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at Rheims, June 13, 533.

Remi or RemigiuB, a French prelate, was Arch-
bishop of Lyons. Died in 875 A.D.

Remi (or Remigius) OF AUXERRE, a French monk,
who wrote on theology and grammar. He is said to
have been the first doctor who taught publicly in Paris.
Died about 008.



a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e., i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, f4t; mt; not; good; moon;




REMKRAXIlT VAN RVN.



KEMI



2045



RENARD



Remi, ri'me', (JOSEPH HONOR^,) a French littlrateur,
born at Remiremont in 1738; died in Paris in 1782.

Remigio, ra-mee'jo, (FlORENTlNO,) an Italian Do-
minican and writer, born at Florence about 1518. He
translated Ovid's "Heroic Epistles," and Cornelius
Nepos. Died in 1580.

RemigiuB. See REMI.

RemUly, reh-me'ye', (OvinE,) a French politician,
born at Versailles in 1800. He was elected mayoi of
Versailles seven times between 1837 and 1855, and was
a member of the Chamber of Deputies from 1839 to

1848. He was a moderate republican in the Constituent
Assembly of 1848. Died May 9, 1875.

Rem'ington, (FREDERICK,) an American author
and sculptor, born in St. Lawrence county, New
York, in 1861. His best-known works in sculpture
are "The Broncho Buster" and "The Wounded
Bunkie." He wrote "Pony Tracks," "Crooked
Trails," "Frontier Sketches,' etc.

Rem'ing-tpn, (JOSEPH PRICE,) a distinguished Amer-
ican pharmacist, son of Dr. Isaac Remington, was born
in Philadelphia, March 26, 1847. He had the rare good
fortune to be for about three years under the imme
diate instruction of Dr. Edward R. Squibb, of Brooklyn
who has been styled the father of American pharmacy
He was also a pupil of Professor William Procte
who aided greatly in raising the standard of phar
macy. On the death of Mr. Procter, in 1874, Mr
Remington succeeded him as professor in the Phila
delphia College of Pharmacy. In the preparation of
the late revised editions of the United States Phar-
macopoeia Professsor Remington has taken an im-
portant part, and is also the author of a " Treatise on
the Practice of Pharmacy," (1885; 3d edition, 1894.)

Remojid, r4'm6N', (FRANC.OIS,) a French Jesuit and
poet, born at Dijon in 1558; died at Mantua in 1631.

Remond, de, deh ra'mdN', written also Rccmond,
(FLORIMOND,) a French historian, born at Agen about
1540. He wrote a " History of the Rise and Progress
of Heresy in this Century," (1605.) Died in 1602.

Remond de Sainte-Albine, ri'miN' deh slut
ll'ben', (PiERRE,) a French critic, born in Paris in 1699
He wrote a work entitled "Le Comedien," (1747.)
Died in 1778.

Remondini, ra-mon-dee'nee, (BALDASSARE MARIA,)
an Italian antiquary, born at Bassano in 1698, was
Bishop of Zante. He wrote a work "On the Antiqui-
ties of Zante," (1756.) Died in 1777.

Remorino, ri-mo-ree'no, (GIOVANNI PIETRO, )
sometimes improperly written Ramoriuo, (JEROME,)
an Italian general, born at Genoa about 1790. He com-
manded a division of the Sardinian army at Novara in

1849. He was tried for disloyalty by a military court,
and shot, in May, 1849.

Rem'Bcn, (!RA,) M.D., Ph.D., an American chemist,
born in New York city, February 10, 1846. He was
educated in New York, Munich, Gottingen, and Tu-
bingen, graduating as M.D. in the New York College of
Physicians and Surgeons, and as Ph.D. at Gottingen in
1870, was professor of chemistry at Williams College,
1872-76, aad in the latter year was called to the chair
of chemistry in Johns Hopkins University. Among his
works is " Principles of Theoretical Chemistry," (1876;
3d edition, 1883.)

Re'mus, one of the founders of Rome, was a brother
of ROMULUS, which see.

Remusat, ra'mii'zS', (JEAN PIERRE ABEL,) an emi-
nent French Orientalist, born in Paris in September,
1788. He studied medicine in compliance with the
wish of his father, and learned the Chinese language
without a teacher. In 1811 he published an "Essay on
the Chinese Language and Literature." He obtained an
exemption from the conscription of 1813 by the influence
of his friend Silvestre de Sacy, and became professor of
Chinese in the College of France in 1814. In 1822 he
founded the Asiatic Society of Paris. Among his chief
works are " Researches into the Tartar Languages,"
1 1 820,) and " Elements of the Chinese Grammar," ( 1 822. )
" This vast and important work," says Henri Thiers, " is



the true monument of the reputation acquired by Abel
Re'musat." He wrote articles for the " Biographic
Universelle." Died in 1832.

See SILVESTRE DE SACY, " Eloge d'Abel Re'musat ;" AMP&KE,
" Notice sur Abel Re'musat" in the " Revue des Deux Mondes,"
November i, 1832, and November 15, 1833; " Nouvelle Biographi?
GdneVale."

Remusat, de, deh rl'mu'zS', (AUGUSTS LAURENT,)
COUNT, a French politician and advocate, born in
Provence in 1762. He became first chamberlain of
Napoleon in 1804. Died in 1823.

Remusat, de, (CHARLES,) COUNT, a French philoso-
pher and minister of state, born in Paris in 1797, was a
son of the preceding. He was elected in 1830 to the
Chamber of Deputies, in which he acted with the con-
servatives. He was minister of the interior from March
to October, 1840. In 1842 he published "Essays on
Philosophy," which were received with favour. He was
admitted into the French Academy in 1846, in place of
Royer-Collard. In the Constituent and Legislative As-
semblies of 1848 and 1849 he voted with the friends of
order, (droite modMe.) He was a frequent contributor
to the " Revue des Deux Mondes." Among his works are
a " Treatise on German Philosophy," (1845,) " Abelard,"
(2 vols., 1845,) " Bacon, sa Vie, son Temps," etc., (1858,)
"Philosophic Religieuse," (1864,) and "L'Histoire de
la Philosophic anglaise de Bacon ,'t Locke," (1875.) He
died June 6, 1875.

Remusat, de, (CLAIRE ELISABETH JEANNE,) COUNT-
ESS, the mother of the preceding, was born in Paris in
1780. She was a companion (dame du palais) of the
empress Josephine, and wrote an " Essay on the Edu-
cation of Women," (1824.) Died in 1821.

Remy, reh-me', (JULES,) a French traveller and
naturalist, born near Chalons-sur-Marne in 1826. He
spent several years in the exploration of Brazil, Peru,
Chili, the Sandwich Isles, California, Utah, etc. He
published, besides other works, a " Journey to the Coun-
try of the Mormons," (2 vols., 1860,) and a " History of
the Sandwich Isles," (1862.) Died December 5, 1893.

Renan, reh-n&N', (ERNEST,) an eminent" French
writer, Orientalist, and critic, born at Treguier (C6tes
du Nord) in 1823. He began to study for the priesthood,
but renounced that profession because he doubted the
truth of the orthodox creed. He displayed much learn-
ing in his "General History of the Semitic Languages,"
(1855,) was admitted into the Academy of Inscriptions
in 1856, and was sent to Syria in 1860 to search for relics
of ancient learning and civilization. Soon after his return
he was appointed professor of Hebrew in the College of
France, but he was suspended in 1862, in deference to the
will of those who considered him unsound in faith. He
admitted the excellence of the Christian religion, but dis-
credited its supernatural origin and rejected the miracles.
Among his works is a "Life of Jesus," (1863,) the suc-
cess of which is attributed partly to the perfection of his
style. It has been denounced as impious by several
French prelates. This was followed by a number of
works under the general title of " History of the Origin
of Christianity," embracing "The Apostles," (1866,)
" Saint Paul and his Mission," ( 1867,) " Antichrist,"
(1873,) and "The Christian Church," (1879.) His
latest literary work of importance was " History of
the People of Israel," (5 vols., 1887-94.) He wrote
many works of a more general character, such as
" History of the Semitic Languages," (1854,) "The
Future of Science," (1890,) " Brother and Sister,"
(1895,) etc. Died October 2, 1892.

See ScHERER, "Melanges;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale:'



1863, ai

'* North British Review" for February, 1864.

Renard, reh-nSR', (JEAN AUGUSTIN,) a French archi-
tect, born in Paris in 1744. He studied in Rome, and
was patronized by the king. Among his works was the
glass roof (comble) of the Salon d'Exposition of the
Louvre. Died in 1807.

Reuard, (JEAN BAPTISTE BRUNO,) a Belgian military
writer, born at Tournai in 1804. Among his works is a
" Political and Military History of Belgium," (2 vols.,
1847-51.) He died at Brussels, July 3, 1879.



* as k; c as /, g hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^'See Explanations, p.



RENAX.U



2046



RENEE



Renard, (SIMON,) a diplomatist, born at Vesoul, in
France, entered the service of Philip II. of Spain, who
employed him as an ambassador. He was an enemy of
Cardinal Granvelle. Died at Madrid in 1575.

Renata. See RENEE.

Renatua. See RENE.

Renau d'l5li$agaray, reh-no' dale'sfgfrj', (BER-
NARD,) a French naval officer and military engineer,
born in Be'arn in 1652. He made improvements in the
construction of vessels, and invented bomb-vessels or
mortar-boats, (galiotcs,) with which Algiers was bom-
barded in 1680. He directed the siege of Gibraltar in
1704, in the service of Philip V. of Spain. He published
a "The'orie de la Manoeuvre des Vaisseaux," (1689.)
Died in 1719.

See VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louis XIV ;" FONTENKLLH, " filoges ;"
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Renaud. See REGNAUD.

Renaudie, de la, deh It reh-no'de', (GoDEFROi,) a
French Huguenot, was the leader of a conspiracy against
the family of Guise, called " the conspiracy of Amboise."
The design having been betrayed, he was killed in a
fight with the partisans of the Guises, in 1560.

See DAVILA, "The Civil Wars of France;" "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Renaudiere, La. See LA RENAUDIERE.

Renaudin, reh-no'daN', QEAN FRANCOIS,) a French
admiral, born in Saintonge in 1757. He distinguished
himself as captain of Le Vengeur in a battle against the
English on the 1st of June, 1794. His ship was sunk
in this action. Died in 1809.

See VAN TENAC, " Histoire de la Marine ;" "Nouvelle Biogra-
phic G^n^rale."

Renaudin, (LEOPOLD,) a French Jacobin, born in
Lorraine in 1749, was a partisan of Robespierre. He
was guillotined with Fouquier-Tinville in 1795.

Renaudot, reh-no'do', (CLAUDE,) a French historian,
born at Vesoul about 1730, wrote "The Revolutions
of Empires," (2 vols., 1769,) and other works. Died
about 1780.

See QUBRARD, " La France LitteVaire."

Renaudot, (EusEBE,) ABBB, a French Orientalist
and writer on the history of the Eastern Church, a
grandson of Theophraste, noticed below, was born in
Paris in 1646. He was versed in the Syriac and Arabic
languages. In 1689 he was chosen a member of the
French Academy. Among his principal works are a
"History of the Patriarchs of Alexandria," (1713,)
which is said to be the most complete work on the
ecclesiastic history of Christian Egypt, and a " Col-
lection of Oriental Liturgies," (2 vols., 1716.) Died
in 1720.

See NICRRON," Me'moires :" MoRRRl." Dictionnaire Historique ;"
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Renaudot, (THBOPHRASTE,) a French physician and
journalist, born at Loudun in 1584, was the grandfather
of the preceding. He founded in 1631 the "Gazette de
France," the first of French newspapers, which he
continued to publish in Paris until his death, in 1653.
After his death it was published by his sons, Eusebe
and Isaac.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Renauldin, reh-n5'diN', (LEOPOLD JOSEPH,) a French
physician, born at Nancy in 1775. He served as phy-
sician in the army during the empire, and was one of
the consulting physicians of King Louis Philippe. He
wrote articles for the " Biographic Universelle," and a
"Sketch of the History of Medicine," (1812.) Died
in 1859.

See SACHAILK, " Les Mi*decins de Paris."

Renazzi, ra-nat'see, (FlLlPPo MARIA,) an Italian
jurist, born at Rome in 1742. He was professor of
criminal law at Rome about thirty-four years. He pub-
lished "Elements of Criminal Law," (3 vols., 1773-81,)
which was highly esteemed and often reprinted. Died
in 1808.

See MONTANARI. "Elogio dell'Avvocato F. M. Renazri," 1836;
CANCHLLIERI, "Elogio di F. M. Renazzi." 1819.

Ren'del, (JAMES MEADOWS,) an English civil engi-
neer, born near Dartmoor, in Devonshire, in 1799. He



was distinguished as a constructor of bridges, docks,
harbours, and hydraulic works. He settled in London
in 1838. Among his works are the harbours of Holy-
head and Portland, and the docks at Birkenhead. Ic
1855 he was employed by the senate of Hamburg to
protect the port of that city from the accumulation of
sand. Died in November, 1856.

Rendu, roN'dii', (AMBROISE MARIE MODESTE,) a
Frenchman, noted as the organizer of primary instruc-
tion in France, was born in 1778. He was appointed a
member of the council of the university in 1809, and
was for many years superintendent of primary schools.
He wrote several works on education, morals, etc. Died
in 1860.

See EUGENE RHNDU. "Ambroise Rendu et rUnivereite" d
France," 1861 ; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'n^rale."

Rendu, (EUGENE,) a publicist, a son of the preceding,
was born in Paris in 1824. He has written on educa-
tion, and on the political relations of France, Italy, and
Germany.

Rendu, (JEANNE MARIE,) called SISTER ROSALIE, a
French nun and philanthropist, born at Comfort in 1787.
She lived in Paris, and was eminent for her charitable
deeds. Several sovereigns selected her as the dispenser
of their alms. Died in 1856.

See EUGKNB RENDU, " Notice sur la So3ur Rosalie Renda,"
1856; VICOMTH DE MELUN, "Vie de la Sccur Rosalie." 1857:
BESSIE R. PARKES, "Twelve Biographical Sketches;" "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rendn, (Louis,) a French prelate and writer, born
at Meyrin in 1789, was a first-cousin of the preceding.
He became Bishop of Annecy in 1843. He wrote sev-
eral scientific works, and a "Treatise on the Influence
of Laws on Morals, and of Morals on Laws," (1833.)
Died in 1859.

Rendu, (VICTOR,) a French writer on rural economy,
born in Paris, May 3, 1809, was a son of Ambroise Marie,
noticed above. He wrote "Nouveau Spectacle de la
Nature," (10 vols., 1839.) Died in June, 1877.

Rene, reh-na', [Lat. RENA'TUS,] OF ANJOU, Duke of
Anjou and Lorraine, King of Naples, Jerusalem, and
Sicily, and Count of Provence, etc., called "the good
King Rene," was born in 1409. He was a son of Louis
II., Duke of Anjou and Count of Provence. He suc-
ceeded his brother, Louis III., in 1434, and by the will
of Queen Joanna, who died in 1435, he became heir to
the throne of Naples. This throne, however, was claimed
by Alfonso of Aragon, who drove Rene out of Naples in
1442 and remained master of that kingdom. Rene was
an ally of Charles VII. of France in his war against the
English. He found recreation in art and literature ; he
was a poet, and is said, on doubtful authority, to have
been a painter and sculptor. His daughter Margaret
was the wife of Henry VI. of England. He died in
1480. Four quarto volumes of his works have been
published.

See M. oa VILLENEUVB BARGEMONT, " Histoire de Rene" d'An-
jou,"3vols., 1825; CoKDELLiBR-DELANOUE,"Rene d'Anjou," 1851;
LscoY DB LA MARCHE, " Le Roi Rene 1 ," 1875.

Reneaulme, reh-nom', ( MICHEL Louis,) a French
botanist, born at Blois about 1675. He became a mem-
ber of the Academy of Sciences, and was charged by
his colleagues to revise and publish the manuscripts of
Tournefort, but appears not to have performed that task.
Died in 1739.

Reneaulme, de, deh reh-nom', (PAUL,) a French
botanist and physician, born at Blois about 1560. He
published " Specimen of the History of Plants," (" Speci-
men Historiae Plantarum," 1611.) Died in 1624.

Renee, [It. RENATA, ra-na'ta,] or Renee de France,
reh-na' deh fR&Nss, a daughter of Louis XII., was born
in 1510, and was married in 1527 to the Duke of Ferrara.
She was eminent for talents and learning, and was a
liberal patron of literary men. She was converted to
Protestantism by Calvin about 1535. After the death
of her husband (1559) she resided in France, at Mon-
targis, where she displayed firmness and courage in
protecting the persecuted Huguenots. Died in 1575
or 1576.

See CATTEAU-CALLEVILLE, "Vic de Rene'e de France," 1781;
MUNCH, " Renee von Est," 1831 ; " Memorials of Rene'e of France,
Duchess of Ferrara," London, 1859.



i e. i, 6, S. v. Innr a. e. 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 5, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; m<5dn



RENEE



2047



RENOUVIER



Renee, reh-ni', (AMDEE,) a French litttratair, born
at Caen in 1808. He became librarian of the Sorbonne
In 1849, and chief editor of the " Constitutionnel" in
1857. He wrote articles for the " Nouvelle Biographic
Generale," and published several works, one of which
is entitled "The Nieces of Mazarin," (2 vols., 1856.)
Died in November, 1859.

Reni, (GuiDO.) See GUIDO.

Renier, re>-ne-l', (CHARLES ALPHONSE L6oN,) a
French antiquaryTtorn at Charleville (Ardennes) in
1809. He became a member of the Academy of In-
icriptions in 1856. His researches in Latin inscriptions
were so successful that a chair of Roman antiquities and
epigraphy was founded for him at Paris in 1861. In
1855 he was elected president of the Imperial Society
of Antiquaries. Died in 1885.

Renier, ri-ne-aiR', (STEFANO ANDREA,) an Italian
naturalist, born at Chioggia, near Venice, in 1759- He
obtained the chair of natural history at Padua in 1806.
He wrote "Tables of Zoology," a "Catalogue of Shell-
Fish," (1802,) and " Elements of Mineralogy," (1825-28.)
Died in 1830.

See CALCAGNO, "Elogio storico di S. A. Renier," 1830.

Renieri, ra-ne-a'ree, (VlNCENZO,) an Italian astron-
omer, was bcrn at Genoa. He was a pupil of Galileo,
who, when his sight failed in 1637, committed to his care
some observations on the satellites of Jupiter. Renieri
published these, under the title of "Tabulae Mediceae
universales," (2 vols., 1639-47.) Died at Pisa in 1648.

Renkin, (SwALM.) See RANNEQUIN.

Rennefort, de, deh rSn'foR', (URBAIN SOUCHU,) a
French traveller, born about 1630. He published a
"Narrative of a Voyage to Madagascar," (1668,) and a
"History of the East Indies," (1688.)

Renn'el. See RENNELL.

Ren'nell or Ren'nel, (JAMES,) a British engineer
and eminent geographer, was born near Chudleigh, in
Devonshire, in 1742. As an engineer of the East India
Company, he served in the campaigns of Lord Clive,
obtained the rank of major, and became surveyor-gene-
ral of Bengal. Having returned to England about 1782,
He published an excellent map of Hindostan, accom-
panied by a Memoir, (1783.) He was elected about
1783 a Fellow of the Royal Society. His reputation
was widely extended by "The Geographical System of
Herodotus Examined and Explained," (1800.) a work of
great merit Among his other works are " Illustrations,
chiefly Geographical, of the History of the Expedition
of the Younger Cyrus from Sardis to Babylon, and the
Retreat of the Ten Thousand," (1816,) and a "Treatise
on the Comparative Geography of Western Asia," with
an Atlas, (1831.) Died in London in 1830.

See WALCKENAER, "Notice sur la Vie et les Ouvrages de
M. Rennell," 1842; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" "Monthly
Review" for December, iSoo.

Rennell, (THOMAS,) an English portrait-painter, bom
in Devonshire in 1718; died in 1788.

Rennell, (THOMAS,) an eloquent English preacher,
born in 1753. He became Dean of Winchester in 1805.
It is said that William Pitt called him the "Demos-
thenes of the pulpit." A volume of his sermons was
published. Died in 1840.

Rennell or Rennel, (THOMAS,) a learned English
theologian, born at Winchester in 1787. He became
vicar of Kensington in 1816, and prebendary of SaliS'
bury in 1823. He wrote several works on theology,
Died in 1824.

Renneville, de, deh rSn'vel', (RENS AUGUSTE CON-
STANTIN,) a French littfratfur, born at Caen about 1650.
He was confined in the Bastille from 1702 to 1713, on a
charge that he was a spy. He wrote a " History of the
Bastille," (1715,) and several poems. Died in 1723.

Rennie, ren'ne, (GEORGE,) a civil and mechanica
engineer, born in Surrey in 1791, was a son of John
noticed below. He formed a partnership with his
brother John. They built docks at Deptford, Chatham
and Plymouth, the East and West India Docks at
London, the harbour of Liverpool, and other harbours
They constructed steam-engines for many vessels-of
war and for the steamers of the Peninsular and Orienta
Navigation Company. Among their works are several



ron ships, the dock-gates of Sebastopol, and a number
of railroads. George Rennie wrote treatises " On the

? riction of Solids," and "On Hydraulics." Died in 1866.

Rennie, (JoHN,) a distinguished British civil engineer,

architect, and mechanician, born at Phantassie, in Had-

dingtonshire, Scotland, in June, 1761. He removed to

Condon about 1782, and was first employed ir. the fabri-
cation of steam-engines and other machinery. About
1800 he erected a fine bridge at Kelso. He was after-
wards employed as engineer of many public works,
among which are the Kennet and Avon Canal, the South-
wark Bridge over the Thames, the London Docks, the
pier at Holyhead, and the Waterloo Bridge, which is
considered his best work of that class. It was finished
about 1817. Died in 1821.

See SMILES, " Lives of the Engineers ;" CHAMBERS, " Biographi-
cal Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Rennie, (Sir JOHN,) F.R.S., a younger son of the
preceding, was born about 1796. He was architect of
:he London Bridge, which was finished in 1831. He
ceased to be a partner of his brother in 1845, after
which he devoted his time to architecture. Died 1874.

Ren'nI-ger, written also Rhanger, (MICHAEL,) an
English clergyman and Latin poet, born in Hampshire
in 1529. He was one of the chaplains of Queen Eliza-
beth, and Archdeacon of Winchester. Died in 1609.

Re'no, (JESSE L.,) an American general, born in Vir-
ginia in 1825, graduated at West Point in 1846. He
served as an officer in the Mexican war, (1846-47,) and
became a captain in 1860. He commanded a brigade
of the Union army at Roanoke Island and at Newbern,
March, 1862. He served with the rank of major-gene-
ral at the second battle of Bull Run, August 29 and 30
of the same year. He rendered important services at
South Mountain, where he was killed, September 14,
1862.

Renou, reh-noo', (ANTOINE,) a French painter and
versifier, born in Paris in 1731. He translated Dufres-
noy's Latin poem on Painting, (1789,) and Tasso's "Je-
rusalem Delivered." Died in 1806.

Renouard, reh-noo'JV, (ANTOINE AUGUSTIN,) a
French bibliographer, born in Paris in 1765, was a book-
seller. He published, besides other works, " Annals of
the Printing-Press of Aldus, or a History of the Three
Manutii and their Editions," (1803,) and a " History of
the Family of Estienne (Stephanus) and of their Edi-
tions," (1838.) Died in 1853.

See QUERARD, "La France Litte'raire."

Renouard, (AUGUSTIN CHARLES,) an advocate, a
son of the preceding, was born in 1794. He became a
peer of France in 1846. He published a " Treatise on
the Rights of Authors in Literature," etc., (2 vols., 1838,)
and other works. Died August 17, 1878.

Renouard, (NICOLAS,) a French translator, born in
Berry, lived about 1615-40. He produced a version
of Ovid's " Metamorphoses," (1615,) which was very
popular.

Renouf, (Sir PETER LE PAGE,) a British scholar,
born on the isle of Guernsey in 1824. He studied at
Pembroke College, Oxford, became a Roman Catholic
in 1842, and in 1855 was appointed a professor of
ancient history and Eastern languages in the Catholic
University, Dublin. He was keeper of Egyptian and
Assyrian antiquities at the British Museum 1885-91.
Among his works are " Notes on Egyptian Philology,"
(1866,) " Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Re-
ligion," ( 1880,) etc. He was knighted in 1896.

Renouvier, reh-noo've-4', (CHARLES BERNARD,) a
French writer on 'politics "and philosophy, born in 1815,
joined the radical party. Among his works are a
"Manual of Ancient Philosophy," (2 vols., 1844,) and
' Essays of General Criticism," (" Essais de Critique
generale," 1854.)

Renouvier, (JULES,) a French archaeologist, born at
Montpellier in 1804. He was a republican member of
the Constituent Assembly of 1848, and an opponent of
Louis Napoleon in 1850. He wrote, besides other works,
" Notes on the Gothic Monuments of Pisa, Florence,
Rome, and Naples," (1841,) and a valuable treatise on
I engraving, entitled " Des Types et des Manieres de



c as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. (B^=See Explanations, p. 23.


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