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twenty years old. He worked for some years at the
trade of clock-maker at Norriton, in Montgomery
county, Pennsylvania. About 1767 he constructed an
orrery, which was purchased by Princeton College.
He also made mathematical instruments of a superior
quality. His first communication to the American
Philosophical Society was a calculation of the transit
of Venus which occurred on the $d of June, 1769, and
which he observed with success. In 1764 he married
Eleanor Colston. He was elected treasurer of Penn-
sylvania in 1777, and continued to fill that office until
1789. During this period he was employed to determine
the boundaries of Pennsylvania. He was chosen presi-
dent of the American Philosophical Society in 1791,
and became first director of the Mint, at Philadelphia,
in 1792. In 1795 he was chosen a Fellow of the Royal
Society of London. Having lost his first wife, he mar-
ried Hannah Jacobs, of Philadelphia, about 1774. On
account of ill health, he resigned in 1795 the direction
of the Mint, which he had organized by arduous and
successful efforts. He contributed numerous scientific
treatises to the "Transactions of the American Philo-
sophical Society." Died in Philadelphia, June, 1796.
" Were we called upon," says Renwick, " to assign him
a rank among the philosophers whom America has
produced, we should place him, in point of scientific
merit, as second to Franklin alone. . . . He had shown
himself the equal, in point of learning and skill as an
observer, to any practical astronomer then living."

Sec JAMES RENWICK, "Life of David Rittenhouse." in SPARKS'S
'American Biography," vol. vii. ; \V. BARTON, "Life of David
Rittenhouse," 1813; "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished
Americans," vol. ii.

Ritter, rit'ter, (HEINRICH,) a German philosopher
and historian, born at Zerbst in 1791. He became pro-
fessor of philosophy at Berlin about 1824, and removed
to Gbttingen in 1837. lie published a number of works
on philosophy, etc. His principal work is a " History
of Philosophy," (" Geschichte dcr Philosophic," 12 vols.,
1829-53,) which is highly esteemed. It has been well
translated into English by A. J. \V. Morrison, (4 vols.
8vo, 1838-46.) Ritter is called an Eclectic philosopher
Died at Gbttingen, February 3, 1869.

Rifter, (HENRY,) an artist, born at Montreal, in
Canada, about 1815, studied painting at Hamburg and
Dusseldorf. Among his principal works may be named
"Indians Flying from a Burning Prairie." Died in 1853-

Ritter, (JoHANN DANIEL,) a German scholar and
writer on Roman antiquities, etc., was born near Eres-
lau in 1709; died at Wittenberg in 1775.

Ritter, (JOHANN WILHELM.) a German natural phi-
losopher, born at Samitz, in Silesia, in 1776. He wrote
"Memoirs on Physics and Chemistry," (3 vols., 1806,;
and an autobiography, (2 vols., 1810.) Died at Munich
in 1810.

Ritter, (JOSEPH ICNAZ,) a German Catholic theo-
logian, born near Griineberg in 1787. He became in
1823 professor of ecclesiastical history at Bonn. Diec
in 1857.

Ritter, (KARL,) an eminent German geographer, born
at Quedlinburg in 1779. Having travelled in Switzer
land, France, and Italy, he succeeded Schlosser as pro
fessor of history at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1819. Hi:

' Portico of a History of the European Nations before
ierodotus" came out in 1820. In 1822 he published
he first volume of the second and enlarged edition of
lis " Geography in Relation to the Nature and History
of Man," (" Die Erdekunde im Verhaltniss zur Natui
und zur Geschichte des Menschen," 18 vols., 1822-59,)
which is esteemed his greatest work. Among his other
reductions we may name "A Glance at Palestine and
ts Christian Population," "The Colonization of New
Zealand," (1842,) and "The Jordan and the Navigation
of the Dead Sea," (1850.) Ritter was a member of the
Academy of Sciences of Berlin, and of the Royal So-
ciety of London. He has been called the founder of
he science of comparative geography. Died in Berlin
n 1859.

See W. L, GACB, "Life of Karl Ritter," New York, 1867:
'Foreign Quarterly Review" for October, 1837; "Nouvelle Eio-
jraphie Ge'ne'rale."

Rittershuys, rit'ters-hois', or Rittershausen, ritf-
:ers-how'zen, |LaL RITTERSHU'SIUS,] (CONRAD,) a Ger-
man jurist and able critic, born at Brunswick in 1560.
hie became professor of law at Altorf. He was a good
classical scholar, and wrote commentaries on Phaedrus,
Oppian, and other authors. Died in 1613.

See "Vita C. Rittershusii," by his son GsoRG; M. ADAM
' Viue Gerraanoruro Jurisconsultoruin."

Rittershuys, (NiKOLAUS,) a son of the preceding,
was born at Altorf in 1597. He wrote "Genealogy of
Emperors, Kings," etc., ("Genealogia Imperatorum,
Regum, etc., 1400-1664," 1674.) Died in 1670.

Ritzio. See RIZZIO.


Rivalliua. See RIVAULT.

Rivalz, re'vil', (ANToiNE,) a French painter and
engraver, born at Toulouse in 1667 ; died in 1735.

His father, JEAN PIERRE, born in 1625, was a painter
at Toulouse, where he died in 1706.

Rivard, re'vjR', (DENIS,) a French surgeon and
lithotomist, born at Neufchateau, practised at Luneville,
Died in 1746.

Rivard, (DOMINIQUE FRANCOIS,) a French mathe-
matician, born at Neufchateau in 1697. He was professor
in the College of Beauvais for forty years, and published
several valuable works on geometry and mathematics.
Died in Paris in 1778.

Rivarol, re'vS'rol', (ANTOINE,) a witty and satirical
French writer, born at Bagnols, in Languedoc, in 1753,
assumed the title of Count de Rivarol. He was cele-
brated for his colloquial powers, and abounded in that
ready wit which goes far to justify all pretensions and
to excuse all excesses of audacity. He produced in
1784 an able "Essay on the Universality of the French
Language," and a free translation of Dante's "Inferno,"
which had a great success. His talent for satire, irony,
and persiflage was displayed in a series of lampoons
against living authors, entitled "Little Almanac of
Great Men," ("Petit Almanach des grands Hommes,"
1788.) He also gained distinction as a journalist. He
married an English lady named Flint Having identi-
fied himself with the royalist party, he emigrated in
1792. Died in Berlin in 1801.

See CUBIBRSS-PALMEZEAUX, " Vie de Rivarol," 1803: IMBEKT

DE LA PLATI&RE, "Vie de Rivarol." lSo8 : LEONCK-CUBNIER,

" Rivarol, sa Vie et ses Ouvrages," 1858: SAiNTB-Beuva, "Cause-
ries du Lundi," tome v. ; LescfRE, "Rivarol, sa Vie et ses Ou-
vrages," 1862: " Notice sur Rivarol," by his wife, 1802 ; "Nouvella
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rivarol, (CLAUDE FRANCOIS,) a brother of the pre
ceding, was born at Bngnols in 1762. He was a captain
in the army, and a royalist emigrant in 1791. Having
returned to Paris as a secret agent of the Bourbons,
he was imprisoned twenty-two months, (1795-97.) He
wrote dramas, verses, etc. Died in 1848.

Rivarola, re-va-ro'lS, (ALFONSO,) a promising Italian
painter, born at Ferrara in 1607, was a pupil of Carlo
Bononi. Among his works is "The Brazen Serpent."
Died in 1640.

Rivaa, de, DUKE. See SAAVEDRA.

Rivaud de la Raffiniere, re'vo' deh 11 rS'fe'ne-aiR',
(OLIVIER MACOUX,) a French general, born in Foitou
in 1766. He served with distinction at Marengo and
Austerlitz, Died in 1839.

a, q, i, o, ii, y, long: i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mJt ; nfit; good; moon;




Rivault, re'v5', |Lat. RIVAL'LIUS,] (AYMAR,) written
also Rivail, a French jurist, born about 1490. He was
counsellor to the parliament of Grenoble, and wrote a
" History of the Civil or Roman Law," (" Historia Juris
civilis," 1527.)

Rivault, (DAVID,) a French writer, born at Laval
about 1571. He was appointed preceptor to the young
king Louis XIII. in 1612. He published, besides other
works, "Minerva Armed, or the Union of Literature
and Arms," ("Minerva armata, sive de Conjungendis
Literis et Armis," 1610,) and "Archimedis Opera,"
(1615.) Died in 1616.

Rivaz, de, deh re'va', (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a Swiss
mechanist and inventor, born at Saint Gingolph, on the
Lake of Geneva, in 1711 ; died in 1772.

Rive, rev, (JOSEPH JEAN,) a French bibliographer,
born at Apt in 1730. He wrote numerous works, and
was librarian to the Due de la Valliere. Died in 1791.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rive, de la, (AUGUSTE.) See LA RIVE, DE.

Rivera, re-va'ri, (JosB FRUCTUOSO,) a South Amer-
ican general, born about 1790, was a Gaucho. He was
elected president of the republic of Uruguay in 1830
for four years. Died in 1854.

Riveriua. See RIVIERE.

EARL OF, an accomplished English peer, born in 1442,
was a brother of the queen of Edward IV. After the
death of that king he had charge of the young heir to
the throne. He was beheaded by Richard III., without
a form of trial, in 1483. He left some original poems
and translations from the classics, which are commended.
(Cunningham's "History of England," vol. i.)

Riv'ers, (WILLIAM J.,) born at Charleston, South
Carolina, in 1822, became professor of Greek literature
at South Carolina College in 1856. He has published
several works, in prose and verse.

Rives, (AMELIE,) an American novelist, born at
Richmond, Virginia, in 1863. She married John A.
Chanler, of New York, and, after divorce, Prince
Troubetzkoi, of Russia. Her works include "The
Quick or the Dead ?" (1888,) "Witness of the Sun,"
(1889,) "Athelwold," (1893,) etc.

Rives, (WILLIAM C.,) an American Senator, born in
Nelson county, Virginia, in May, 1793. He studied law,
and was elected a member of Congress in 1823. He was
sent as minister to France in 1829, returned in 1832, and
was then elected to the Senate of the United States by the
legislature of Virginia. Having resigned his seat in 1834,
he was re-elected in 1835. In 1840 he was elected a
Senator for a third term. He was minister to France
again from 1849 to 1853. He published the "Life and
Times of James Madison," (3 vols., 1859-68, unfinished.)
He was a member of the Confederate Congress from
February, 1862, until the end of the rebellion. Died in
April, 1868.

See the " Democratic Review" for January, 1838, (with a por-

Rivet, re'v', [Lat. RIVE'TUS,] (ANDRE,) a French
Protestant minister and biblical critic, born at Saint-
Maxent in 1572 or 1573. He became professor of
theology at Leyden in 1620, and was governor of the
young Prince of Orange, (William III. of England.)
He wrote several works on theology. Died at Breda
in 1651. " Rivet," says Hallam, " was the highest name
among the Calvinists," (i.e. in the department of sacred

Rivet de Ckampvernon, re'v J' deh shoN'vf n'nd
(GuiLLAUME,) a Protestant minister, born at Saint-
Maxent in 1580, was a brother of the preceding. He
wrote on theology. Died in 1651.

Rivet de la Grange, re'v.y deh IS gR3Nzh,( ANTOINE,]
a learned French Benedictine, born at Confolens in 1683.
He was punished for opposition to the bull " Unigenitus"
by confinement in a monastery at Mans. He projected
a great work entitled " The Literary History of France,"
of which he composed 9 vols., (1733-50.) He died in
1749. His work was continued by Clemencet and others.

See C. L. TAILLANDIER, " loge historique de Dom Rivet,'
the ninth volume of the " Literary History of France."

Rivetus. See RIVET, (ANDRE.)


Riviere, ree ve-air', (BRITON,) a distinguished English
animal-painter, born in London, August 14, 1840. He
graduated at Oxford in 1867. He was elected a full
Academician in 1881.

Riviere, re-ve^iR', [Lat. RFVE'RIUS,] (LAZARE,) a
French medical ^writer, born at Montpellier in 1589.
His "Praxis Medica" ("Medical Practice," 1640) was
often reprinted. Died in 1655.

Riviere, de, deh re've-aJR', (CHARLES FRANCOIS de
Riffardeau deh re'fiR'do',) Due, a French royalist
officer, born at Fert^-sur-Cher in 1763. He was sen-
tenced to death as an accomplice of Pichegru in 1804,
but his life was saved by the empress Josephine. Died
in 1828.

Riviere, de la, deh 13 re've-aiR', (RoCH LE BAILLIF,
rosh leh biTyef',) SIEUR, a FTench physician, born at
Falaise ; died in Paris in 1605.

Rivieren, van, vin re-vee'ren, [Lat. Riv'ius.l (JRAN,)
a Belgian monk, born at Louvain in 1599. He wrote a
"Life of Saint Augustine,'' (1646.) Died in 1665.

Riv'ing-tpn, (JAMES,) an English printer and book-
seller, born in London about 1724, emigrated to Amer-
ica, and founded in New York a journal entitled the
"New York Gazetteer, or the Connecticut, New Jersey,
Hudson's River, and Quebec Weekly Advertiser." In
consequence of his denunciations of the patriots, his
press was destroyed in 1775 by a party of American
soldiers. He subsequently resumed the publication of
his journal, under the title of the " Royal Gazette." After
the evacuation of New York by the British he changed
the name of his paper to " Rivington's New York Ga-
zette and Universal Advertiser." Died in 1802.

See DUYCKINCK, "Cyclopaedia of American Literature," vol. i.

Rivinus, re-vee'nus, (ANDREAS,) a German philolo.
gist and physician, born at Halle in 1600 or 1601. His
proper name was BACHMANN. He was professor of
poetry and medicine at Leipsic. Died in 1656.

See KROMAVER, " Programma ad Funus A. Rivini," 1656.

Rivinus, (AUGUST QUIRINUS,) an eminent botanist
and anatomist, son of the preceding, was born at Leipsic
in 1652. He became professor of physiology and botany
in his native city in 1691. His chief work is "General
Introduction to Botany," (" Introductio generalis in Rera
Herbariam," 1690,) in which he proposed a classifica-
tion of plants founded on the form of the corolla. Died
in 1723.

See G. F. JENICHEM, "Programma in A. Q. Rivini Obitum/
1724:" Biographic Universelle ;" NiciRON, " Me'raoirea ;" "Bi
graphic Me"dicale."

Rivius. See RIVIEREN.


Rizi, re-Mee',? (FRANCISCO,) DON, a Spanish painter,
born in Madrid in 1608, was a pupil of Carduccio. He
became first painter to Philip IV. about 1656. He had
great fertility of invention and facility of execution, but
contributed to the decline of art by his superficial habits.
Died in 1685.

Rizo-Rhangab6, ree'zo ran'gJ-be, (ALEXANDER,)
also written Rhizos-Rhangavis, an eminent Greek
poet, orator, and statesman, was born about 1810. He
published a collection of poems, (1837,) followed by
" Hellenic Antiquities," (" Antiquites Helleniques,") in
French, (vol. i., 1842; vol. ii., 1855,) translations of See-
mann's "Antiquities of Troy" (1874) and "Plutarch's
Lives," (1864-66,) and a " Literary History of Modern
Greece," (1867.) In 1845 he was appointed professor
of archaeology at Athens. He was minister of foreign
affairs from 1856 to 1859, and was appointed minister to
the United States in 1867, to Constantinople in 1869, and
to Paris in 1870. Died at Athens, January 28, 1892.

Rizzio or Ritzio, rit'se-o, written also Ricclo,
(DAVID,) an Italian musician, born in Piedmont about
1540. He went to Edinburgh about 1563, in the train
of the ambassador from Savoy, and gained the favour
of Mary Queen of Scots, who employed him as her
French secretary. " He became," says Froude, " the
queen's inseparable companion in the council-room and
the cabinet. She kept late hours, and he was often alone
with her till midnight. He had the control of all the

c as k; 5 as s ; g hard; g as/; C, H, K,gutturtit; N, natal; R, trilled; s as 2; th as in this.

xplanations, p. 23.)




business of the state." The same historian, alluding to
the injurious influence of Rizzio over Mary Stuart, says,
"The counsels of David Ritziowere worth an army to
English liberty." (" History of England," vol. viii. chap,
ix.) He was dragged from the queen's presence and
assassinated by Lord Darnley and others, in 1566.

See BURTON, "History of Scotland," vol. iv. chaps, xliii and
sliv. : RODERTSON, " History of Scotland."

Robbia, della, del'la rob'be-a, (AND^A,) an Italian
sculptor, born at Florence in 1444. He worked in
marble and enamelled terra-cotta. Died in 1527.

His son GIOVANNI, born in 1470, was a sculptor.
Another son, GIROLAMO, went to France, and was
employed by Francis I; He made a marble statue of
Catherine de Medicis at Saint-Denis.

See BAHEET DE JOUY, " Les Delia Robbia, Etude."
Robbia, della, (LUCA,) a famous sculptor and
worker in enamelled terra-cotta, born at Florence about
1390 or 1400, was a brother or an uncle of Andrea.
He adorned with bassi-rilievi the Campanile of the
Cathedral of Florence, and made a bronze door for the
.sacristy of the same. He invented the enamelled terra-
cotta, and acquired a European reputation by the fabri-
cation of figures of.this material, which are called " della
Robbia" ware. Died in 1463, or, as some say, 1482.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters and Sculptors ;" " Nouvelle
Biographic G^ne'rale,"

Rob'bins, (AsH'JR,) an American law-yet and states-
man, born at Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1757, settled
in Rhode Island, and was elected to the United States
Senate in 1825. He served in the Senate fourteen years.
Pied in 1845.

Bobbins, (ELLEN,) an American artist, was born at
Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1828, and studied art with
S. S. Tuckerman. She attained distinction as a water-
colour painter. Her flower-pieces are especially praised.
Roberjot, ro'beVzho', (CLAUDE,) a French diplo-
matist, born at Macon in 1753, was a republican member
of the Convention, (1793.) With Bonnier and Debry, he
represented France at the Congress of Rastadt, in 1799.
He was assassinated by Austrian soldiers just after he
departed from Rastadt, in April of that year.

Rob'ert OF BAVARIA, born in 1352, was elected Em-
peror of Germany in 1400. He attempted to conquer
the Milanese, but was defeated by Visconti in 1401.
Died in 1410.

Rob'ert [Fr. pron. ro'bain' ; Lat. ROBER'TUS ; It.
ROBERTO, To-beVto] 1, King of France, was the seconc
son of Robert the Strong, Duke of France. After the
death of his brother Eudes, 898 A.TX, the throne was
obtained by Charles the Simple. In 922 the malcontent
barons revolted against Charles, and proclaimed Robert
as his successor. In 923 the army of Robert gained a
victory over that of his rival ; but Robert was killed in
the action.

Robert H, King of France, born at Orleans in 971
was a son of Hugh Capet, whom he succeeded- in 996
He was reputed to be very devout, but was excommu
nicated by the pope for his marriage with a cousin it
the fourth degree. In 1024 he refused the imperia
crown, offered to him by the Italians. His reign wa.
pacific. He died in 1031, and left the throne to his son

See RAOUL GLABER, " Chronique ;" "Nouvelle Biographi

Robert OF ANJOU, King of Naples, born about 1275
was a son of Charles II. He began to reign in 1309
and waged war against the emperor Henry VII. H
was the judge selected to decide whether Petrarch wa
qualified to receive the crown of poet-laureate. Diet
in 1343.

Rob'ert H., King of Scotland, born in 1316, was th
first king of the House of Stewart or Stuart. The famil
name was originally ALLAN, or ALAN. (See STUAR
FAMILY.) His mother, Marjory, was a daughter o
Robert Bruce, and his father, Walter Allan, was th
high steward of Scotland, lie acted as regent from
1338 to 1341, and again while David II. was held a
a prisoner by the English, (1346-57.) He succeede
David II. in 1371. Among the important events of h

eign were a war against the English, and the battle of
)tterburne, (1388.) Died in 1390.

See BURTON. " History of Scotland," vol. iii. chap. Trvi.

Robert III., King of Scotland, born about 1340, wa3

son of Robert II. His baptismal name was John;
>ut John Baliol (called "King John") had rendered this
o unpopular that it was changed to Robert. He began
o reign in 1390. Hostilities were renewed between the
scotch and English in 1399, and the former were de-
eated at Homildon Hill, in 1402. Robert died in 1406.
eaving the throne to his son, James I.

See BURTON, " History of Scotland," chap. avi.

Robert [Fr. pron. ro-baiR'J I-, Duke of Normandy,
urnamed LE DIAHLE, leh de'abl', ("the Devil,") was a
on of Richard II. He succeeded his brother, Richard
II., in 1027. In 1035 he made a pilgrimage to the
loly Land, on his return from which he died at Nioea
n July, 1035. He was succeeded by his son, William
he Conqueror of England.

See DEPPING, "Histoire de Normandie ;" A. DEVILLE, "Notice
istorique sur Robert le Diable," 1836.

Robert II., Duke of Normandy, surnamed CURT-
IOSE or SHORT-SHANKS, born about 1052, was the eld-
est son of William I. surnamed the Conqueror. He was
orave, but imprudent and unstable. He obtained the
ukedom of Normandy in 1087. In 1096 he went to
"alestine as a leader of the first crusade. He distill-
juished himself at the siege of Antioch and at the battle
)f Dorylaeum, (1097,) and returned home in noo. In
lis absence his younger brother, Henry, obtained pos-
ession of the throne of England, left vacant by the
death of William Rufus. In the war that ensued between
Robert and Henry, the former was defeated and taken
>risoner in 1106. He was confined at Cardiff until his
death, in 1135,

See DEVPING, "Histoire de Normandie;" OROERICUS VITAUS,

History of Normandy."

Robert 1, Count of Artois, born in 1216, was a son
f Louis VIII. of France. lie accompaHied his brother,
Saint Louis, in a crusade against \he Saracens, and was
tilled at Mansourah in 1250.

His son ROBERT; born in 1250, gained a victory over
:he English near Dax in 1296, and over the Flemings
at Furnes in 1297. He was killed in battle in 1302.

Robert HI, Count of Artois, a grandson of the pre-
ceding, was born in 1287. He was banished by Philip
VI. of France in 1332, and entered the service of Edward
[II. of England. Died in 1343.

Robert, K/baiR', (CESAR ALPHONSE,) a French sur-
geon and medical writer, born at Marseilles in I Sol.
fie became a resident of Paris. Died December I, 1862.

Robert, (CLAUDE.) a French ecclesiastical historian,
born near Bar-sur-Seine in 1564 or 1565. His chief
work is "Christian Gaul," ("Gallia Christiana," 1626.)
which was continued by the Benedictines and extended
to thirteen volumes, (1785.) Died in 1637.

See E. SOCARD, " Notice historique sur Claude Robert"

Robert, ro'beRt, (ERNST FRIEDRICH LUDWIC,) a
German littlrottur, of Jewish extraction, born at Berlin
in 1778, was a brother of Rahel Varnhagen von Ense.
He was the author of poems, tales, and dramas. Died
in 1832.

Robert, (FRANCOIS,) a French geographer, born near
Chalons-sur-Saone in 1 737. He published, besides other
works, a "Geographical Dictionary," (1818.) Died in

Robert, (HUBERT,) an excellent French painter of
architecture, etc., was born in Paris in 1733. He studied
in Rome, and passed twelve years in Italy, (1753-65.)
He painted views of the monuments and ruins of Rome.
After his return to Paris he was appointed keeper of
the royal cabinet and dtssintteur of the royal gardens.
Died in Paris in 1808.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Robert, (Louis LEOPOLD,) an eminent painter, born
at Chaux-le-Fonds, in the canton of Neufchatel, in 1794.
lie was a pupil of Girardet and of David. In 1818
he went to Italy, in which he passed the remainder of
his life. He represented Italian life and scenery with
fidelity in numerous works, among which are "The

a, e, T, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, ebsmrt; fir, fill, fit; met; not; good; moonj




Neapolitan Imorovisator," (1824,) "The Vintage in
Tuscany," " The Reapers of the Pontine Marshes," and
"The Departure of the Fishermen of the Adriatic,"
(1835.) lie committed suicide at Venice in 1835. This
act is ascribed to a passion for Charlotte, a daughter of
Joseph Bonaparte.

Robert, (Louis VALENTIN ELIAS,) a French sculp-
tor, born at Etampes in 1821 ; died April 28, 1874.

Robert, (NICOLAS,) a French miniature- and flower-
painter, born at Langres about 1610. He commenced a
work called " Recueil de Velins." Died in Paris in 1684.

Robert, (PAUL PONCE ANTOINE,) a French painter
and engraver, born near Rheims in 1686; died in 1733.

Robert, (I'IERRE FRANCOIS JOSEPH,) a French regi-
cide, born at Gimnee in 1763, was a friend of Danton.
He mat ied Mademoiselle de Keralio, the authoress.
Died in 1826.

Robert de Courtenay, ro'baiR' deh kooRr'nl', a
French prince, a son of Pierre de Courtenay, became
Latin Emperor of Constantinople in 1220. Died in 1228.

Robert de Vaugondy, ro'baiR' deh vo'g6N y de',
(DlDlER,) a French geographer, born in Paris in 1723.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 265 of 425)