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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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"Parallel Lives," (13 vols., 1798-1803.) He wrote a
poem on the Sphere. Died in 1803.

general, born at Castres in 1771. He won the rank of
general of division at Borodino in 1812. Died in 1843.

Ricard, (JEAN MARIE,) an eminent French jurist,
born at Beauvais in 1622 ; died in Paris in 1678.

Ricardo, re-kar'do, (DAVID,) an eminent political
economist, born in London in April, 1772, was a son of
a Jewish broker. He became a member of the Stock
Exchange in London, and a partner of his father. In
consequence of his marriage with a Christian, in 1793,
this partnership was dissolved. He published in 1809 a
pamphlet called." The High Price of Bullion a Proof of
the Depreciation of Bank-Notes." His reputation is
founded on " The Principles of Political Economy and
Taxation," (1817,) which is highly esteemed. He v;as
elected to Parliament in 1819, and spoke frequently on
financial subjects. Died in September, 1823.

See 1. R. McCULLOCH, " Life of Ricardo," prefixed to Ricardo's
Works, 1846; ALUBONE, "Dictionary of Authors; "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" " Edinburgh Review" for June, 1818.

Ricardo, (JOHN LEWIS,) an English writer on inter-
national law, born in 1812. He was elected a member
of Parliament in 1841, and greatly promoted the suc-
cessful operation of the electric telegraph. Among his
works is a " History and Anatomy of the Navigation
Laws." Died in London in 1862.

Ricardos, re-kaR'dds, (Don ANTONIO,) a Spanish
general, born at Seville in 1727. He commanded the
army which opposed with some success the French
invaders in 1793, and he was promoted to be captain-
general in 1794. Died in 1794.

See I. M. HERVAS DB ALMKNARIA, "Elogio historico del Gene-
ral A. Ricardos." 1798.

Ricardus Corinensis. See RICHARD OP CIREN-

Ricasoli, re-ka'so-lee, (Baron BETTINO,) an eminent
Italian statesman, born of an ancient noble family in
Tuscany about 1809. He was a prominent advocate of
the independence and unity of Italy in 1848, and acted
as dictator of Tuscany in 1859. In June, 1861, he suc-
ceeded Cavour as prime minister of Italy. The policy
of his administration was similar to that of Cavour. He
resigned about the 1st of March, 1862, and was succeeded
by Ratazzi. In June, 1866, he again assumed the direc-
tion of the government as president of the council and
minister of the interior. He retired from office in April,
1867. Died October 23, 1880.

See F. DALL'ONGARO, " Bettiuo Ricasoli :" " Nouvelle Biogra-
phic Ge'ne'rale."

Ricaut See RYCAUT.

Riccaltpun or Riccalton, rik'al-ton,? (ROBERT,) a
Scottish divine, born near Jedburgh in 1691. He
preached for many years at Hobkirk, and wrote several
able and suggestive religious works, among which is the
"Sober Inquiry," etc. Died in 1769.

Riccati, di, de rek-kl'tee, (JACOPO FRANCESCO.)
COUNT, an Italian mathematician, born at Venice in
1676, was the father of Vincenzo, noticed below. Died

in 1 754-

His son GIORDANO, born in 1709, was a mathema-
tician and writer. Died in 1790.

Riccati, di, (ViNCENZO,) an Italian mathematician,
born at Castel-Franco in 1707; died in 1775.

Ricchieri, (Looovico.) See RHODICINUS.

Ricci, ret'chee, (ANTONIO,) called BARBALUNGA,
(baR-ba-loon'ga,) an Italian painter, born at Messina in
1600; died in 1649. .-,

Ricci, (BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italian Latinist, born at
Lugo in 1490. He wrote, besides other works, a Dic-
tionary of the Latin language, entitled "Apparatus
Latins Locutionis," (1533.) Died in 1569.

See G. DELLA CASA, " Discorso sulla Vila di B. Ricci," 1834.

Ricci, (CAMILLO,) an Italian painter, born at Ferrara
in 1580; died at Ferrara in 1618.

Ricci (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian painter,
born at Novara in 1545. He was employed by Pope
Sixtus V. in the Vatican and Quirinal. Died at Rome
in 1620.

Ricci, (LORENZO,) an Italian Jesuit, born at Florence
in 1703, was elected general of the order of Jesuits in
1758. He opposed the proposition to reform that order,
which was suppressed by Pope Clement XIV. in 1773.
Died in prison at Rome in 1775.

See SAINTE-FOI, "Vie du Pire Ricci ;" CARACCIOLI, " Vie da
Fere Ricci," 1776.

Ricci, (MARCO,) a painter, born at Belluno in 1676.
He worked some years as assistant of his uncle Se
bastian in England. According to the "Biographic
Universelle," he was one of the most skilful landscape-
painters of the Venetian school. Died at Venice about

Ricci, (MATTEO,) an Italian Jesuit, born at Macerata
in 1552. He was one of the first missionaries who went
to China, (1583.) In 1600 he was admitted into Peking,
where he gained the favour of the emperor. He wrote
interesting Memoirs and Letters on China. Abel Re"-
musat calls him the founder of the mission of China.
Died in Peking in 1610.

See D'OntiANS, " Vie de M. Ricci." 1693 ; " Nouvelle Biographie

Ricci, (MICHELANGELO,) an Italian cardinal and
mathematician, born at Rome in 1619; died in 1682.

Ricci or Ricchl. rek'kee, (PlETRO, ) an Italian
painter, born at Lucca in 1606, worked at Milan and
Venice. Died in 1675.

Ricci, (SciPioNE,) an Italian reformer, born at Flor-
ence in 1741. He became Bishop of Pistoia and Prato
in 1780, and co-operated with the grand duke Leopold
in his projects of religious reform. He was opposed to
monastic orders, to indulgences, and other practices of
the Church of Rome. In consequence of the riotous
demonstrations of the populace against him, he resigned
in 1790. Died in 1810.

See Da POTTER, "Vie el Me'moires de Scipion Ricci," 4 vols.,
1825. (translated into English by THOMAS ROSCOE, 1829 ;) " Nouvelle
Biographie G<Sne>ale."

Ricci or Rizzi, rjt'see, (SEBASTUNO,) an Italian
painter, born at Cividal di Belluno (Venetia) in 1660.
He worked at Rome, Vienna, Florence, and London, to
which he was invited by Queen Anne. Having passed
ten years in England, he returned to Venice, and prac-
tised his art with success. He was a skilful imitator of
the styles of many masters. Among his remarkable
works are "The Abduction of the Sabines," at Rome,
and "The Assumption of the Virgin." Died at Venice
in 1734.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy;" TICOZZI, "Dizio-

Ricciardl, ret-chau'dee, (FRANCESCO,) Count de
Camaldoli, an Italian statesman, born at Foggia in 1758.
He was minister of justice under Murat from 1809 to
1815. He made some reforms in the penal code. Died
in 1842.

See CEVA-GRIMALDI, " Elogio storico del Conte F. Ricciardi."

Ricciardl, (IRENE,) an Italian poetess, a sister of
Joseph Napoleon Ricciardi. She was married in 1831
to a composer named Capecelatro.

Ricciardi, (JOSEPH NAPOLEON,) an Italian poet
and politician, a son of Francesco, noticed above, was
born in Naples in 1808. A liberal in politics, he lived
in exile from 1848 to 1860, when he entered the Italian
Parliament. He wrote a History of the Italian Revo-
lution," (1850,) and several other histories and political
poems. Died June 3, 1885.

B, e. i. 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, sanLe, less prolonged; 5, 1, \, 5, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, ebsairt; fir, fill, fit; met; not; good; mdonj




Riccio, (DAVID.) See RIZZIO.

Riccio, ret'cho, (DOMENico,) an eminent painter of
the Venetian school, surnamed BRUSASORCI, ("Rat-
Burner,'') was born at Verona in 1494. His father in-
vented a rat-trap and burned rats : hence the surname.
He studied the works of Titian, and perhaps was his
pupil. ' He painted in the Palazzo Ridolfi, in Venice, a
fresco called the "Cavalcade of Clement VIL and
Charles V.," (in Bologna.) Died in 1567.

Riccio, (FELICE,) a son of the preceding, born at
Verona in 1540, was a skilful painter, especially of
portraits. Died in 1605.

Riccioli, ret'cho-lee, ( GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an
Italian astronomer and Jesuit, born at Ferrara in 1598.
He was professor of philosophy, theology, etc. at
Bologna and Parma. His superiors authorized him to
devote himself to astronomy, that he might confute the
Copernican system. This he attempted to do in his
"Almagestum Novum," (2 vols., 1651.) According to
his theory, the sun, moon, Jupiter, and Saturn revolve
around the earth, while Mercury, Venus, and Mars are
satellites of the sun. He also published an able treatise
on mathematical geography and hydrography, (1661.)
and " Improved Astronomy," ("Astronomia Reformata,"
1665.) Died in 1671.

See FABRONI, "Viue Italorum doctrina excellemium :" TIRA-
eosrm, " Storia della Lctteratura Italiana;" " Nouvelle Biographic

Riccoboni, rek-ko-bo'nee, (ANTOINE FRANC.OIS,) a
son of Luigi, noticed below, was born at Mantua in
4707, and lived in Paris. He wrote an ingenious work
called "Theatrical Art," (" L'Art du Theatre," 1750.)
Died in 1772.

born in Paris in 1713, was a successful novelist Among
her novels are "The Letters of Julia Catesby," (1758,)
"Ernestine," and "Sophie de Valliere," (1771.) M.
Weiss calls her one of the most sfirituelle women of her
time. Died in 1792.

Riccoboni, (ANTONIO,) an Italian philologist, born
at Rovigo in 1541. lie translated into Latin Aristotle's
" Rhetoric," " Ethics," and " Poetica," ( I 579>) a "d wrote
several works. Died in 1599.

Riccoboni, ( LUIGI, ) an Italian comic writer and
actor, born at Modena about 1675. Among hi? works is
a poem " On Representative Art," (" Della Arte repre-
Sentativa," 1728.) Died in Paris in 1753.

Rice, (JAMES,) an English novelist, born at North-
ampton in 1844. He was educated at Queen's College,
Cambridge, and was called to the bar, but abandoned law
for literature. He was editor and proprietor of " Once a
Week" from 1868 to 1872. In 1871 he formed a literary
partnership with Walter Besant, which resulted in the
joint authorship of a number of popular novels, among
which may be mentioned " Ready Money Mortiboy,'
"The Golden Butterfly," "The Chaplain of the Fleet,"
and "The Monks of Thelema." Died April 26, 1882.

Rice, (WILLIAM NORTH,) an American educator,
born at Marblehead, Massachusetts, in 1845. HL
graduated at Wesleyan University in 1865, and became
professor of geology there in 1867. He was also
assistant on the United States Fish Commission anc
the Geological Survey. He wrote " Twenty-five Year:
of Scientific Progress," " Geology of Bermuda," etc
Rich, (CLAUDIUS JAMES,) an Orientalist and traveller
born at Dijon, in France, in 1787, was educated at Bris-
tol. He learned Arabic, Syriac, Persian, etc. in his early
youth, became an excellent linguist, and entered the
service of the East India Company in 1803. In 1808 he
married a daughter of Sir James Mackintosh,'at Bombay
and was appointed the East India Company's residenl
at Bagdad. He collected in that vicinity many Orienta
manuscripts, medals, and coins, and wrote a "Memoir
on the Ruins of Babylon," which he had visited in 181 1
A second edition of it was issued in 1839. He visitec
the ruins of Nineveh and Persepolis, and made an ex
cursion into Koordistan. He died of cholera, at Shiraz
in October, 1821, leaving a "Narrative of a Residence in
Koordistan," (1836.)

See a brief notice of his life, prefixed to the work last named

Rich, (RICHARD,) BARON, an English judge, born in
Condon about 1498. He became solicitor-general in
1533, and lord chancellor in 1547. He united with Pro-
ector Somerset in measures for the conviction and exe-
cution of Lord Seymour. In 1551 he resigned his office
on pretext of ill health. Died in 1568. According to
^ord Campbell, he was " a very consistent character
n all that was base and profligate." One of his sons
Became Earl of Warwick.

Rich'ard [Lat. RICHAR'DUS ; It. RICARDO, re-kaR'do]
[., King of England, surnamed CCEUR DE LION, (kUR
deh le'ON',) was the third or second son of Henry II.
and his queen Eleanor. He was born at Oxford in
1157, and was invested in the duchy of Guienne. He
united with his brother Henry in a revolt against his
"ather in 1173. On the death of Prince Henry, in 1183,
Richard became the heir-apparent to the throne. He
brmed in :i88 a secret alliance with Philip, King of
France, the enemy of Henry II., and openly revolted
against the latter in 1189: The allies waged war with
success against Henry in France, and induced him to
accept their terms of peace. At this juncture Henry
died, in July, 1189. Richard showed compunction for
his undutiful conduct, and chose for his ministers the
faithful servants of his father. Having agreed a short
time before his accession to join the King of France in
a crusade, he appointed his mother regent of the king-
dom. "Impelled more by the love of military glory
than by superstition," says Hume, " he acted from the
beginning of his reign as if the sole purpose of his
government had been the relief of the Holy Land and
the recovery of Jerusalem from the Saracens."

The combined army of Richard and Philip, amounting
to 100,000 men, began to march in 1190. They em-
barked on ships at Marseilles and Genoa, and sailed to
Sicily, where they passed the winter, during which serious
dissensions arose between Richard and Philip, who re-
garded each other withjealous rivalry. Richard married
Berengaria, Princess of*Navarre, at Cyprus, in 1191, and
in the summer of that year arrived at Acre, which had
been besieged by the crusaders for two years and was
still defended by Saladin. The French and English
kings were incited by emulation to extraordinary acts
of valour at this siege. " Richard in particular, says
Hume, "animated with a more precipitate courage than
Philip, . . . acquired a great and splendid reputation."
Acre surrendered in July, 1191, soon after which Philip
returned to France. In September, Richard defeated
Saladin in a great battle, in which " he performed," says
Hume, "the part both of a consummate general and
gallant soldier."

Having concluded a truce with Saladin for three years,
three months, three weeks, and three days, he sailed
homeward in October, 1192, and was wrecked on the
coast of Istria. Attempting to pass through Germany
in disguise, he was arrested by Leopold of Austria, who
transferred him to the emperor, Henry VI., who wis an
enemy of the captive prince. He was confined in a
dungeon, and subjected to many insults, until February,
1194, when he obtained his liberation by paying a large
ransom. In the mean time his brother John had at-
tempted to usurp the royal power, but was resisted with
success. The rivalry between Richard and Philip after
wards involved them in several wars, the results of which
were insignificant Hostilities were suspended in 1 198
by a truce of five years. At the siege of the castle of
one of his vassals near Limoges, Richard was mortally
wounded by an arrow, in March, 1 199. He left no lawful
issue, and was succeeded by his brother John. " Of an
impetuous and vehement spirit," says Hume, "he was
distinguished by all the good as well as the bad qualities
incident to that character : he was open, frank, generous,
sincere, and brave ; he was revengeful, domineering,
ambitious, haughty, and cruel." Richard I. forms a
prominent and brilliant character in Scott's novel of
" Ivanhoe."

See P J. BRUNS, "De Rebus festis Richardi Angli* Regis,
1780 I WHITE, "Adventures of Richard Cxlur de Lion," 3 vols.,
1791! G. P. R- JAMBS, "Life of Richard I.," 18*3; HUME, "Historj
of England," chap x. ; W E. AYTOON, " Life of Richard L of
England," 1840,

aai; jasj; l/tard; gas/;G,H,K,/tfra/; n, nasal; '^trilled; Sas*; th as in (Ait. (JiySee Explanations, p. 23.)




Richard H, King of England, born at Bordeaux in
1366, was a sou of Edward the Black Prince. He suc-
ceeded his grandfather, Edward III., in June, 1377.
Among the remarkable events which occurred during
his minority was the rebellion of Wat Tyler, (1381,)
which was provoked partly by the tax imposed to sup-
port a war against France. The insurgents, who were
peasants or common people, entered London, massacred
many persons of the higher class, among whom was the
Archbishop of Canterbury, and committed other out-
rages. Richard acted with much presence of mind, and
persuaded the rioters to disperse. A great number of
them were afterwards executed. Edward III. had left
the kingdom involved in wars against the French and
the Scotch. In 1385 Richard invaded Scotland and
reduced to ashes Edinburgh, Perth, Dundee, etc. The
Scots offered no resistance, but at the same time made
a successful raid into England. The power of Richard,
who was indolent and incapable, was nullified for a time
by his uncle the Duke of Gloucester, who put to death
the king's favourites and mirtisters in 1388. The wars
against France and Scotland were conducted with little
vigour, and suspended by frequent truces. In 1396
Richard concluded a long truce with the French court,
and was affianced to Isabella of France, who was seven
years of age. In 1398 he banished the Dukes of Here-
ford and Norfolk, who had met to fight a duel. Here-
ford (who at the death of his father became Henry, Duke
of Lancaster) had gained the favour of the people by his
conduct and abilities. Taking advantage of the absence
of Richard, who was in Ireland, Henry landed in Eng-
land in July, 1399, raised a large army, and made him-
self master of the kingdom without serious opposition.
The troops which Richard brought from Ireland nearly
all deserted. " His personal character had brought him
into contempt," says Hume. He was deposed by Par-
liament, which recognized his rival as King Henry IV.,
and ordered or advised that Richard should be impris-
oned in some secret place. He died mysteriously in the
thirty-fourth year of his age. "* It is more probable,"
says Hume, " that he was starved to death in prison."
He left no posterity. Richard IL gives name to one of
Shakspeare's tragedies.

See J. EVESHAM, "Histqria Richardi II.," 1719: HUME, " His-
tory of England," chap. xvii. : "Life and Reigp of Richard II.."
London, 1681 ; R. HOWARD, " History of the Reigns of Edward III.
and Richard II.," 1690.

Richard TTT, King of England, a younger son of
Richard, Duke of York, and a brother of Edward IV.,
was born in Northamptonshire on the zd of October,
1452, and was styled the Duke of Gloucester. He took
part in the battle of Tewksbury, in 1471, and, according
to a report which obtained currency, was instrumental
in the death of Henry VI. In 1472 he married Lady
Anne Nevil, a daughter of the Earl of Warwick. He
became regent or protector at the accession of his
nephew, Edward V., who was a minor, (April, 1483.)
" His exorbitant ambition," says Hume, " unrestrained
by any principle either of justice or humanity, made him
carry his views to the possession of the crown itself."
By dissimulation and professions of loyalty he obtained
possession of the king's person. He arrested and exe-
cuted the Earl of Rivers, Edward's maternal uncle and
tutor, with other friends of the young king. About the
end of June, 1483, he usurped the royal power openly
and without resistance. Soon after this date Edward
V. and his brother were put to death in the Tower by
the order of Richard. His authority was recognized by
a Parliament which met in 1484. "But the crimes of
Richard were so horrid and so shocking to humanity
that the natural sentiments of men, without any political
or public views, were sufficient to render his government
unstable." (Hume.) Many nobles and malcontents as-
sembled in Brittany and offered their services to Henry,
Earl of Richmond, who was regarded by the Lancas-
trians as the rightful heir to the crown. Henry landed
at Milford Haven in August, 1485, with a small army,
which was increased to 6000 men. The rivals met at
Bosworth on the 2ist of August In number of men
Richard had the advantage ; but, soon after the battle
began. Lord Stanley, whose conduct had been equivocal,

joined Richmond with about 7000 men and decided the
victory. Richard fought with the energy of despair,
and was slain as he was rushing forward to attack Henrv
in person. Richard was of small stature, humpbacked",
and had a disagreeable countenance. Several modern
writers have appeared as his apologists. Richard IIL
furnishes the name to one of Shakspeare's most popular

See SIR GECRGE BUCK, "Life of Richard III.;" JESSE, "Life
of Richard III.," 1860: BEALE, " Richard III. and his Times,"
1844; SIR THOMAS MORE, " History of Edward V and the Duke oi
York," 1641 : HUME, " History of England," chap. jDciii. ; HORACE
WALPOLE, "Historic Doubts on Richard III.," 1768; J. Rsv.
Essais historiques et critiques sur Richard III." 1818.

Richard (re'shla') L, Duke of Normandy, surnamed
SANS PEUR, (" without fear,") was born about 933 ; died
in 996.

Richard U., Duke of Normandy, was the son of the
preceding, whom he succeeded. He died in 1027 or 1026,
and was succeeded by his son, Richard III., who died
in 1028.

Richard, a native of Normandy, was a friend of
Thomas a Becket, whom he succeeded as Archbishop
of Canterbury in 1174. Died in 1184.

See W. F. HOOK, " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,"
vol. ii. chap. viii.

Richard, a learned and liberal prelate, whose family
name was FlTZ-RALPH. He became Archbishop of
Armagh in 1347, and denounced the superstition and
licentious habits of the mendicant friars. For this
offence he was arraigned before Pope Innocent VL,
and condemned. Died at Avignon in 1360.

Richard, re'shaV, (ACHILLE,) a French botanist,
born in Paris in 1794, was a son of Louis Claude Marie,
noticed below. He wrote many monographs, and con-
tributed greatly to popularize the science of botany.
His " Elements of Botany and Vegetable Physiology"
(1819; 7th edition, 1846) is highly commended as a text-
book for students. It has been translated into many
languages. Died in 1852.

See BOUCHARDOT, " filo^es de Royer-Collard et d'A. Richard,"
1853 : " Nouvelle Biographic Ge"ne"rale."

Richard, (CHARLES Louis,) a French theologian,
born in Lorraine in 1711. He published a " Diction-
ary of Ecclesiastical Sciences," (6 vols., :;6o.) Died
in 1794.

Richard, (FLEURY FRANCOIS,) a French historical
painter, born in Lyons in 1777. He received the title
of painter to Charles X. about 1824. Died in 1852.

Richard, (FRANCOIS,) called RICHARD LENOIR, a
French manufacturer, born in Calvados in 1765. He
and his partner Lenoir introduced the manufacture of
fine cotton stuffs into France about 1795. Died in 1839.

See his autobiographic " Me"moires," 1837.

French physician, born in the eighteenth century. He
was the author of " Observations on the Medicine of the
Military Hospitals," (" Observations de Me'decine des
Hopitaux militaires," 1766.) He died in the reign of
Louis XVI.

Richard, (JEAN,) a French moralist and religious
writer, born at Verdun in 1638. His chief work is
" Universal Science of the Pulpit, or Moral Dictionary,"
(" La Science universelle de la Chaire, ou Dictionnaire
morale," etc., 5 vols., 1700-12.) Died in 1719.

Richard, OOSEPH CHARLES,) a French revolutionist,
born at La Fleche in 1752, was a moderate member of
the Convention. He was specially excepted from the
operation of the law which exiled regicides in 1816.
Died in 1834.

Richard, (Louis CLAUDE MARIE,) an eminent French
botanist, born at Versailles in 1754. He passed about
eight years (1781-89) in exploring the botanical and
other productions of Guiana and the Antilles. After
his return he was admitted into the Institute, and was
professor of botany in the Ecole de Medecine, Paris. He
was a good observer, and was versed in various branches
of natural history. He wrote, besides several memoirs
or monographs, an excellent '* Analysis of the Fruit,
considered in general," (1808.) Died in 1821.

See CUVIER, " Elogc de L. C. M. Richard;" KUNTH, "Notice
lur L. C. M. Richard." 1824: " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

a, e, !, 6, u, y, long; i, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; mJt; not; good; m<5on;



Richard, (RENE 1 ,) a French historian, born at Sau-
ruur in 1654, obtained the office of royal censor, (of
books.) Died in 1727.

Richard, (THEODORE,) a French landscape-painter,
Dorn at Mill. in in 1782 ; died at Toulouse in 1859.

Richard de Bury, an English prelate and patron ol
learning, whose family name was RICHARD AUNCERVILIE
or AUNGARVILLE, was born at Bury Saint Edmund's in
1287. He was tutor to Prince Edward, (afterwards Ed-
ward III.) Having been sent on a mission to the pope,
he formed a friendship with Petrarch, was appointed

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 261 of 425)