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Bishop of Durham in 1333, and chancellor of England
in 1334. He collected a great number of books, which
he bequeathed to a company of scholars at Oxford. It
is stated that he owned more books than all the other
English bishops together. He was eminent for learning.
Died in 1345.

See an account of his life in his " Philobiblon," an English ver-
sion of which was published in London, 1832.

Richard de Saint-Victor, re'shaV deh sin vek'-
IOR', a mystical theologian and philosopher, born in
Scotland, was a pupil of Hugh de Saint-Victor. He
became prior of the abbey of Saint-Victor, at Paris, in
1164. He was an eloquent and celebrated writer on
theology, ethics, etc. An edition of his works was pub-
lished by John of Toulouse in 1650. Died in 1173.

See JOANNES DB TOLOSA, "Vita Richardi," prefixed to the edi-
tion of his works, 1650.

Richard of Cirencester, (sis'e-ter,) an English his
torian and monk, called RICAR'DUS CORINEN'SIS, or THE
MONK OF WESTMINSTER. He entered a monastery at
Westminster in 1350. He wrote, besides several works
on Saxon and British history, a celebrated "Description
of Britain," (" De Situ Britannia;,") the manuscript of
which was first found in 1 747 by Charles Julius Bertram,
of Copenhagen. The authenticity of this work is
doubted by many critics.

Richard of Hexham. See ROGER.

Richard Plantagenet See YORK, third DUKE OF.

Rich'ard Plan-tag'if-net, Earl ..of Cornwall, a son
of John, King of England, was born in 1208. "His
ruling passion was to amass money, in which he suc-
ceeded so well as to become the richest subject in Chris-
tendom," (Hume.) According to Michaud, he fought
as a crusader in Palestine about 1240. He was elected
King of the Romans in 1256. " He was tempted," says
Hume, "to expend vast sums of money oa his election."
Though he was crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, his reign
Was only nominal. He died in England in 1272.

See RVMER, " Fcedera ;" GEDAUER, " Leben und Thaten Herrn
Richards," etc., 1744.

Richardot, re'shaR'do', (FRANC.OIS,) Bishop of Arras,
a learned French prelate, born in 1507; died in 11574.

Richards, (T. ADDISON,) a landscape-painter, born
in London, England, December 3, 1820. He removed
to the United States in early life. In 1851 he was elected
a National Academician, and in 1867 he was appointed
professor of art in the University of the City of New
York. He has published (text and illustrations) " The
American Artist," (1838,) "Georgia Illustrated," (1842,)
"Romance of American Landscape," (1854,) "Pictures
and Painters," (1870,) etc. .Among his pictures are
"Chatsworth," " Alastor," "The Indian Paradise,"
"Lake Thun," "Lake Brienz," "Warwick Castle,"
" The River Rhine," " Scenes on the Delaware High-
lands," etc.

Richards, (WILLIAM T.,) an American landscape-
painter, a resident of Philadelphia, where he was born
in 1833. He is one of the most successful cultivators
of the pre-Raphaelite style in landscape-painting. His
works are remarkable for their accuracy of detail and the
perfection of their finish.

Richard-son, (ABBY SAGE,) an American author
and lecturer, born in 1837. She married A. D. Rich-
ardson, journalist, (died 1869.) Among her works are
" Familiar Talks on English Literature," "Old Love-
Letters, " "Abelard and Heloise," etc. She edited
"Songs from the Old Dramatists" and a collection
of her husband's writings. Died in 1900.

Richardson, (Sir BENJAMIN WARD,) an English
physician, born atSomerby, Leicestershire, October 31,
1828. He was educated at the Andersonian University,
Glasgow, and at the University of Saint Andrew's, where
he graduated in 1854. Dr. Richardson was a prolific and
able writer on public health, alcoholism, the action of
various poisons and medicines, education, etc. His
publications include "Diseases of Modern Life,"
(1876,) works on temperance, "National Health,"
(1890,) " Vita Medica,"( 1897,) etc. He was knighted
in 1893. Died in 1896.

Rich'ntd-son, (CHARLES,) an eminent English lexi-
cographer.born in 1775. He published in 1805 "Illus-
trations of English Philology," in which he advocated
the philological opinions of Hofne Tooke. His chief
work is a "Dictionary of the English Language," (t
vols. 410, 1835-37, reissued in 1838, 1839, 1844, 1849, and
1855; with Supplement, 1856 and 1859,) which is very
highly esteemed. It was pronounced by Dean Trencn
the best dictionary in the language. Died in 1865.

See ALLIBONE, " Dictionary of Authors."

Rich'ard-spn, (CHARLES FRANCIS,) an American
author, born at Hallowell, Maine, May 29, 1851, gradu-
ated at Dartmouth College in 1871, was editorially con-
nected with various periodicals, 1872-80, and in iSSa
became professor of English literature in Dartmouth
College. Among his works are " A Primer of American
Literature," (1878,) "The Cross," (a poem, 1878,) "The
Choice of Books," (iSSl,) etc.

Rich'ard-spn, (ISRAEL B.,) an American general,
born at Burlington, Vermont, about 1818, graduated at
West Point in 1841. He served with distinction in the
Mexican war, became a captain in 1851, and resigned
his commission in 1855. He commanded a division in
the Chickahominy campaign, (May-July, 1862.) was ap-
pointed a major-general in July, and rendered important
services at Antietam, September 17, 1862. He received
in this battle a wound of which he died, November, 1862.

See TENNEV, "Military and Naval History of the Rebellion."

Richardson, (JAMES,) an English traveller, born in
Lincolnshire in 1806. He engaged in an expedition to
Lake Tchad, in Africa, and departed from Tripoli in
1850 with Earth. He died at Ungouratona in March,
1851, leaving a "Narrative of a Mission to Central
Africa," (1853.)

Rich'ard-spn, (Sir JOHN,) a British naturalist and
traveller, born at Dumfries, Scotland, in 1787. He
served as surgeon to Captain Franklin's expedition to
the Arctic Ocean in 1819, and to the second expedition
of that navigator in 1825. He published "Zoology of
the Northern Parts of British America," ("Fauna Bo-
reali-Americana," 3 parts, 1829-37,) in which he was
assisted by William Swainson and William Kirbv. In
1848 he conducted an expedition sent to search for Sir
John Franklin. His route was through the lakes of
British America to Slave Lake, and thence down the
Mackenzie River, the mouth of which he reached in
August, 1848. After his return he published a "Journal
of a Boat- Voyage through Rupert's Land to the Arctic
Sea," etc., (1851.) Died in 1865.

See "Life of Sir John Richardson," London, 1868; "Bio-
graphical Sketches," by H. MARTINEAU.

Richardson, (JOHN PETER,) an American states-
man, was born in Sumter district, South Carolina, in
1801. He was a prominent leader of the Union party
n the Nullification contest of 1835, was elected to Con-
gress in 1836, and became Governor of the State in
1841. Died in 1864.

Richardson, (JONATHAN,) an English portrait-
Dainter and writer on art, was born about 1665. Ho
Dainted heads with great success, but failed in attitudes,
Iraperies, and backgrounds. After the death of Knel-
er he was considered the foremost portrait-painter of
England. His durable reputation is founded on ao
"Essay on the Whole Art of Criticism as it relates to
Painting, and an Argument in behalf of the Science of
a Connoisseur," (1719,) which is highly commended.
Died in 1745.

Richardson, (JOSEPH,) an English poet, born m

i; { as s; g hard; g as/; c, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as z; th as in Mif.

Explanations, p.




Northumberland. He studied law, and was called to
the bar in 1784. He was one of the writers of the
satires of the " Rolliad" and the " Probationary Odes."
Died in 1803.

" Richardson, (SAMUEL.) an eminent English novel-
ist, born in Derbyshire in 1689, was a son of a joiner.
At the village school which he attended he began to dis-
play his faculty for invention. He has informed us that
in his boyhood he was a favourite of young women, who
availed themselves of his talents in the composition of
letters to their lovers. About the age of seventeen he
was apprenticed to a printer of London, named Wilde.
He served as foreman in the printing-office about five
years, and then became a master-printer in Fleet Street.
He married Miss Wilde, a daughter of his former
master. In 1740 he published his first novel, "Pa-
mela," which was very popular and opened a new era in
English romantic literature. Fielding's novel "Joseph
Andrews" was an avowed burlesque of " Pamela."
Richardson acquired a European reputation by his
"History of Clarissa Harlowe," (1748,) which is con-
sidered his capital work. " His personages have all
the reality possible," says Diderot; "his incidents are
realized in the manners of all polished nations. What
fertility in the invention of personages 1 what variety
in the delineation of characters!" He afterwards
produced the novel of "Sir Charles Grandison," (1753,)
which was less successful. Richardson was prosperous ir
business. By the favour of Speaker Onslow he obtained
the lucrative privilege of printing the Journals of the
House of Commons. He wrote No. XCVII. of the
" Rambler" of Dr. Johnson, who was his friend and a
warm admirer of his works. Died on the 4th of July,

See FRANCIS JEFFREY, "Swift and Richardson," 1853: DID*
HOT, "filoge de S. Richardson," 1762; MRS. BARBAULD, "Life of
S. Richardson," prefixed to his " Correspondence," 6 vols., 1803.
Richardson, (Sir THOMAS,) an English judge, born
in Norfolk in 1569. He was elected Speaker of the
Commons in 1621, and became chief justice of the court
of common pleas in 1625 or 1626. He decided that
torture was an illegal mode of obtaining evidence when
it was proposed to apply it to Felton the assassin, (1628.]
In 1631 he was appointed chief justice of the king'3
bench. He was a noted jester. Died in 1635.

Richardson, (WILLIAM,) a British writer and critic,
born in Perthshire in 1743. He was professor of hu-
manity at Glasgow from 1773 to l8[ 4. and was a
contributor to the "Mirror." Among his works are
"Anecdotes of the Russian Empire," and "Essays on
the Characters of Shakspeare," (3 vols., 1775,) which
was received with favour. Died in 1814.

Richardson, (WILLIAM ADAMS,) an American
jurist, born atTyngsboro, Massachusetts, in 1821. II
graduated in law at Harvard in 1846, and spent many
years in revising the general statutes of the Common
wealth of Massachusetts and editing its annual supple
ment while acting as judge of probate and insolvency
In 1869 he was made assistant secretary' of the treasury
and in 1873 full secretary. In 1874 he resigned tc
accept a seat on the bench of the United States Cour
of Claims, and was chief justice of that court afte
1885. He was the author of many legal publications
and professor of law in Georgetown College and Co
lumbian University. Died October 19, 1896.

Riche, resh, (CLAUDE ANTOINE GASPARD,) a French
naturalist, born in Beaujolais in 1762. He was a coad
jutor of Vicq d'Azyr in the " Encyclopedic M^thodique.'
lie accompanied as a naturalist the expedition which
was sent in search of La Pe'rouse in 1791. On their
arrival at Java, in 1793, the collections and journal of
Riche were seized by the Dutch. He died in 1797
leaving many memoirs on natural history. He was a
brother of De Prony, the great engineer and geometer.
See CUVIER, " loge du Citoyen Riche," 1798.
Riche, re'shV, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) President of Hayti
was born at Cap-Haitien about 1780. He served as a
eneral under Christophe, and became President in
arch, 1846. Died in February, 1847.
Riche de Prony. See PRONY, DE.


Richebourg, reesh'booR', (EiuiLE,) a French author,
orn at Menoy in 1833. He was a schoolmaster, but in
850 went to Paris and engaged in writing tales. Among
is works are "Lucienne," "L'Homme aux Lunettes
oires," (1864,) " Recits devant 1'Atre," (1867,) " L'En-
ant du Faubourg," (1876,) " Les deux Meres," (1880,)
tc. His stories are mostly for the young, and convey
ound moral precepts, though he is sometimes too senti-
mental and is often markedly chauvinistic. Died 1898.
Richelet, resh'li', (PIERRE,) a French grammarian,
jorn at Cheminon in 1631. He published, besides other
works, a " Dictionary of the French Language," (1680,)
be success of which was promoted by many satirical
emarks contained in it. Died at Paris in 1698.
See " NouveUe Biographic Gene"ra!e."
Richelieu, de, deh reshle-uh', < ALPHONSE Lours
du Plessis d.-; pllse',) called CARDINAL DE LYOM,
x>m in Paris in 1582, was a brother of the great states-
man. He became Archbishop of Lyons in 1628, and
:ardinal in 1629. He meddled little with the intrigues
if the court. Died in 1653.
See ABBS DB PURE, "Vie de Richelieu, Cardinal de Lyon."

5UKE, a statesman, born in Paris in 1766, was a grand-
on of Marshal Richelieu, (1696-1788.) He emigrated
n 1789 or 1790, entered the Russian army, and became
r/>vernor of Odessa in 1803. Having returned to France
n 1814, he was appointed minister of foreign affairs and
resident of the council (i.e. prime minister) in Sep-
ember, 1815. He negotiated with the allies a treaty
which secured the territorial integrity of France. He
resigned office about the end of iSiS, and was recalled
o the presidency of the council February 20, 1820. In
November, 1821, he retired because the majority of the
Chamber opposed his policy. He was a man of estimable
character. Died in May, 1822,

See L. F. DE BAUSSKT. " Notice sur M. 1e Due de Riclielien,"
.822; LAMAflriNE, " History of the Restoration :" GutzoT, " M4-
moires," tome i. ; "Nouvelte Biographic Generate. "

Richelieu, resh'j-loo, de, [Fr. pron. deh resh'le-uh',1
and ambitious French statesman, born at Paris or in
Poitou on the 5th of September, 1585, was a son of
Fran9ois du Plessis and Susanne de la Porte. He
studied at the College of Navarre and that of Lisieux,
and chose the clerical profession. In 1607 he was
consecrated at Rome as Bishop of Lucon. Having been
selected by the States-General to harangue the king in
1614, he acquitted himself so well that he was appointed
almoner to the queen-regnant. He was secretary of
state for a short time in 1616, and acted as mediator
between the king and his mother, Marie de Medicis,
by whose influence he obtained the dignity of cardinal
iii 1622. About two years later he was admitted into
the royal council, which he entered as a master rather
than an adviser. Even the king was overawed by the
intensity of his imperious will. Richelieu soon became
prime minister, and pursued a policy which tended
to humble the powerful nobility, to centralize the ad-
ministration, to render the monarchy absolute, and
to restore the balance of power in Europe, which the
ascendency of the House of Austria had disturbed.
His most powerful opponents were Marie de Medicis
and the king's brother Gaston, who incited an armed
revolt, which was suppressed without difficulty. Among
the important achievements of Richelieu was the subjec-
tion of the Calvinists, who had attempted to gain their
independence or defend their rights by arms, and whose
head-quarters were at Rochelle. He directed in person
the siege of this city, which surrendered in 1628 on
condition that a general pardon should be granted, with
religious toleration to the Protestants. A contest for
ascendency between Richelieu and Marie de Medicis
ended in the exile of the latter in 1630. He maintained
the independence of the civil power against the usurpa-
tions of the Romish Church. He exhibited excessive
severity in the execution of Marillac, Montmorency,

Cinq-Mars, and other noblemen, who were implicated
in a conspiracy against him. The first two of these

were executed in 1632.

In the pursuance of his design to reduce the power

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fat; met; not; good; mCon;




of Austria, he supported with a subsidy the Protestants
of Germany, who were waging war against the emperor,
and used his influence to defeat the negotiations for
peace. He also ordered a large body of French troops
to co-operate with the Swedes on the Rhine in 1635.
About this time his armies opposed the Spaniards in
Flanders and Italy, but without much success. In 1635
he founded and endowed the French Academy, the mosl
splendid literary institution of Europe. In the same
year he made a treaty with Holland, which became his
ally in a war against Philip IV. of Spain. The French
gained several victories in Germany and Italy in 1640-
42. During his administration Alsace, Artois, and Rous-
sillon were annexed to France. Richelieu detected a
dangerous conspiracy formed by Cinq-Mars and Gaslon
of Orleans, the former of whom was executed in Sep-
tember, 1642. He died in Paris on the 4th of December,
1642. The people expressed by bonfires their joy for
his death.

Richelieu had some literary taste, and was a liberal
patron of authors, artists, etc. He was the reputed
author of several works, among which are " Memoires
du Cardinal de Richelieu," first printed in 1823, and his
"Political Testament," ("Testament politique,") the
authenticity of which was discredited by Voltaire and
defended by Foncemagne. Although Richelieu was a
great and successful statesman, he is not a general
favourite with the French, like Henry IV. or Louis. XIV.
Many modern French writers argue that his policy did
not conduce to .the real and durable prosperity of the
nation. His system is severely criticised by De Tocque-
ville, (in his "Ancien Regime et la Revolution,") by
Quinet, and by Charles de Rcfmusat.

See AUBERV, "Memoires du Cardinal de Richelieu," 1660. JAY,
"Histoire du Ministere de Richelieu;" CAPRFIGUB, " Richelieu et
Mazarin," 1836; HENRI MARTIN, "Histoire de France ;" MICHE-
tET. "Histoire de France;" VIOLART, "Histoire du Ministere de
Richelieu," i&4g: J. CAILLET, \' L 1 Administration en France sous
Richelieu," 2 vols.. 1861 : " Lite of Cardinal Richelieu," by WILLIAM
ROBSON, 1854: SULLY. " Memoires ;" CARDINAL DB RsT,"M6
moires;" " Nouvelle Biographic Gene>ale."

Richelieu, de, (Louis FRANCOIS ARMAND -nu PLKS
SIS,) a brilliant and profligate courtier, born in 1696, was
a grand-nephew of Cardinal Richelieu. He was a son
of Armand Jean Vignerod, Due de Richelieu. His in-
trigues and libertinism caused him to be thrice confined
in the Bastille. He obtained the favour of Louis XV.,
and distinguished himself as a general at Fontenoy in
1745. About 1748 he was made a marshal of France.
He disgraced himself by his cupidity, arrogance, and
scandalous' vices. Died m 1788.

See FAUR, "Vie privet du Mankha! de Richelieu," 1750: Sou-
VAVIE, " Memoires du Marshal de Richelieu;" VOLTAIRE, "Cor-
respondance gineYale ;" SAINT-SIMON, "Memoires;" CAPE'IGUE,
" lie Marshal de Richelieu," 1857.

Richepanse or Richepance, resh'p&Nss', (AN-
TOINE,) a French general, born at Metz in 1770. He
became a general of brigade in 1796, and a genera
of division in 1799. Having obtained command of a
division of the army of Moreau, he contributed to the
victory of Hohenlinden, (1800.) Died at Guadeloupe
in 1803.

Richepin, (JEAN,) a French poet, novelist, am
dramatist, born at Medeah, Algeria, in 1849. He was
of poor family, and served as soldier, sailor, and actor
until 1872, when his first romance appeared.

Richer, re'sha', [Lat RICHE'RUS,] a French chroni-
cler, who flourished about 980-1000. He wrote (in
Latin) a history of the period from 888 to 995, which
is highly prized. The manuscript of this work was dis-
covered in 1833 by Pertz and Boehmer.

Richer, (ADRIEN,) a French biographer and historian,
born at Avranches in 1720. He wrote "The Lives of
Celebrated Mariners," (13 vols., 1780-86,) and other
works. Died at Paris in 1798.

Richer, (CLAUDE,) a French mathematician, born at
Auxerre in 1680; died in 1756.

Richer, (EDMOND,) a French canonist, born in Cham
pagne in 1559 or 1560. He became an adherent o(
Henry IV. about 1590, and syndic of the Faculty of
Theology at Paris in ifaoS. He defended the privileges
of the Gallican Church, and published a work "On
Ecclesiastical and Political Power," (1611.) which sub

ected him to persecution. Died in 1631. "His fame,"
ays Hallam, "has risen in later times."
See DAILLET, "Vie de Richer," 1714; PBRAU. "Vie d'E.

Richer," 1748; NlCERON, "Me'moires,"

Richer, (DOUARD,) a French author, born in La
Vendee in 1792. He produced a poem entitled "Victor
et Amelie," (1816.) and a "History of Brittany," (1821,)
which is commended. Having been converted to the
doctrines of Swedenborg, he published a work called
'The New Jerusalem," (8 vols., 1832-36.) Died a*
Mantes in 1834.

See PIBT, " Mdmoires sur la Vie de Richer," 1836.
Richer, (FRANCOIS,) a French jurist, a brother of
Adrien, noticed above, was born at Avranches in 1718.
He wrote a "Treatise on Civil Death," (-"De la Mort
civile," 1755.) and "Celebrated Trials," (22 vols., 177*
-88.) Died in 1790.

Richer, (HENRI,) a^rriediocre French writer, born at
Longueil in 1685. Among his works are "Fables in
Verse," (1729,) and a "Life of Maecenas," (1746.) Died
"n 1748.

Richer, (JEAN,) a French astronomer, was sent to
Cayenne in 1671 to observe the parallax of the sun.
Died in 1696.

Richer d'Aube, re'shi' dob, (FRANCOIS,) a French
jurist, born at Rouen in 1686, was a nephew of Fonte-
nelle. Died in 1752.

Richerand, resh'rSN', (ANTHELME,) an eminent
French physician and surgeon, born at Belley, in Bugey,
in 1779. He published "Elements of Physiology,"
'iSoi ; loth edition, 1832,) which had great success, and
iiecame professor in the Faculty of Medicine in Paris
in 1806. He wrote articles for the "Biographic Uni-
verselle." Died in 1840.

See DUBOIS D'AMIENS, "loge de Richerand." 1851; " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'nerale."

Richerua. See RICHER.'she^', (LiciER,) a skilful French sculptor,
born in Lorraine~about 1500. He studied in Rome,
and returned to Lorraine while he was still youn
Died about 1572.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale. 1 *

Richmann, riK'man, or Rickman, rik'mln, (GEORQ
WILHELM,) born in Livonia in 1711, became professor
of natural history at Saint Petersburg in 1745. He was
killed by lightning, while repeating the experiment of
Dr. Frankliu, in 1753.

OF, born in London in 1791, was a son of Charles
Lennox, (1764-1819.) He was a member of the privy
council, and of the cabinet formed by Earl Grey in 1831.
Died in 1861.

DUKE OF, an English peer, born in 1818, was educated
at Oxford. He was appointed president of the poor-
law board in 1859, resigned the same year, and succeeded
his father as duke in 1860. He was president of the
board of trade in 1867 and 1868. In 1870 he became
leader of the Conservatives in the House of Lords.

Richmond, (CHARLES LENNOX,) DUKE OF, born
in 1672, was a son of Charles II. and the Duchess of
Portsmouth. He served in the army under William
III. in Flanders. He died in 1723, and left the title to
his son Charles.

Richmond, (CHARLES LENNOX,) DUKE OF, a British
general, born in 1735, was a grandson of a natural son
of King Charles II. He was a friend of liberty and
reform, and a man of superior talents. In 1778 he pro-
posed to recognize the independence of the revolted
American colonies. He became master of the ordnance
in 1782. Died in 1 806. His sister, SARAH LENNOX,
became the wife of George Napier and mother of tho
famous commanders of that name.

Richmond, (CHARLES LENNOX,) DUKE OF, a British
peer, born in 1764. He entered the army in his youth.
In 1806 he inherited the dukedom at the death of his
uncle. He was appointed lord lieutenant of Ireland in
1808, and governor-general of the British possessions in
North America about 1816. He died in Canada, of
hydrophobia, in 1819, and was succeeded by his son

as k; { as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (JJg^'See Explanations, p. 23. J




Richmond, EARL OF. See HENRY VII. of Eng.

Richmond, (GEORGE,) an English portrait-painter,
born about 1809. He became popular as a painter in
water-colours in London. His more recent works are
chiefly portraits in oil. He was elected an associate of
the Royal Academy in 1857. Died March 19, 1896.

His son, Sir WILLIAM BLAKE RICHMOND, born at
London in 1843, became a painter of portraits and
mythological subjects, was elected a member of the

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 262 of 425)