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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R. trilled: as z; *h as in this. ( tffSee Explanations, p. 23. )



RAPHAEL



2030



RASCHI2J



" The bent of his genius," says Lanzi, " led him to
that ideal beauty, grace, and expression, the most
refined and difficult province of painting. . . . Rafiaelle
is by common consent placed at the head of his art. 1 '
" Raffaelle was solely a painter," says Hazlitt ; " but in
that one art he seemed to pour out all the treasures and
various excellence of nature, grandeur and scope of
design, exquisite finishing, force, grace, delicacy, the
strength of man, the softness of woman, the playfulness
jf infancy, thought, feeling, invention, etc. He received
his inspiration from without, and his genius caught the
lambent flames of peace, of truth and grandeur, which
are reflected in his works with a light clear, transparent,
and unfading." "If Michael Angelo is the first of
draughtsmen," says Quatremere de Quincy, " Raphael
is the first of painters. . . . His 'Galatea' is a work
which explains, far better than any language of ours,
the diversity between Michael Angelo and Raphael,
manifesting the exquisite refinement of the latter, and
his tendency towards that pure, noble, graceful manner
which constituted the beau-ideal of the ancient Greeks."
Among the numerous eminent pupils of Raphael were
Giulio Romano, Penni called II Fattore, Perino del
Vaga, Pellegrino da M6dena, Gar6falo, and Polidoro da
Caravaggio.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters:" LANZI, " History of Paint-
ing in Italy;" DUPPA, " Life of Raphael," 1815: PASSAVANT, "Ra-
phael d'Urbino," 1839 : G. C. BRAUN, " Raphael Sanzio's Leben,"



1

NAGLER, "Raphael alsMensch und Kiinstler ;" r LANDON, " Vie et
CEuvres de Raphael :" C. F. VON RUMOHR, " Ueber Raphael von
Urbino :" PUNGILEONI, " Elogio storico di Raffaello," 1829: BALDI-



Gene 1 !

for April, 1870.

Raphael of Volterra. See MAFFEI, (RAFFAELLO.)
Raphall, ra'fal, (MORRIS JACOB,) a learned Jewish
rabbi, born at Stockholm, Sweden, in 1798. He studied
at Copenhagen, in England, and at Giessen, and in 1825
removed to England, where he founded the " Hebrew
Review" and took an active part in the literary, political,
and educational work of his time. He was pastor of a
synagogue in New York from 1849 to 1868. He pub-
lished a " Post-Biblical History of the Jews," (1856,)
" Literature of the Jews in Spain," " Social Condition
of the Jews," and other works. Died June 23, 1868.

Rapheleng, ra'feh-l?ng / , Rapheling, rj'feh-ling',
written also Raulengien, (FRANCIS,) a learned printer,
born near Lille in 1539, was a son-in-law of Plantin.
He worked at Antwerp, taught Hebrew at Leyden, and
published an Arabic Lexicon. Died in 1597.
Rapheling. See RAPHELENG.

Rapin, rJ'paN', (NICOLAS,) a French poet, born at
Fontenay-!e-Comte about 1540. He fought for Henry
IV. against the League, and wrote part of the famous
"Satire Me'nippe'e." (See LEROY, (PIERRE,) and Du-
RANT.) He produced, in Latin and French, a number
of odes, epigrams, elegies, etc., which were admired.
Died in 1608.

See BAYLH, "Historical and Critical Dictionary:" "NouveLt
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rapin, (RENE,) a French Jesuit, distinguished as a
Latin poet, was born at Tours in 1621. He composed,
besides many other works, a series of " Parallels of
Great Men of Antiquity," (Homer, Virgil, Demosthenes,
Cicero, Plato, and Aristotle,) (1669-71.) His chief pro-
duction is an ingenious Latin poem " On Gardens,"
(" Hortorum Libri IV.," 1665,) which was translated into
English by Evelyn. "For skill in varying and adorning
his subjects," says Hallam, " for a truly Virgilian spirit
of expression, for the exclusion of feeble, prosaic, or
awkward lines, he may perhaps be equal to any poet,
to Sannazarius himself." ("Introduction to the Litera
ture of Europe.") Died in Paris in 1687.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary:" BOUHODRS,
" Vie de Racin," in his " Poemata," 1723 : NICERON, " Memoires.

Rapin, de, deh rap'in or rf paN', (PAUL,) Sieur de
Thoyras, a French historian, born of a Protestant family
at Castres in 1661. He entered the service of William,
Prince of Orange, with whom he went to England in



1688. He served as captain in the war in Ireland about
1690. In 1724 he published, in French, a "History of
England from the Roman Conquest to the Death of
Charles I.," (8 vols.,) a work of considerable merit.
According to Voltaire, it was the best history of Eng-
and that had then appeared. It was translated into
English by Tindal, who also wrote a continuation of
Rapin's work. (See TINDAL.) Died at Wesel in 1725.
See HAAG, "La France protestante :" ".Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale."

Rapoport, rJ'po-poRt', (SOLOMON JEHUDAH,) a Jew-
sh scholar and rabbi, born at Lemberg, in Germany,
n 1790. He published, in Hebrew, a number of his-
torical and antiquarian treatises, and translated Racine's
Esther" into Hebrew. Died at Prague, October 16
1867. He was regarded as the ablest Hebrew scholar
of his time.

Rapp. (GEORGE,) the founder of the sect of Har-
monists or Rappites, born at Wurtemberg, Germany,
in 1770. He emigrated in 1803 to the United States,
and founded a community at Economy, Beaver county,
Pennsylvania. Died in 1847.

Rapp, ftp, (JEAN,) COUNT, an able French general,
born at Colmar in 1772. He was aide-de-camp of De-
saix at Marengo, and on his death became an aide to
Bonaparte, whose confidence he acquired. For his ser-
vices at Austerlitz (1805) he was raised to the rank of a
general of division. He received his ninth wound at
Golymin, (1806,) obtained the chief command at Dant-
zic in 1807, and distinguished himself at Essling in 1809.
He received four wounds at the battle of Moskwa,
(1812.) In 1815 he was appointed by Napoleon com-
mander of the army of the Rhine, and fought several
actions against the allies. He is said to have been
noted for his humanity and moderation. Died in Paris
' 1821.

See "Memoirs of General Count Rapp, Fiist Aide-de-Camp to
Napoleon, by himself:" " Nouvelle Biographic Generale."

Rappaport. See RAPOPORT.

Rappe, rap, (Louis AMADEUS,) D.D., a bishop, born
at Andrehem, Pas-de-Calais, France, February 2, 1801,
of a peasant family, was educated at Boulogne and Arras,
and became a Roman Catholic priest in 1829, was chap-
lain of the Ursulines at Boulogne, 1834-40, came to the
United States in 1840, was employed on missions in the
Northwest of Ohio, 1841-47, and in 1847 was consecrated
Bishop of Cleveland, the first of that title. In 1870 he
resigned the diocese. Died at Burlington, Vermont,
September 8, 1877. Bishop Rappe was a very laborious
man, distinguished as a friend of total abstinence.

Rappoldi, rap-pol'dee, (EDUARD,) an Austrian musi-
cian and composer, born in Vienna, February 21, 1839.
He has produced symphonies, quartets, sonatas, and
songs, but is best known as a violinist. In 1874 he mar-
ried Miss Laura Kahrer, a famous pianiste, (born in
Vienna in 1853.) Rappoldi has been since i876concert-
meister at Dresden and chief teacher in the Conserva-
torium.

Ra'rey, (JOHN S.,) a celebrated American horse-
tamer, born at Madison, Franklin county, Ohio, about
1825. He was very successful in subduing the most
vicious animals by substituting kindness and scientific
skill for the harshness usually employed on such occa-
sions. Died in 1866.

Raaario, ra-sl're-o, [Lat, RASA'RIUS,] (GlAMBAT-
TISTA,) an Italian physician, born in the province of
Novara in 1517. He was professor of Greek and rhetoric
at Venice for twenty-two years. He translated from
Greek into Latin some works of Pachymeres, Oribasius,
and Galen. Died at Pavfa in 1578.

Raaarius. See RASARIO.

Rascas, rSsltas', (PIERRE ANTOINE,) Sieur de Bagar-
ris, a French antiquary, born at Aix about 1567. He
was keeper of the cabinet of Henry IV., and wrote a
treatise on medals. Died in 1620.

Rasche, rlsh'eh, (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German
numismatist, born near Eisenach, in Saxony, in 1703.
He published, besides other works, " Lexicon of the
Monetary Affairs of the Ancients," ("Lexicon universas
Rei numariae Veterum," 6 vols., 1785-94.) Died in 1805.

Raschi, (RABBI SOLOMON.) See JARCHI.

Raschid, AL See HAROUN-AL-RASCHID.



&, e, T, o, u, y, long: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, it, y, short: a, e, \,(), obscure; far, fail, fat; mil; not; good; moon:



RASHEED



2031



RATTAZZI



Rasheed-Eddeen or Raschid-Eddin, ra-sheed'
ed-deen', a Persian historian, born at Hamadan in the
thirteenth century. Died about 1320.

Rasbi. See JARCHI.

Rasis. See RAZES.

Rasis or Rases. See RAZEE.

Rask, rask, (RAMUS or RASMUS CHRISTIAN,) an emi-
nent Danish linguist, was born near Odense, in the isle
of Funen, in 1787. He gave much attention to com-
parative philology, in the prosecution of which study he
visited Russia, Persia, India, etc., (1817-21.) He be-
came professor of literary history at Copenhagen in 1825,
and professor of Oriental languages at the same univer-
lity in 1828. Among his works are an "Anglo-Saxon
Grammar," (1817,) "Researches on the Origin of the
Icelandic Language," (1818,) and "On the Age and
Authenticity of the Zend-Avesta," (1826.) He possessed
a rare talent for linguistic researches. Died in 1832.

See P. L. MOELLHR. " R. K. Rask:" ERSLHW, " Forfatter- Lexi-
con :" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rasmussen, ras'moos'sen, (JANUS LASSEN,) a Dan-
ish Orientalist, born at Vestenkov in 1785. He published
a " History of the Kingdoms of the Arabs," (" Historia
Arabum Regnorum," 1817,) "Annals of the Moslems,"
("Annales Islamicae," 1825,) and other works. Died
about 1828.

Rasori, ra-So'ree, (GIOVANNI,) an eminent Italian
physician, born at Parma in 1766 or 1767. He became
professor at Pavia about 1796, and settled at Milan in
1800. He was author of a new medical doctrine, called
"theory of the Counter-Stimulus," and wrote several
medical works. He died in 1837.

See G. PHRINI, " Cenni sulla Mente di G. Rasori," 1837 ; Cm-
PPA, "Delia Vila di G. Rasori," 1838.

Raapail, rls'pil' or rts'pi'ye, (FRANCOIS VINCENT,)
an able French chemist and politician, born at Carpen-
tras in 1794. He took arms against Charles X. in 1830,
and became a leader of the republicans. In 1831 he
published the first volume of his able " Course of Agri-
culture and Rural Economy." At the revolution of
February, 1848, he proclaimed a republic at the Hotel
de Ville before the formation of a provisional govern-
ment. In March, 1849, he was condemned to six years'
imprisonment for conspiracy against the new regime.
Among his works is a "New System of Organic Chem-
istry," (2d edition, 3 vols., 1838,) which has been trans-
lated into English, and "The Natural History of Health
and Disease of Plants and Animals, especially Man,"
(3 vols., 1846.) He was elected to the corps llgulatij
in 1869. Died February 8, 1878.

See CHARLES MARCHAL, " BioCTaphie de F. V. Raspail," 1848 ;
QuiRARD, " La France Litteraire j" ! ' Nouvelle Biographic Gene 1
rale."

Raspe, ris'peh, (RoDOLPH ERIC,) a German anti-
quary, born at Hanover in 1737 ; died in Ireland in 1794.

Rasponi, rls-po'nee, (CESARE,) an Italian cardinal
and negotiator, born at Ravenna in 1615 ; died in 1675.

Rassam, ris-sam', ( HORMUZD,) a distinguished archae-
ologist, born in 1826, at Mosul, in Mesopotamia, of a
Cli.ilil.L-, in Christian family. He assisted Layard in his
Assyrian researches, 1845-47 and 1849-51. Rassam
conducted the important British Museum explorations
of 1851-54, and was afterwards in the British govern-
ment service at Aden and Muscat, and in Abyssinia,
where he was imprisoned and kept nearly two years in
chains by King Theodore. Rassam carried on, at his
own expense, highly important and fruitful explorations
in Mesopotamia, Armenia, etc., 1876-82. His principal
published work is a "Narrative of the British Mission
to Theodore," (1869.)

Rassoomovsky, ri-soo-mov'ske, (ANDREAS KYRIL-
LOVITCH,) a Russian nobleman, born in the Ukraine, of
humble parentage, in 1752. He served in the English
and Russian navies, rose to the rank of admiral, and was
Russian ambassador at various foreign courts. He is
best known, however, as the friend and patron of Bee-
thoven, who dedicated to him, among other works, the
famous " Rassoomovsky Quartets."

Ras'tall or Ras'tell, (JOHN,) an English printer,
was a native or citizen of London. One of the first
books which he printed is dated 1517. He was con-
verted to the Protestant religion by J. Frith. He was the



reputed author of " Chronicle of the Kings of England,"
(" Anglorum Regum Chronicon," 1529.) Died in 1536.

His son WILLIAM, born in 1508, was a printer and
lawyer. He emigrated to Louvain in 1558, and died
there in 1565.

Rast-Maupas, rls-mo'pd', (JEAN Louis,) a French
rural economist, born at La Voulte in 1731. He founded
the Condition des Sffia, and made several useful inven-
tions. Died at Lyons in 1821.

Rastopchin. See ROSTOPTCHIN.

Rastrelli, ras-tRel'lee, (JOSEPH,) a German composer
and musician, born at Dresden in 1799. He composed
"Salvator Rosa," (1832,) and other operas. Died 1842.

Rataller, rl-ta'ler, (GEORGE,) a Dutch philologist
and jurist, born at Leeuwarden in 1528. He translated
into Latin verse Hesiod's great poem and the tragedies
of Sophocles. He became president of the council at
Utrecht about 1570. Died in 1581.

See BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Ratazzi. See RATTAZZI.

Ratcliffe, (THOMAS,) Earl of Sussex. See RAD-
CLIFFE.

Ratdolt. See RATHOLD.

Rathel or Raethel, ra'tel, (WOLFGANG CHRISTOPH.)
a German scholar, born at Selbitz in 1663 ; died in 1729.

Ratheriua. See RATHIER.

Rathery, rit're', (DME JACQUES BENotT,) a French
litterateur, born in Paris in 1807. He became assistant
keeper of the Imperial Library in 1859. He contributed
to the " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," the " Revue des
Deux Mondes," etc. Died November 28, 1875.

Rathier, rfte-4', [Lat. RATHE'RIUS,] a learned ec-
clesiastic, was born at Liege. He became Bishop of
Verona in 931 A.D. Died about 974 A.D.

Rathold, rat'holt, written also Ratdolt, (ERHARD,)
a German printer, born at Augsburg. He settled at
Venice in 1475, where he published excellent editions
of Appian, Euclid, and other classics. Died about 1516.

Rat'I, written alsoReU, [modern Hindoo pron. rut'!,]
a Sanscrit word signifying " passion," " sexual desire,
and forming, in the Hindoo mythology, the name of the
consort of Kamadeva, or the Indian god of love.

See WILSON, " Sanscrit Dictionary."

Ratier, rf'te-A', (FrtLix SEVERIN,) a French medical
writer, was bonTin Paris in 1797. He published nu-
merous works. Died February 8, 1866.

Ratramne, ri trim', [Lat. RATRAM'NUS,] a learned
French monk of the ninth century, belonged to the
abbey of Corbie. He wrote a treatise " On the Body
and Blood of the Lord," (" De Corpore et Sanguine
Domini,") which was printed in 1532 and 1712. H~
is sometimes called BERTRAM. Died after 868 A.D.

Ratramnus. See RATRAMNE.

Ratschky, ratsh'kee, (JOSEPH FRANZ,) a German
poet, born in Vienna in 1757. He published a volume
of poems in 1785, which were somewhat popular. He
became a councillor of state. Died in Vienna in 1810.

Rattazzi, rat-tat'see, (MARIE STUDOLMINE,) wife of
Urbano Rattazzi, was born at Waterford, Ireland, in
1830. She was a daughter of Sir Thomas Wyse, by
L.ttitia, a daughter of Lucien Bonaparte. She was
(1850-52) the wife of one F. Solms, from whom she was
divorced. She married Rattazzi in 1860. She published
many novels, and some poems and plays, partly under
the name of Marie, Princess de Solms. Most of her
writings are in French, a few in Italian.

Rattazzi, rat-tlt'see, or Ratazzi, (URBANO,) an
Italian minister of state, born at Alessandria about 1810.
He gained distinction as an advocate, was elected to the
Chamber of Deputies at Turin in 1848, and became a
leader of the democratic party. About the end of 1848
he was intrusted with the formation of a new ministry,
which was dissolved in consequence of the disastrous
battle of Novara, March, 1849. He was appointed min-
ister of justice in 1854, was prime minister a short time
in 1859, and succeeded Ricasoli as prime minister about
March I, 1862. His opponents denounced him as sub-
servient to the policy of the French emperor. He went
out of power about December I, 1862, and became prime
minister again in April, 1867, but resigned in the follow
ing October. Died at Frosinone, June 5, 1873.



cas/6; 9asj; ghard; gas,/; G,H,K,gutturaI; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasi: thasin//5. (J^T"See Explanations, p. 23.'.



RATTE



2032



RA VENN A



Ratte, de, deh rft, (EriENNE HYACINTHS,) a French
astronomer, born at Montpellier in 1722. He wrote
scientific articles for the "Encyclopedic," and observed
the transit of Venus in 1761. Died in 1805.

See J. POITEVIN, " filoge d'fi. H. de Ratte," 1805.

Ratti, rat'tee, (NiccoLA,) an Italian antiquary, born
at Rome in 1759, published several biographies and
antiquarian treatises. Died in 1833.

Ran, (CHRISTIAN.) See RAVIUS.

Rau, row, (JoHANN JAKOB,) a German physician,
born at Baden, in Suabia, in 1668, was a successful
lithotomist. He became professor of anatomy at Leyden
in 1713. Died in 1719.

Rau, (KARL HEINRICH,) a German political econo-
mist, born at Erlangen in 1792, became in 1822 pi ;fessor
of political economy and financial science at Heidelberg.
His principal work is a "Manual of Political Economy,"
(3 vols., 1826-32,) which is highly commended. Died
in 1870.

Rau, (SEBALD,) a German Orientalist, born at Herborn
in 1724. He obtained the chair of Oriental languages
at Utrecht in 1749. Died about 1810.

Rau, (SEBALD FOULQUES JAN,) an Orientalist, a son
of the preceding, was bom at Utrecht in 1765. He be-
came minister of a church at Leyden in 1788. Died in 1807.

Rauch, rowK, (CHRISTIAN,) one of the most eminent
German sculptors, born at Arolsen, in the principality
of Waldeck, in 1777. He studied for a time under Pro-
fessor Ruhl, at Cassel, and in 1804 was enabled to visit
Rome, where he was patronized by W. von Humboldt
and acquired the friendship of Thorwaldsen. While at
Rome he executed the bas-reliefs of " Hippolytus and
Phaedra," and " Mars and Venus wounded by Diomed,"
also a colossal bust of the King of Prussia, a life-size
bust of his queen Louise, and a portrait bust of Raphael
Mengs. In 1813 he completed the monument of the
Queen of Prussia, at Charlot'enburg, which is esteemed
one of the most admirable works of the kind. During
a second visit to Rome he executed statues of Generals
Schamhorst and Bulow, and a great number of busts of
celebrated persons. After his return to Prussia he pro-
duced two colossal bronze statues of Marshal Blucher,
a statue of Goethe, regarded as the most perfect re-
semblance to that great writer, a monument to Albert
Durer, and statues of Luther, Schiller, and other eminent
Germans. In 1851 he finished his monument to Fred-
erick the Great, with an equestrian statue, at Berlin,
upon which he was employed more than ten years, and
which is esteemed his greatest work. Died in 1857.

See NAGLHR, " Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon ;" " Nouvelle Bio
graphic Generale ;" " Jahrbuch zum Conversations- Lexikon," 1859.

Raucb, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a German-American
divine, born at Kirchbracht, in Hesse, July 27, 1806. He
graduated at Marburg in 1827, held professorships in
Giessen and Heidelberg, came in 1831 to America, and
became in 1835 president of Marshall College, Mercers-
burg, Pennsylvania, where he died, March 2, 1841.
Among his works are "Psychology," (1840,) and "The
Inner Life of the Christian," (1856.) He was a German
Reformed minister.

Raulengien. See RAPHELENG.
Raulin, ro'laN', (FELIX VICTOR,) a French geologist,
born in Paris in 1815. He has written several treatises
on geology.

Raulin, (JEAN,) a French professor of theology at
Paris, born at Toul in 1443 ; died in 1514.

Raulin, (JOSEPH,) a French physician, born near Auch
in 1708. He became physician to the king, and wrote
several able medical works. He was a Fellow of the
Royal Society of London. Died in Paris in 1784.

Raumer, von, fon row'mer, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG
GEORG,) an eminent German historian, born near Des-
sau in 1781. He studied law and financial science ai
Halle and Gbttingen, and in 1819 became professor of
history and political economy at Berlin. He published
in 1810 a treatise " On the British System of Taxation, 1 '
and in 1813 a "Manual of Remarkable Passages fron
the Latin Historians of the Middle Ages." His " His
tory of the Hohenstaufen and their Times" (6 vols.
182;
wor



23) was very well received, and is esteemed a standarc
>rk. Among his other productions may be named a



'History of Europe from the End of the Fifteenth Cen-
ury," (1832,) " England in 1835," which was translated
by Mrs. Austin, and "The United States of North
America," (1845.) Died in 1873.

See "Nouvelle Biographic GineYale;" BROCKHAOS, "Conver-
sations-Lexikon :" "Quarterly Review" for July, 1835: "Foreign
Quarterly Review" for January, 1829, and April, 1833.

Raumer, von, (GEORG WILHELM,) a German jurist
and historical writer, born at Berlin about 1790; died
n 1856.

Raumer, von, (KARL GEORG,) a German geologist,
Dorn at Worlitz in 1783, became professor of natural
listory and mineralogy at Erlangen. He was a brother
of the eminent historian. Died June 2, 1865.

Raumer, von, (RUDOLF,) son of the preceding, was
Dorn at Breslau in 1815. He became professor of phi'
'ology at Erlangen in 1852. Died August 30, 1876.

Raupach, row'plK, (ERNST BENJAMIN SOLOMON,) a
popular dramatic poet, born near Liegnitz, in Silesia, in
1 784. After residing several years in Russia as a teacher,

became professor of German literature at Saint Peters-
burg in 1817. His works, which are very numerous
and include both tragedy and comedy, were published
in i8vols., 1830-44. Died in 1852.

See PAULINB RAUPACH, " Raupach ; biographiscbe Skine," 1854 .

Rauscher, von, fon row'sher, (JOSEPH OTHMAR,) an
Austrian cardinal, born in Vienna, October 6, 1797. He
was made Prince-Bishop of Seckau in 1849, Archbishop
of Vienna in 1853, and a cardinal in 1855. He was an
enemy of the dogma of papal infallibility, but after its for-
ma] promulgation submitted. Died November 24, 1875.

Ranter, row'ter or ro'taiR', (JACQUES FREDERIC,) a
French jurist, born at Strasburg in 1784. He was pro-
fessor of law in his native city. Died in 1854.

Rauwolf, row'wolf, (LEONHARD,) a German botanist,
born at Augsburg. He visited the Levant in 1573, in
order to study and identify the plants noticed by Pliny,
Galen, Dioscorides, etc. After his return he published
a valuable " Narrative of a Journey in Syria, Judea,
Arabia, Mesopotamia," etc., (1582.) Died in 1596.

See M. ADAM, "Vitz Medicorum;" "Nouvelle Biographi*
Generale."

Rauzzinl, r5wt-see'nee, (VENANZIO,) an Italian singer
and musical composer, born in Rome in 1747. After
singing successfully in Vienna and Munich, he settled in
England, giving a number of brilliant concerts in Lon-
don, and distinguishing himself also as a teacher of
singing. He composed operas, sonatas, and songs.
Died at Bath in 1810. His brother MATTEO, born in
1754, who followed him to England, was also known as
a singer and teacher. Died in 1791.

RavalUac, rfvil'yik' or rfvrytk', (FRANCOIS,) a
French assassin and fanatic, born at Angouleme in 1578.
He approached the royal carriage, which was stopped
in the street by a number of wagons, and stabbed Henry
IV. mortally, in May, 1610. At his examination he de-
nied that he had any accomplice. He was executed in
May, 1610.

Ravaisson, rfv&'soN', (JEAN GASPARD FELIX,) a
French philosopher, born at Namur in 1813. He was
admitted into the Academy of Inscriptions in 1849, and
became a member of the imperial council of public
instruction in 1852. He wrote an " Essay on the Meta-
physics of Aristotle," (2 vols., 1837-46.)

Ravana,* ra'va-na, or Ravanen, in the Hindoo my-
thology, the name of a famous many-headed giant, King
of Ceylon, who was killed by Kama. (See RAMA.)

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Ravenel, raVnel', ( JULES AMBDBE DESIRE,) a French
bibliographer, born in Paris in 1801. He became a keeper
in the Royal Library in 1848. Died in 1885.

Ravenet, raVn&', (SIMON FRANCOIS,) an eminent
French engraver, born in Paris about 1708, removed to
England in 1750. Died in 1774.

Ravenet, (SiMON FRANCOIS,) an engraver, bom in
London about 1755, was a son of the preceding. He
went to Parma, and engraved the works of Correggio.
Died about 1812.

Ravenna, da, da ra-ven'na, (MARCO,) an able Italian


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 253 of 425)