMAS,) an English poet, born in
Northamptonshire in 1605. On leaving college he be-
came a resident of London and a friend or protege^ of



Ben Jonson. He wrote, besides other poems, several
dramas, among which is " The Muses' Looking-Glass,"
(1638.) His habits were dissipated. Died in 1634.
See " Retrospective Review," vol. vi., (1822.)

Randolph, (THOMAS,) an English theologian, born
at Canterbury in 1701. He became professor of divinity
at Oxford in 1768. He published several works on
theology, among which is "Christian Faith," (1744.)
Died in 1783.

Randon, rSN'doN', (CHARLES JOSEPH,) Comte de
Fully, a French general, born in Paris in 1751 ; died
in 1832.

Randon, (JACQUES Louis CESAR ALEXANDRE,)
COUNT, a French general, born at Grenoble in 1795.
He became a colonel in 1838, served in Algeria, and
obtained the rank of general of division in 1847. He
was appointed minister of war in January, 1851, and
Governor-General of Algeria in December of that year.
In 1856 he was made a marshal of France, He was
minister of war from 1859 to 1867. Died in 1871.

Randon-Dulauloy, roN'd6N' dii'lo'lwa', (CHARLES
FRANCOIS,) COUNT, a French general, born at Laon in
1764. As general of division, he distinguished himself
at Eylau, Friedland, Lutzen, and Dresden. Died in 1832.

Rangabe. See Rizo RHANGABi

Ranieri, ra-ne-a'ree, (ANTONIO,) an Italian writer,
born at Naples in 1806. He wrote "Ginevra," a tale,
(1838,) and a "History of Italy from Theodosius to
Charlemagne," (1841.) Died in 1888.

Ranieri-Biscia, ra-ne-a'ree bee'sha, (LuiGl,) an Ital-
ian poet, born in Tuscany in 1744. He wrote a poem
" On the Cultivation of Anise," (1772,) and other works.
Died about 1824.

Ranjit Sinh. See RUNJEET SINGH.

Rank, rank, (JOSEPH,) a German writer of tales, born
near Neumark, Bohemia, in 1815. He wrote, besides
other works, " Aus dem Boehmerwalde," (3 vols., 1851,)
and "Florian," (1853.) Died in 1896.

Ranke, rank'eh, (FRIEDRICH HEINRICH,) a distin-
guished Protestant theologian and preacher, brother of
the historian Leopold, was born in 1797. He became
professor at Erlangen in 1840. Died September 4, 1876.

Ranke, (KARL FERDINAND,) a brother of the pre-
ceding, was born in 1802. He published several educa-
tional and philological works. Died March 30, 1876.

Ranke, (LEOPOLD,) one of the most eminent German
historians of recent times, was born at Wiehe, in Thurin-
gia, in 1795. He published in 1824 a "History of the
Roman and German People from 1494 to 1535," and was
appointed the following year professor-extraordinary of
history at Berlin. To this succeeded his " Princes and
Nations of Southern Europe in the Sixteenth and Seven-
teenth Centuries," (1827,) "The Servian Revolution,"
(1829,) and "The Conspiracy against Venice in 1688,"
(1831.) His "Popes of Rome, their Church and State
in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," (3 vols.,
1834,) and " German History during the Reformation,"
(5 vols., 1839-43,) are among his most popular works,
and have become widely known by the admirable trans-
lations of Mrs. Austin. Besides the above-named, he
published " Nine Books of Prussian History," (3 vols.,
1847,) which has been translated by Sir Alexander and
Lady Duff Gordon, a " History of France in the Six-
teenth and Seventeenth Centuries," (1852,) " History of
Wallenstein," (1869,) "The German Powers and the
League of Princes ; being a History of Germany from
1780 to 1790," (vol. i., 1871,) "A History of England,
principally in the Seventeenth Century," (English trans-
lation, 6 vols., 1875,) and " Friedrich der Grosse : Fried-
rich Wilhelm der Vierte," (1878.) Died May 23, 1886.

Ran'kin, (ARTHUR McKEE,) an actor, born at Sand-
wich, in Upper Canada, February 6, 1844. He was edu-
cated at a college in Toronto, but went very early upon
the stage at Rochester, New York. In 1869 he married
Miss Kitty Blanchard, a talented actress.

Rankine, rank'in, (WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN,)
F.R.S., a British civil engineer, distinguished as a
writer on heat, elasticity, mechanics, etc. He became
professor of civil engineering and mechanics at Glasgow
about 1855, and wrote a " Manual of Applied Mechanics,"
(1858,) "On Energetics," etc. Died December 24, 1871.



a, e, 1, 6. u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, ft, y, short: a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; m<*t; not; good; moon;



RANKING



2029



RAPHAEL



Rank'ing, (BoYD MONTGOMERIE MAURICE,) an Eng-
lish author, born in Sussex, January 19, 1841. He was
called to the bar at the Inner Temple in 1866. He has
written " Fair Rosamond," (1868,) a volume of poems,
"Old Prose Stories," (1870,) "Streams from Hidden
Sources," " Stories from Italian History," (1876,) "Bjorn
and Bera," (1876,) etc. Died December I, 1888.

Rannequin, rin'neh-kin, Ren'kin, or Rennequin
(SWALM,) a hydraulic engineer, born at Liege in 1644
He constructed the machine of Marly, near Versailles
in France. Died in 1708.

Rana'fprd, (EDWIN,) an English barytone-singer,
song-writer, and musical composer, born in Gloucester-
shire in 1805. Died July II, 1876.

Ran'som, (MATHEW WHITAKER,) an American
statesman, born in Warren county, North Carolina, in
1826. He was attorney-general of North Carolina in
1852, member of the legislature 1858-60, and became
a major-general in the Confederate army. He was in
the United States Senate from 1872 to 1895, and min-
ister to Mexico 1895-97.

Ran'spm, (THOMAS EDWARD GREENFIELD,) a brave
and skilful American general, born at Norwich, Ver-
mont, in November, 1834. He was a civil engineer in
Illinois before the civil war. In July, 1861, he became
a lieutenant-colonel, and in February, 1862, he was se-
verely wounded at Fort Donelson. He commanded a
regiment at Shiloh in April, 1862, obtained the rank of
brigadier-general in January, 1863, and served under
General Banks in the Red River expedition. He was
disabled by a wound at Sabine Cross- Roads, Louisiana,
in April, 1864. He joined the army of Sherman after
his wound had healed, and took command of a division
or corps just before the capture of Atlanta, (September 2.)
He died at Rome, Georgia, in October, 1864.

Ransonnette, roN'so'neV, (CHARLES NICOLAS,) a
French engraver, born in Paris in 1797. He engraved
plates for several books of travel.

RantouL, ran'tool, (ROBERT,) a distinguished states-
man of the Democratic party, was born in Beverly,
Massachusetts, in 1805. He was admitted to the bar
in 1827, and was elected in 1834 to the legislature.
In 1845 he was appointed a district attorney of the
United States, in 1851 succeeded Daniel Webster as
Senator for a short term, and was afterwards elected
to Congress. Died in August, 1852.

Rantzau, de, deh roNt'so', (JosiAS,) COUNT, a mar-
shal of France, born in Denmark in 1609. He com-
manded a French army with success in Flanders from
1642 to 1649. Died in 1650.

Rantzau, von, fon rant'sow, (JoHANN,) COUNT, a
German general, born in 1492. He entered the service
of the Duke of Holstein, (afterwards Frederick I. of
Denmark,) for whom he conquered Denmark about
1525. Died in 1565.

Ranzani, ran-za'nee, (CAMILLO ABBATE,) an eminent
Italian naturalist, born at Bologna in 1775. He was
appointed professor of natural history in the university
of his native city in 1803. About 1810 he visited Paris,
where he was treated with much attention by Cuvier.
He began in 1819 to publish a great work entitled "Ele
ments of Zoology," which he was not able to finish.
About twelve volumes of it have been published. Died
in 1841.

SeeCoRRADO POLITI, " Elogio di C. Ranzani," 1842; TIPALUO,
Biografia degli Italian! illustri."

Raoul, ri'ool', or Rodolphe, ro'dolf, [Lat RA
DUL'FUS,] Duke of Burgundy, married Emma, a daughter
of Robert, Duke of France. In 923 he was chosen king
by the barons who deposed Charles III. He waged war
against the Normans under Rollo. Died in 936.

Ilaoul. See ROLLO.

Raoul de Houdenc, Ra'ool' deh oo'doNk', a French
poet and herald, who flourished about 1225. Among his
extant works are " Roman des Eles," (" Romance of the
Wings,") " Merangis de Portlesguez," and, perhaps, the
" Vengeance de Raguidel." He was one of the first
poets of his rime.

Raoul-Rochette. See ROCHETTE.



Raoux, rJ'oo', (JEAN,) a French painter, born at
Wontpellier in 1677. He obtained some vogue as a
jortrait-painter. Died in 1734.

Raoux, (SCIPION EDOUARD,) a Swiss littfrateur, born
at Mens (Isere) in 1817, became professor at Lausanne.

Rapetti, r5-pet'tee, (Louis NICOLAS,) a distinguished
jurist and biographer, born at BeVgamo in 1812. He
wrote for the " Nouvelle Biographic Gene'rale" a notice
of Napoleon I. He lectured on Roman law in the Col-
'ege of France from 1841 to 1848. Died in 1885.

Raphael (ra'fa-el or rSPa-el) [It. RAFFAELLE, rif-fa-
el'li] Sanzio, san'ze-o, (RAFFAELLO,) the most illus-
:rious of modern painters, was born at Urbino, in the
Papal States, April 6, 1483. He was the only son of
Giovanni di Santi (or Sanrio) and Magia Ciarla. After
be had received the first lessons in design from his
Father, who was a painter of moderate talents, he became
about 1495 a pupil of Perugino, whom he imitated so
well that when that master and Raphael worked on the
same canvas the result seemed to be the product of one
hand. Among his earliest works are a " Holy Family,"
(1500,) the "Adoration of the Magi," "The Coronation
of the Virgin," (now in the Vatican,) and "The Marriage
of the Virgin," ("Sposalizio,") dated 1504, which is now
at Milan. "The Virgin," says Lanzi, "is a model of
celestial beauty." In the autumn of 1504 he visited
Florence, where he painted several works and formed
friendships with Fra Bartolommeo and Ridolfo Ghir-
landaio. During the period from 1505 to 1508, which
he passed at Perugia and Florence, he produced a
Christ in glory, the "Madonna del Gran Duca," and
other Madonnas. These works show that his style had
been modified by his studies in Florence.

Having received from Julius IT. an invitation to orna-
ment the Vatican, he went to Rome in 1508. Here he
studied the remains of Grecian genius, associated with
eminent scholars, among whom were Bembo, Ariosto,
and Sadoleto, and entered into a rivalry with Michael
Angelo. Raphael painted in the Vatican (in fresco) the
large and noble composition called " Disputa del Sacra-
mento," the admirable " School of Athens," " Parnassus,"
(1511,) "The Miracle of Bolsena," "Attila repelled from
Rome," and other frescos. "In the composition and
execution of the ' School of Athens,' " says Quatremere
de Quincy, " Raphael had recovered, so to speak, the
long-lost thread of the manner and taste of antiquity,
and had at length connected with the eternal models of
the true and beautiful the chain of modern inventions."
He also painted in oil numerous works, among which
are the "Madonna di Foligno," (1511,) and a portrait
of Julius II. Soon after his arrival at Rome he adopted
what is called his third style.

Like all great painters of the sixteenth century,
Raphael was a skilful architect. In 1515 the pope ap-
pointed him chief architect of Saint Peter's Church, in
compliance with the dying request of Bramante. Raphael
made a model or design for this edifice ; but it was not
executed. He designed the Pandolfini palace at Flor-
ence, of which an able critic remarks, "There is not in
architecture a palatial design more noble, of a purer
style, of a more judicious distribution." About 1515 he
produced the celebrated Cartoons, ten designs for the
tapestry of the pope's chapel, seven of which are now
at Hampton Court, England. They represent " The
Charge to Peter," "Saint Paul preaching at Athens."
and other scenes from sacred history.

Among his later oil-paintings are " Saint Cecilia," (at



_. the gallery L.
which some consider his master-piece, and which is
now in the Vatican. His great power was in the ex-
pression of passion and character. He also excelled in
composition, invention, and design ; but as a colorist
he was inferior to Titian and others. It is asserted that
in all his endless inventions a single repetition of him-
self is not to be found. He died at Rome on the 6th
of April, 1520, at the age of thirty-seven. He was
never married. He had a delicate constitution, brown
hair and eyes, and handsome features. His amiable and
noble charactej; rendered him a general favourite.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 252 of 425)