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engraver, bom at Ravenna about 1496, was a pupil of

He is called RAVKNKN in SODTHKV'S " Curse of Kehama."

i, e, T, o M. v, long", a, e, 6. same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, ?, short; a, e, i, 0, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon.




Raimondi. He engraved some works of Raphael. Died
It Rome in 1527.

Ravenna, di, de ri-veVna, (GIOVANNI MALPA-
GHINO,) an Italian classical scholar, born at Ravenna.
He was employed by Petrarch as a copyist, and after-
wards taught the classics at Florence. Died about 1420.

Ra'vens-croft, ( THOMAS, ) an English composer,
born in 1592. He published in 1611 a collection of
songs called "Melismata, Musical Phansies," etc., and in
1621 "The Whole Book of Psalms, composed into Four
Parts by Sundry Authors to such Several Tunes as are
usually sung in England," etc. He was the composer
of some of these tunes.

Ra'venstein, ( ERNEST GEORGE, ) a German geog-
rapher, born at Frankfurt-am-Main in 1834. He was
professor of geography at Bedford College, England,
1882-83. He published "The Russians on the Amur,"
(1861,) " Map of Equatorial Africa," (1884,) " Vasco
de Gama's First Voyage," (1898,) etc.

Ravesteyn, van, vin ra'veh-stin',(HuBERT,) a Dutch
painter, born at Dort about 1645, painted fairs, interiors
of shops, etc.

Ravesteyn, van, (JAN,) a Dutch portrait-painter,
born at the Hague about 1575. His works are highly
praised by Descamps and others. Died at the Hague in
1657. His son ARNOLD (1615-67) was a portrait-painter.

See CHARLES BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres."

Ravesteyn, van, (NiKOLAAS,) a relative of the pre-
ceding, was born at Bommel in 1661. He painted por-
traits and history with success. Died at Bommel in 1750.

Ravignan, de, deh ri'ven'yftN', (GusrAVE FRANCOIS
XAVIER DELACROIX,) a French Jesuit, noted as a pulpit
orator, was born at Bayonne in 1795. He preached in
Notre-Dame, Paris, for ten years, (1837-48,) and wrote
a book in defence of the Jesuits, (yth edition, 1855.)
Died in 1858.

Raviua, ra've-us, Ravo, ra'veh, or Rau, r6w, (CHRIS-
TIAN,) a German Orientalist, born at Berlin in 1603, or,
as others say, in 1613. He went to the Levant in 1639,
and studied the Turkish, Persian, Italian, Modern Greek,
etc. at Smyrna. In 1644 he obtained the chair of Oriental
languages at Utrecht, and in 1651 became professor of
Arabic at Upsal. Among his works are a Latin version
of part of the Koran, " Primae tredecim Partium Alcora-
ni,"etc,, (1646,) and a " Grammar of the Hebrew, Syriac,
Arabic, andChaldaic Languages," (1650.) Died in 1677.

See BURMANN, "Trajectum eruditura ;" " Nouvelle Biographic

Ravizza, ra-vet'sa or ra-vit'si, (DoMENlCO,) an Ital-
ian writer, born in the Abruzzi in 1707; died in 1767.


Rawle, rawl, (WILLIAM,) a distinguished American
jurist, born in Philadelphia in 1759, was appointed by
Washington district attorney of Pennsylvania. He drew
up the new civil code of Pennsylvania, and wrote several
legal works. Died in 1836.

Rawleigh. See RALEIGH.

Raw'ley, (WILLIAM,) an English clergyman, born at
Norwich about 1588. He became chaplain to Lord
Bacon and to Charles I. He wrote a " Life of Bacon,"
which Hallam calls " the best authority we have," and
edited the works of Bacon, (1657.) Died in 1667.

Raw'lins, (JoHN A.,) a distinguished American
general, born in Jo Daviess county, Illinois, in 1831, was
a lawyer before the civil war. He became assistant
adjutant-general of General Grant in September, 1861,
and served as such in the campaigns of 1862 and 1863.
In March, 1865, he was appointed chief of General
Grant's staff, with the rank of brigadier-general in the
regular army. He became secretary of war in March
1869. Died in September, 1869.

Raw'lin-son, (CHRISTOPHER,) an English antiquary,
born in Essex'in 1677. He published an edition of King
Alfred's Saxon version of Boethius "De Consolatione
Philosophise," (1698.) Died in 1733.

Rawlinson, (Rev. GEORGE,) an English scholar, born
about 1815, was educated at Oxford, and was chosen a
Fellow of Exeter College in 1840. He became professor
of ancient history at Oxford in 1861. He published a
translation of Herodotus, (4 vols., 1858-60,) in which
he was assisted by his brother Sir Henry, and "The

Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World."
(4 vols., 1862-68,) "The Sixth Great Monarchy,"
(1873,) "The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy,"
(1876,) "Phoenicia," (1889,) " Parthia," (1893,) etc.
Rawlinson, (Sir HENRY CRESWICKE,) an English
Orientalist, a brother of the preceding, was born in
Oxfordshire in 1810. He entered the military service
of the East India Company about 1826, and served in
Persia some years, during which he studied the Persian
cuneiform inscriptions with success. In 1843 he became
political resident, or agent, at Bagdid. He deciphered
the cuneiform inscriptions at Nineveh, and wrote sev-
eral works concerning them, also " England and Rus-
sia in the East," (1875.) He was sent as British
ambassador to the court of Persia in 1859, served in
Parliament from 1865 to 1868, and became vice-presi-
dent of the council of India in 1876. He was made a
baronet in 1891. Died March 5, 1895.

Rawlinson, (RICHARD,) an English antiquary, born
in London about 1690. He published a " Life of Anthony

. Wood," (1711,) and " The English Topographer," ( 1 720.)
Died in 1755.

Rawlinson, (THOMAS,) a brother of the preceding,
was born about 1680. He was noted as a collector of
books, and is supposed to have been the original of

i Addison's character of " Tom Folio." (See the " Taller,"

| No. 158.) Died in 1725.

Raw'spn, (ALBERT LAWSON,) LL.D., an American
author, born at Chester, Vermont, October 15, 1829.
He travelled extensively, and made a pilgrimage to
Mecca in disguise. As an artist, he illustrated many
books. He also wrote a large number of books, chiefly
on Biblical and religious subjects.

Raw'son, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English surgeon and
oculist, born in Cornwall. His family name was ADAMS,
which he exchanged for Rawson when he became heir
to a person of that name. He settled in London in 1810.
Died in 1829.

Raxis, rtk'sess', (GA^TAN,) Comte de Flassans, a
French publicist, born at Bedouin in 1760. He pub-
lished, besides other works, a " History of French
Diplomacy," (6 vols., 1808.) Died in Paris in 1845.

Ray, (ISAAC,) M.D., an American physician, born at
Beverly, Massachusetts, in 1807, was appointed in 1841
superintendent of the State Insane Hospital at Augusta,

1 Maine, and in 1845 f tne Butler Hospital for the In-
sane at Providence, Rhode Island. He published " Med-
ical Jurisprudence of Insanity," (1838.) In 1867 he
removed to Philadelphia, where he died, March 31, 1881.
Ray or Wray, (JOHN,) an eminent English botanist
and zoologist, born near Braintree, in Essex, on the
29th of November, 1628, was the son of a blacksmith.
He studied in Trinity College, Cambridge, where he
became Greek lecturer at the age of twenty-three. In
1660 he published a " Catalogue of Plants growing
around Cambridge." He was ordained as a priest, but
declined to subscribe to the Act of Uniformity of 1662,
and never performed clerical functions. He found a

j friend and patron in Francis Willoughby, in company

i with whom he made scientific excursions in France,
Germany, and Italy in 1663-66. In 1667 he was chosen

i a Fellow of the Royal Society. He published a "Cata-
logue of the Plants of England," ( " Catalogus Plan-
tarum Anglias," 1670 or 1677,) and in 1682 a " New
Method of Plants," ("Methodus Plantarum Nova,") in
which he proposed a new method of classification. Of
this work Cuvier and Du Petit-Thouars (" Biographic
Universelle") remark, " We find the natural families of
plants better defined, and the grand division of mono-
cotyledons and bicotyledons fully established ; he gave
the characters of many classes with much precision, and
introduced several technical terms which are very use-

! ful ; finally, he established many principles and general
laws of classification which have since been adopted."
His principal or largest botanical work is " Universal
History of Plants," (" Historia Plantarum Universalis,"
3 vols., 1686-1704.) Ray is said to have been the first
modern zoologist who made use of comparative anat-
omy. He published in 1693 " Synopsis of Quadrupeds
and Serpents," (" Synopsis Animalium Quadrupedum

eas it; c as s; g hard; g asy; G, H, K., guttural ; N, natal; R, trilled; s as ; th as in rt.


xplanations, p. 23.)




et Serpentini Generis.") " His works on zoology," says
Cuvier, " are even more important than those on botany,
for their utility has been more durable. They may be
considered as the foundation of all modern zoology. . . .
His distribution of the classes of quadrupeds and birds
has been followed by the English naturalists almost to
our own days." He wrote other works. Died in 1705.

See DR. DERHAM, "Select Remains of J. Ray," 1760; " Memo-
rials of J. Ray," by EDWIN LANKESTER, 8vo, 1844: " Biographia
Britannica :" DR. HOEFER'S article in the " Nouvelle Biographie
Ge'ne'rale ;" ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors."

Ray, (JOSEPH,) an American mathematician, born in
1807. He was an eminent teacher, employed in various
places, and published several works on algebra and
arithmetic Died in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1855.

Ray, (WILLIAM,) an American poet, born at Salis-
bury, Connecticut, in 1771 ; died in 1827.

Rayer, ri'ya', (PIERRE FRANCOIS OLIVE,) a French
physician, born at Saint-Sylvain (Calvados) in 1793. He
practised in Paris, and in 1852 was comprised in the
medical service of the household of the emperor. He
published several works. Died September 10, 1867.

Rayleigh, ra'le, (JOHN WILLIAM Strutt,) LORD, an
English mathematician and physicist, born November
12, 1842. He was a near relative of the late Captain
Hedley Vicars. He graduated, as senior wrangler, at
Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1865, and succeeded to
the peerage in 1873. In 1884 he was president of the
British Association. He published scientific papers of
high value, also "The Theory of Sound," (2 vols.,
1877-78.) He was professor of experimental physics in
the University of Cambridge 1879-85, and succeeded
Tyndall in 1888 as professor of natural philosophy in
the >Royal Institution. In 1895, in association with
William Ramsay, he discovered a new element in the
atmosphere which they named argon, and for which
they received the $10,000 Hodgkins prize.

Ray'mpnd (or Raimond) L, Count of Toulouse,
succeeded his brother Fredelon in 852 A.D. Died in
864 or 865.

Raymond (or Raimond) H. succeeded his father,
Eudes, in 918. He gained a victory over the Normans
in 923 A.D. Died the same year.

Raymond TTT, called RAYMOND PONS, a son of
the preceding, began to reign in 923. His dominions
included the large territory extending from the Loire
to the Pyrenees and eastward to the Rhone. Died
about 950.

became Count of Toulouse about 1090, about the age of
forty-five. He was one of the most powerful princes of
Southern Europe, and was a famous leader in the first
crusade. In 1096 he led a large army (about 100,000
men) by land to Asia. Jerusalem was taken in 1099 by
the crusaders, who appreciated so highly the talents and
merit of Raymond that they offered him the throne ; but
he declined it He died at Tripoli in 1105, and was
succeeded by his son Bertrand.

See MOI.INH DE SAINT- YON, " Histoire des Comtea de Toulouse,"
4 vols., 1862 ; " Nouvelle Biographie Ge'ne'rale."

Raymond V., a grandson of the preceding, born in
1134, became Count of Toulouse in 1148. He married
Constance, a sister of Louis VII. of France. Henry II.
of England invaded his dominions and besieged Tou-
louse about 1160, but Raymond, aided by Louis of
France, made a successful resistance. Died in 1 194.

Raymond VI., Count of Toulouse, born in 1156,
succeeded his father, Raymond V., in 1194. His reign
was disturbed by wars and crusades instigated by the
pope in order to exterminate the Albigenses, who were
rery numerous in Provence. Raymond was disposed to
protect or tolerate these subjects, and was excommu-
nicated several times. His dominions were invaded by
a large army of crusaders under Simon de Montfort
in 1210. Raymond opposed them bravely in several
battles, but was decisively defeated in 1213, and lost
his throne. He was restored in 1217. Died in 1222.

See MOLINB DH SAINT- YON, " Histoire des Comtes de Toulouse,"
4 Tola., 1862 ; " Nouvelle Biographie Gdne'rale."

Raymond, the last Count of Toulouse, a son of the
preceding, made peace with the pope and ber/ime a
persecutor of tle Albigenses. Died in 1249.

Ray'mpnd, (HENRY JARVIS,) an able American jout-
nalist, born in Livingston county, New York, in 1820,
He became associate editor of the " New York Courier
and Enquirer" in 1843, and in 1851 founded the "New
York Times." He was elected Lieutenant-Governor
of the State in 1854, and, as a leader of the Republican
party, favoured the election of Mr. Lincoln in 1860.
The " New York Times," which he continued to edit
until his death, was very successful. In 1864 he was
elected a member of Congress by the Republican voters
of New York City. He published " The Life, Public
Services, and State Papers of Abraham Lincoln," (1865.)
He took a prominent part in the National Conven-
tion of the friends of Andrew Johnson which met in
Philadelphia in the summer of 1866 for the purpose of
forming a new political party, and wrote the address to
the people of the United States which that convention
issued. This enterprise proved a complete failure.
Died in June, 1869.

See " Henry J. Raymond and the New York Press for Thirty
Years," by AUGUSTUS MAVERICK, 1870.

Raymond, ri'moN', (JEAN ARNAUD, ) a French
architect, born at Toulouse in 1742, was a member of
the Institute. Died in 1811.

Raymond, QEAN MICHEL,) a French chemist, born
at Saint- Vallier (Dr6me) in 1766. He was professor of
chemistry at Lyons. About 1810 he discovered a colour
called bleu- Raymond, for which he received a present of
8000 francs from the government Died in 1837.

Raymond, (MICHEL JOACHIM MARIE,) an able
French general, born near Auch in 1755. He entered
the service of the NizSm of Deccan about 1786, and
fought against the English and Mahrattas. Died at
Hyderabad in 1798.

Raymond, (MINER,) D.D., a Methodist preacher
and educator, born in New York city, August 29, 1811.
He was principal of the Wilbraham Academy, 1848-54,
and in 1864 became professor of systematic theology in
the Biblical Institute at Evanston, Illinois. His principal
work is " Systematic Theology," (1879.) Died in 1097.

Raymond, (ROBERT,) LORD, an English judge, born
about 1673, was chief justice of the king's bench In
the reign of George I., and a privy councillor. His
"Reports" were published in 3 vols. Died in 1733.

American author, born in Cincinnati, April 27, 1840,
was educated at Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, and at
Heidelberg, Munich, and Freiberg, Germany, served in
the United States army, 1862-64, and was United States
commissioner of mining statistics, 186876, and lecturer
on economic geology at Lafayette College, 1870-82.
He wrote several works on the mining industries,
"Brave Hearts," a novel, (1873,) "The Man in the
Moon, and Other People," (1874,) "The Book of
Job," (1878,) etc.

Raymond, (WALTER,) a British novelist, born at
Yeovil in 1852. Among his works are "Misterton's
Mistake," (1890,) "Love and Quiet Life," (1894,)
"Charity Chance," (1897,) and "Two Men o' Men-
dip," (1898.)

Raymond, (XAVIER,) a French journalist, born in
Paris, June 20, 1812. He became an editor of the
" Journal des D^bats" about 1838, and published works
entitled " L'Afghanistan," "L'lnde," "The Navies of
France and ol England," etc. Died in 1886.

Raymond-B6renger. See BSRENGER.

Raymond Lull! See LULI.I.

Raymond (Raimond, ri-mond', orRamon, ra-mon' )
de Fenafort, (Pegnafort,) da pin'ya-foRt', a Spanish
canonist and Dominican, bom at Barcelona in 1175 or
1186. He compiled the "Decretals." Died in 1275.

Raymond! See RAIMONDL

Raynal, ri'nil', (GuiiJ-AUME THOMAS FRANC.OIS.)
L'ABBE, a French philosopher and historian, born at
Saint-Geniez, in Rouergue, in 1711. He was a priest in
his youth, but renounced that profession soon after his
removal to Paris, (1747.) He published several mediocre
histories, and became intimate with Helvetius and Baron
Holbach. He acquired temporary celebrity by a " His-
tory of the Colonies planted by Europeans in America
and India, and of their Influence on the Political Con-

ic, I, o, u,y, long, '3,4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; fat, fill, fit; mi'; not; good; m6o.


2 35


dition, Commerce, and Prosperity of Europe," (" His-
toire philosophique et politique des Etablissements et
du Commerce des Europeans dans les deux Indes," 4
vols., 1770.) It is said that Diderot wrote some of the
ablest passages of this work, which abounds in declama-
tions against the political and religious institutions of
France. The Parliament in 1781 ordered the book to
be buint and the author to be arrested ; but he escaped,
and passed about six years in exile. Died in Paris in

See A. JAY, " Notice biographique sur Raynal," 1821 ; CHERHAL-
MoNTRiAL, " filoge philosophique de Raynal," 1796 ; " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Raynal, de, deh ri'n31', (Louis HECTOR CHAUDRU,)
a French historian, born at Bourges in 1805, wrote a
" History of Berri," (4 vols., 1844-47.) Die d May 9, 1892.

Raynaud, rj'n5', written also Rainaud and Rai-
naudo, (ri-now'do,) (THioPHlLE,) an Italian Jesuit,
born in the county of Nice in 1583. He wrote many
works on theology, which obtained success, though
they are said to be trivial and prolix. Died in 1663.

See MORSRI, " Dictionnaire Historique."

Rayneval, de, deh rjn'vil', (ALPHONSE GERARD,) a
French diplomatist, born in Paris in 1813. He was ap-
pointed to represent the French government at the court
of Pius IX. after his flight to Gaeta, (1849,) and entered
Rome with the army which restored the pope. He was
raised to the rank of ambassador in 1851, and remained
t Rome in that capacity six years. Died in 1858.

the father of the preceding, was born in 1778. He was
sent as ambassador to Vienna in 1829, and to Madrid in
1832. Died at Madrid in 1836.

His father, JOSEPH, (1746-1812,) was author of a
"Treatise on the Law of Nature and of Nations," (3d
edition, 1832,) and "On the Liberty of the Seas," (2
vols., 1811.)

Raynolds. See RAINOLDS.

Raynouard, r&'noo-iR', ( FRANCOIS JUSTE MARIE,) a
French author and philologist, born at Brignoles (Pro-
vence) in 1761. He practised law in his youth, was im-
prisoned as a Girondist in 1793, and became a resident
of Paris about 1800. He produced in 1805 a tragedy
(in verse) entitled "The Templars," ("Les Templiers,")
which was very successful, and opened to him the doors
of the French Academy, (1807,) of which he became
perpetual secretary in 1817. He was a member of the
legislative body from 1806 to 1813. He wrote other
dramas, and philological treatises, among which is a
"Dictionary of the Language of the Troubadours," (6
vols., 1838-44.) Died in 1836.

See C. LABITTH, notice of Raynouard in the " Revue des Deux
Mondes," February i, 1837: REIFFENBERG, "A la M^moire de
F. I. M. Raynouard," 1839; "Nouvelle Biographic Generate. "

Razee or RazJ, AL, il-ra'zee or ar-ri'zee, [written in
Latin RA'zis.RA'sis.or RA'SES,] (Ahmed-Ibn-Moham-
ib'n moo'sa,) an Arabian historian, born at C6rdova, in
Spain, about 866 A.D. He wrote a "History of the
Conquest of Spain by the Arabs." Only portions of his
works are extant There appears to have been another
Arabian or Moorish historian bearing the same name.

See AL-MAKKARI, " History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in
Spain," translated by GAYANGOS, vol. i. p. 314.

Ra'zes, Rha'zes, or Ra'sis, Latin forms of the sur-
name RAZEE, ra'zee, (or, rather, AR-RAZEE or AR-RAzf,)
of a celebrated Arabian physician, whose proper name
med Ib'n za-ka-ree'a a'boo b?kr'.) He was born in
Irak-Ajemee about the middle of the ninth century. He
practised at Bagdad, and travelled into several foreign
countries. Among his numerous works are " Al-Hawi,"
or "Continens," and a treatise on the smallpox and
measles. He is said to have been the first who de-
scribed the smallpox accurately. Died about 930 A.D.

See IBN-KHALLIKAN, "Biographical Dictionary;" SPRENGEL,
"Geschichte der Medicin ;" "Nouvelle Biographic GiSnerale."

Razis. See RAZEE.

Razoomofski or Razoumovski, ra-zoo-mofskee,
written also Razumowskij, (GREGORY,) a Russian
savant, published in French several works on mineralogy,

and " Coup-d'CEil geognostique sur le Nord de 1'Europe,"
(1816.) Died in Moravia in 1837.

Razout, rS'zoo', (JEAN NICOLAS,) a French general,
born at Paris in 1772. He distinguished himself as
general of division at Borodino (1812) and at Dresden,
(1813.) Died in 1820.

Razzi, rat'see, or Bazzi, (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,)
CAVALIERE, surnamed IL SODOMA, (el so-do'ma,) an
able Italian painter, born at Vercelli, in Piedmont, or at
Vergelli, near Sienna, about 1479. He painted in the
Vatican some works which were effaced by order of
Julius II. to make room for those of Raphael. The
palace called Farnesina, at Rome, contains his picture
of " The Marriage of Roxana." He afterwards worked
at Sienna. A picture of "The Scourging of Christ" (at
Sienna) is called his master-piece. Died about 1550.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters ;" LANZT, " History of Paint-
ing in Italy."

Razzi, (GiROLAMO,) afterwards called Silvano, sfel-
va'no, an Italian monk and writer, born at Florence
about 1530. He produced several dramas and biogra-
phies. Died in 1611.

Re, ra, (FiLlPPO,) an Italian agriculturist, born at
Reggio in 1763. He published in 1798 an excellent
work on agriculture, "Element! d'Agricoltura," (2 vols.,)
and became professor of agriculture at Bologna in 1803.
He was author of other works on rural economy, etr
Died in 1817.

See A. FAPPANI, " Elogio del Conte F. Re," 1820.

Re, (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) an Italian botanist and
physician, born near Susa in 1773. He published a
"Flora of Susa," (1805,) and a "Flora of Turin," (2
vols., 1825,) both in Latin. Died at Turin in 1833.

Rea, ra, (WILLIAM,) an English musician, born in
London, March 25, 1827. He is distinguished as a
pianist and organist, and has published a few songs and

Reach, (ANGUS BETHUNE,) a Scottish author and
journalist, born at Inverness in 1821. He wrote a novel
entitled "Clement Lorimcr," and contributed to various
periodicals. Died in 1856.

Read, (ABNER,) an American naval officer, born in
Ohio about 1820. He served in the civil war with dis-
tinction, and gained the rank of commander. He was
killed near Donaldsonville, Louisiana, in July, 1863.

See TENNEY, " Military History of the Rebellion," p. 763.

Read, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish medical writer, grad-
uated at Oxford in 1620 ; died about 1680.

Read, (GEORGE,) an American patriot and signer of
the Declaration of Independence, born in Maryland in
1733. He was elected to the Congress of 1774, and
was subsequently a member of the Convention which
framed the United States Constitution, and chief justice
of the supreme court of the State of Delaware. Died
in 1798.

Read, (JOHN MEREDITH,) an American lawyer, born
in Philadelphia in 1797, was a grandson of the pre-
ceding. He was called to the bar in 1818, and became
a district attorney of the United States. In 1851 he was
associated with Thaddeus Stevens as counsel for the
defence in the celebrated trial of C. Hanway for con
structive treason. About 1854 he began to advocate the
principles of the Republican party by his speeches and
writings. About 1860 he was elected a judge of the
supreme court of Pennsylvania. Died Nov. 29, 1874.

Read, (JOHN MEREDITH,) an American lawyer, a son
of the preceding, was born in Philadelphia, February 21,
1837. He graduated at Brown University in 1858, and
at the Albany Law School in 1859, afterwards studying
law in Europe. He served in the war of 1861-65, at "
taining the rank of brigadier-general. In 1868 he was
appointed consul-general at Paris, acting also as consul-
general for Germany (in France) during the Franco-
German war of 1870-71. He was United States minister

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 254 of 425)