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He published an "Atlas of France and Europe," (1785,)
and other works. Died in 1786.

Robert de Vaugondy, (GiLLES,) a French geogra-
pher, born in Paris in 1688, was the father of the pre-
ceding, and a grandson of Nicolas Sanson. He produced
a " Universal Atlas," (1758.) Died in 1766.

Robert of Avesbury, an English chronicler, author
of an unfinished " History of the Reign of Edward III.,"
which comes down to 1356. Died about 1360.

Robert of Bavaria. See RUPERT, PRINCE.

Robert of Geneva, (Anti-Pope,) born in 1342, was
elected pope in 1378, in opposition to Urban VI. He
took the name of Clement VII., reigned at Avignon,
and was recognized by the French and Spaniards. Died
in 1394.

Robert of Gloucester, an English chronicler of
the thirteenth century. He wrote, in verse, a chronicle
or history of England from fabulous times down to
the death of Henry III. De Quincey speaks of this
chronicle as "the very earliest of all English books.*'

See the interesting account of De Quincey's interview with George
III., in his "Autobiographic Sketches."

Robert the Strong, [Fr. ROBERT LE FORT, ro'baiR'
leh foR,] Count of Anjou and Duke of France, was
noted as a military chief. He was killed in a fight with
some Normans, led by the famous sea-king Hastings,
in 866 A.D. He was great-grandfather of Hugh Capet,

Robert Grosstete. See GROSSETESTE.

Robert-Fleury, ro'baiR' fluh're', (JOSEPH NICOLAS,)
a popular French historical painter, was born at Co-
logne in 1797. He was elected a member of the
Institute in 1850. Among his works are "Benvenuto
Cellini" and "Charles V. at the Monastery of Saint
Just" About 1855 he became professor in the Ecole
des Beaux- Arts. Died in 1890.

Robert-Houdin, ro'baiR' hoo'da.N', (JEAN EUGENE,)
a French prestidigitateur, born at Blois, December 6,
1805. He was well educated, and became a watch-
maker, from a strong inclination to mechanical employ-
ments. He afterwards became a maker of mechanical
toys. In 1845 he began to perform in public as a juggler,
winning a world-wide fame and a great fortune at this
employment. Among his works are " Robert-Houdin,
sa Vie," etc., (1857,) "Confidences," (1859,) " Les Tri-
eheries des Grecs devoiles," (1861,) etc. Died at Saint-
Germain, near Blois, June 18, 1871.

Rob'erts, (BENJAMIN S.,) an American general,
born at Manchester, Vermont, about 1811, graduated
at West Point in 1835, and was serving as major in
New Mexico when the civil war began. In July,
1862, he was appointed brigadier-general of volun-
teers in the Union army, and lieutenant-colonel in
1866. Died January 29, 1875.

dian author, born at Douglas, New Brunswick, in 1860.
He was professor of English and French literature in
King's College, Nova Scotia, 1885-87, of economics
1887-95, associate editor of "The Illustrated Ameri-

can," New York, 1897. His poems "Orion," "In
Divers Tones," etc. have brought him the title of
"The Longfellow of Canada." He has written also
works of history, novels, etc.

Rob'erts, (DAVID,) an eminent British painter of
landscapes and architecture, was born at Stockbridge,
Edinburgh, in 1796. Between 1838 and 1840 he travelled
in Egypt and Syria, in which he sketched many scenes
which he afterwards reproduced on canvas. He was
elected a Royal Academician in 1841. Among his works
are "Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives," (1841,)
"Pyramids of Ghizeh," (1844,) "Ruins of the Great
Temple of Karnak," "The Destruction of Jerusalem,"
(1849,) and "Rome," (1855.) Died in 1864.

Roberts. (ELLIS HENRY,) an American financier,
born at Utica, New York, in 1827. He was editor of
the Utica "Morning Herald" 1851-86, member of
Congress 1871-75, assistant United States treasurer
1889-93, president Franklin National Bank, New
York, 1893-97, and was made treasurer of the United
States in 1897.

Roberts, (FREDERICK SLEIGH,) LORD, an English
general, born in 1832. He was educated at Eton,
Sandhurst, and Addiscombe, served with distinc-
tion in India and Abyssinia, and in 1879 occupied
Cabul, in Afghanistan. After the terrible defeat of
Burrows at Maiwand in 1880, Roberts with nine thou-
sand men went to the relief of Candahar, and gave
Ayoob Khan a crushing defeat. He was commander-
in-chief of the Madras army in 1881, of the army in
India 1885-93, ar| d in Ireland in 1895, was created
Lord Roberts of Candahar and Waterford in 1896,
was made commander-in-chief of the army in the
Transvaal war in 1900, and later in the year succeeded
Lord Wolseley as commander-in-chief of the armies of
the British kingdom. He published "The Rise of
Wellington," (1895,) and "Forty-one Years in In-
dia," (1897.)

Roberts, (HOWARD,) an American sculptor, bom
at Philadelphia in 1843. His works embrace many
ideal figures, portrait busts and statues, etc., including
the statue of Robert Fulton in the Capitol at Wash-
ington. Died in 1900.

Rob'ert-spn, (CHARLES FRANKLIN,) D.D., LL.D.,an
American bishop, born in New York city, March 2, 1835,
graduated at Yale College in 1859, and at the General
Theological Seminary in 1862, and in 1868 was conse-
crated Bishop of Missouri, (Episcopalian.) D. in 1886.

Robertson, ro'baiR's&N', (ETIENNE GASPARD RO-
BERT,) a Belgian aeronaut and natural philosopher, born
at Liege in 1763. It is stated that he made fifty-nine
ascensions in balloons. Died in 1837.

Rob'eit-son, (FREDERICK WILLIAM,) an eloquent
minister and original thinker of the Anglican Church,
was born in London on the 3d of February, 1816. He
was the eldest son of Captain Frederick Robertson, of
the royal artillery. After preparatory studies at Edin-
burgh, he entered Brasenose College, Oxford, in 1836.
Among his fellow-students at Oxford was John Ruskin,
in whom he found a congenial spirit. He would have
preferred the profession of a soldier ; but, in compliance
with the wishes of his father, he devoted himself to the
church. After he left college he improved his health by
a pedestrian tour among the Alps, and on that occasion
became acquainted with Miss Helen Denys, whom he
married in 1842. He served as curate at Cheltenham
about four years, and became incumbent of Trinity
Chapel, Brighton, in August, 1847. Though he rather
shunned than courted popularity, his eloquence and
originality soon excited general admiration The libe-
rality and independence of his principles, however,
subjected him to persecution from some members of his
own communion. He belonged to what is called the
Broad Church. Three series of his sermons have been
published, and have passed through about eight editions.
He delivered several " Lectures and Addresses on Lit-
erary and Social Topics," which have been printed. Ha
died August 15, 1853, and was buried at Brighton.

See STOPTORD A. BROOKE, "Life and Leilers of F. W. Roberf
eon." 2 vols., 1865: " Blackwood's Magazine" for January, 1866.

e as k; J as s; g hard; g as.;; G, H, K. guttural; N. nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (|f=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Robertson, JAMES BURTON,) Ph.D., an English
historian, bom in London, November 15, 1800.
educated at the Roman Catholic College of Saint Ed-
mund, near Ware. In 1855 Dr. Newman, rector of the
Roman Catholic University at Dublin, appointed him
professor of geography and modern history, to which the
chair of English literature was subsequently added. The
lectures here delivered were subsequently published in
a series of books that were highly successful. Among
these may be named " Lectures on Various Subjects of
Ancient and Modern History," (1858,) " Lectures on the
Life, Writings, and Timt> of Edmund Burke," (iS6S,)
etc. Died in Dublin, February 14, 1877.

Robertson, JAMES CRAIGIE,) D.D., a British divine,
born at Aberdeen in 1813. He graduated in 1834 at
Trinity College, Cambridge, was made a canon of Can-
terbury in 1859, and in 1864 was appointed professor of
church history in King's College, London. Among his
works are " History of the Christian Church," (1853 el
teg.,) a " Life of Becket," (1859,) " History of the Refor-
mation," (1866,) and a shorter " Church History," (1869.)
Died July 9, 1882.

Robertson, (JAMES LOGIE,) a British author, bom
in Scotland in 1846. His works (under pen-name of
Hugh Haliburton) consist of several volumes of poems
and of Scottish stories, " History of English Litera-
ture," (1894,) etc. He edited the poems of Ramsay,
Burns, Thomson, and Scott.

Robertson, (Rev. JOSEPH,) an English writer, born
in 1726. He wrote an "Essay on Punctuation," and
translated "Telemachus," (I795-) Died in lS 2 -

Robertson, (PATRICK,) a Scottish judge, versifier,
and lawyer, noted for his wit and humour, was born in
1794. He was elected Dean of the Faculty of Advocates
in 1842. Died in 1855.

Robertson, (THOMAS,) an English grammarian, born
at or near Wakefield. He became a Fellow of Magda-
lene College, Oxford, in 1532, and Dean of Durham about
15:57. Died about 1560.

Robertson, (THOMAS WILLIAM,) an English actor
and dramatist, born January 9, 1829. Among his plays
are "David Garrick," "Society," "Ours," "Caste,"
" Plav," " School," " For Love," " War," etc. Died in
London, February 3, 1871.

Robertson, (WILLIAM,) often called PRINCIPAL ROB-
ERTSON, a celebrated Scottish historian, was born at
Borthwick, in Edinburghshire, (Mid-Lothian,) September
19, 1721. His father, the Rev. William Robertson,
minister at Borthwick when his son was born. He
afterwards removed to Edinburgh. Young Robertson
manifested an ardent devotion to literature from a very
early age. He began to preach before he was twenty
years old. He was presented to the living of Gladsmuir,
in East Lothian, in 1743, and acquired a high reputatior
as' an eloquent pulpit orator. He took a prominent part
in the debates of the General Assembly of the Churcr
of Scotland, and obtained great influence in ecclesiastical
affairs. He was the leader of what was called the mode-
rate party, and was more inclined to liberality and tole
ranee than many other members of his church. He has
however, been charged, perhaps not without reason, with
preferring the interests of literature to those of religion
In 1759 he published a " History of Scotland during the
Reigns of Mary and of James VI. till his Accession to
of England," which was received with grea

the Crown

and general favour.

It was extolled by Hume, Burke

and other eminent critics. He removed to Edinbur^,
about 1759, became one of the king's chaplains in 1761
and principal of the University of Edinlurgh in 1762
His reputation was increased by his " History of the
Emperor Charles V., with a Sketch of the Political am
Social State of Europe," etc., (3 vols., 1769,) which is
considered his capital work. He afterwards publishec
a " History of America," (2 vols., 1777.) He i gene
rally accurate and impartial in the narration of events
and judicious in the estimation of character. His style
is elegant, clear, and vigorous, with occasional passages
of great beauty. As a writer he is remarkable for a
sustained unimpassioned dignity of manner, which, how
ever, too often approaches monotony. In politics he

ai 2. Whig, with a strong leaning towards republicanism.
[le died in June, 1793.

See DCCALD STEWART, "Account of the Life and Writings of
. Robertson," 180: : SUARD, " Notice sur la Vie et les Ecnts de
Dr. Robertson;" "Memoirs of Adam Smith, W. Robertson, and
Thomas Reid," 181 1 ; BISHOP GLEIG, " Menoir of W. Robertson,"
irefiied to his works : BROUGHAM, " Men of Letters in the Time of
jeorge III.:" CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent
Scotsmen;" ALUSONE, " Dictionary of Authors;" " Monthly Re-
view" for July and August, 1769.

Roberva], de, deh ro'blR'vil', (GILES Personne
R'son', or Fersonier, peR'so'ne_-4',) a French mathe-
natician, was born at Roberval.^near Senlis, in 1602.
He removed to Paris in 1627, and formed an intimacy
with Mersenne. About 1632 he obtained the chair of
mathematics founded by Ranjus at the College de
France. He discovered about 1636 a method to deter-
mine the area of a cycloid, and a method to determine
he direction of a tangent at any point of a curve line.
Among his works are a "Treatise on Indivisibles,"
'Traite des Indivisibles,") and "On the World's Mo-

seen asked how he liked a dramatical performance
which he had just witnessed, he answered, "Qu'est-ce
|ue cela prouve ?" (" What does that prove ?") Died in
'aris in 1675.

Robeson, (GEORGE MAXWELL,) an American
lawyer, bom at Belvidere, New Jersey, in 1829. He
became attorney-general of New Jersey in 1867, and
secretary of the navy in 1869. He served for some
time as secretary of war in 1876, and was in Congress
from 1878 to 1882. Died in 1897.

Robespierre, ro'bes'pe-aiF/, (AucuSTiN BON Jo-
SEPH,) called THE YOUNG, a brother of the dictator,
was born at Arras in 1764. He was elected to the
National Convention in 1792. When the Convention
ordered the arrest of his brother, he exclaimed, "In-
clude me with him j I partake his crimes !" He was
executed July 28, 1794-

Robespierre, rob'es-peer, [Fr. pron. roT^es pe^aiR',]
(MAXIMILIEN MARIE ISIDORE,) a French demagogue
and Jacobin, was born at Arras on the 6th of May,
1758. He was sent to the College of Arras, from which
he passed in 1770 to the College Louis-le-Grand, in
Paris. His habits at college were studious and regular.
He studied law, acquired some distinction as an advo-
cate at Arras, and was sent to the States-General in
May, 1789, as one of the sixteen representatives of the
province of Artois. He was a person of small stature,
and had nothing attractive or imposing in his aspect
His voice was weak, his complexion "sea-green," his
disposition reserved and timid, and his moral habits tem-
perate and regular. According to M. fitienne Dumont,
he had a sinister aspect, and a continual blinking (V/w&-
meat) of the eyes. In political opinions he was a radical
democrat. He spoke often in the Constituent Assembly
and in the Jacobin Club, over which he soon acquired
a predominant influence. While men of greater talents
wasted their energies in vain efforts to reform the old
regime by half-way measures and temporizing expedients,
he seems to have perceived the necessity of a radical
revolution. "He will go far," says Mirabeau; "for he
believes all he says."

In the Constituent Assembly he maintained a position
somewhat independent of party. lie defended with zeal
the interests of the inferior clergy, advocated the abo-
lition of the death-penalty, (May, 1791,) and made a
vehement speech against the re-election of the member*
of the Constituent Assembly to the Legislative Assem-
bly, on which question he differed from the othei chiefs
of ihe gauche. On critical occasions he usually presented
himself to the people as a resigned and devoted victim
whom nefarious persons designed to immolate becaus*
he loved the people too well. Thus, after he had de-
nounced the king, the ministry, etc., June 21, 1791. he
said, "I know that I sharpen against myself a thousand
daggers ; but if in the first stage of the Revolution, when
1 was scarcely known in the National Assembly, I offered
my life as a sacrifice to truth, now that the approbation
of mv fellow-citizens has rewarded me for this sacrifice,

a, e, i, 6, u, y, lung; i, e, 6, same, leii prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, shtrt; a, e, j, o., obscure, fir, fill, fit; met; ndt; good; moon




I should receive almost as a benefit a death which shall

frevent me from witnessing the public calamities which
foresee to be inevitable." In December, 1791, he
opposed in a speech the declaration of war against
the Emperor of Germany which was proposed by the
Girondists. Although not a great orator, he was
always plausible, and more logical than the most of his
competitors. He never took an active or open part
in the violent acts and outrages of the populace, such
as the attack on the Tuileries, August, 1792.

In September, 1792, he was elected to the Convention
as a deputy from Paris. A few days after the session
began, several Girondist deputies accused him of aspiring
to a dictatorship, and cast on him the responsibility of
the recent massacre in the prisons of Paris. These
charges were repeated by Louvet in a long speech,
(October 29,) to which Robespierre read an artful
and successful defence. The result of this affair was
that Robespierre became the accepted chief of the
Mountain and the implacable enemy of the Girondists.
The first victim of his unscrupulous policy was the
king, whom the Girondists wished to save. He said,
(December 2, 1792,) "I pronounce with regret this
fatal truth ; but Louis must die that the country may
live," ("Louis doit mourir parcequ'il faut que la patrie
rive.") Aided by the commune of Paris and the mob,
he triumphed over the Girondists about June I, 1793.
Then began the Reign of Terror, during which, as presi-
dent of the committee of public safety, (or salvation,)
Robespierre exercised almost unlimited power. Two
of his partisans, Couthon and Saint-Just, were associated
with him in the triumvirate of Robespierre. It is
just to admit that they defended France with great
vigour and ability against the allied armies of nearly
all Europe and the Vendean royalist insurgents.

In March, 1794, Hebert and the Hebertists were
guillotined as exagMs or ultra-revolutionary. It is stated
that when the committee of public safety determined
to destroy Danton and his friends, Robespierre at first
opposed the measure ; but he supported, by a speech in
the Convention, Saint-Just's motion for their arrest, and
Danton, with Desmoulins and others, was executed in
April, 1794. But the death of a powerful rival did not
render his own position secure. His statesmanship was
not adequate to solve the enigma of the Revolutien. He
presided as a high-priest and pronounced an oration at
a public ceremony called the Festival of the Supreme
Being, in June, 1794. In the mean time, multitudes oi
innocent persons, of both sexes, perished daily by the
guillotine. This excessive cruelty provoked against him
a combination of various parties, afterwards called
"Thermidoriens," including Tallien, Barras, Billaud-
Varennes, Fouche, and Carnot. The Convention ordered
the arrest of Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor. His
partisans rallied in the night and released him from
arrest. He was then declared an outlaw by the Conven-
tion, and was guil lotined, with twenty of his partisans, on
the loth Thermidor, (28th of July,) 1794. He was sur-
named " the Incorruptible," because he was proof against
pecuniary temptations. " Robespierre," says Macaulay,
in his article on Barere, "was a vain, envious, and sus-
picious man, with a hard heart, weak nerves, and a
gloomy temper. But we cannot with truth deny that he
was, in the vulgar sense of the word, disinterested, thai
bis private life was correct, or that he was sincerely
zealous for his own system of politics and morals."

See LODIEU, " Biographic de Robespierre :" VILATE, "Causes
accretes de la Revolution du 9 Thermidor," 1796 ; PROVART, " Vie de
Robespierre," 1794; GEORGE H. LEWES, "History of Maximilian
Robespierre," 18415; LAMARTINE, "Histoire des Girondms*;" ER-
NEST HAMEL, " Histoire de Robespierre," 3 vols., 1867; CARLYLB;
" History of the French Revolution ;" P. F. TlssOT, " Histoire de
Robespierre," a vols., 1844 : OPITZ, " Robespierre's Triumph und
Sturt," 1850; MIGNET, "Histoire de la Revolution FranTaise;''
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Robilant, de, deh roTje'loN', ? (ESPRIT BENofTNico.
IAS,) an engineer and writer on metallurgy, etc., born at
Turin in 1724. He was a son of Count Joseph Robilant,
authorof an able work on Strategy, (1744.) Died in 1801.

Robin, ro'baN', (CHARLES PHILIPPE,) a French anato-
mist and microscopist, born at Jasseron (Ain) in 1821.
He became professor of anatomy at Paris ( ' trofesseur

agregtctla Facultl) in 1847. He applied the microscope
to the study of anatomy and the intimate structure of
tissues. He published a number of professional works,
among which is "Traite de Chimie anatomique et phy-
siologique, normale et pathologique." Died in 1885.

Robin, (JEAN,) a French botanist, born in Paris in
1550. He was patronized by Henry IV., and planted a
garden which was the finest in Paris. He published a
work on the plants which grow near Paris, " Catalogus
Stirpium tarn indigenarum quam exoticarum," etc.,
(1601.) The genus Robinia was named in his honour
Did in 1629.

See HALLER. " Bibliotheca Eotanica."

Robin, (VESPASIEN,) abotanist, born in Paris in 1579,
was a son of the preceding. He succeeded his father in
the title of arboriste du roi, and lectured on botany at the
Jardin Royal. Died in 1662.

Robin Hood. See HOOD, (RoBiN.)

Robineau. See BEAUNOIR.

Robinet, roT}e'n|', (EDMOND,) a French littlrattur,
born at Saint- Pol-de-L^on in 1811. He wrote several
historical works. Died November 22, 1864.

Robinet, (JEAN BAPTISTE RENE,) a French writer on
various subjects, born at Rennes in 1735; died in 1820.

Robinet, (STEPHANE,) a French chemist, born in
Paris in 1796; died December 2, 1869.

Rob'ins, (BENJAMIN,) an eminent English mathema-
tician, born at Bath in 1707, is called the founder of the
science of gunnery. He was chosen a Fellow of the
Royal Society at the age of twenty. His chief work is
"New Principles of Gunnery," (1742.) He was ap-
pointed chief engineer of the East India Company in
1749, and died at Madras in 1751.

See DR. WILSON, "Life of Benjamin Robins;" *' BiographU
Britannica," (Supplement.)

Robins or Robyns, (JOHN,) an English astronomer,
born in Staffordshire about 1500. He was canon of
Windsor, and chaplain to Henry VIII. He left in manu-
script several treatises on the Fixed Stars. Died in

Rob'in-Bpn, (AGNES MARY FRANCES,) an English
poet and novelist, born at Leamington, February 27, 1857.
She was educated on the Continent, and at University
College, London. She married Professor James
Dnrmesteter. Her numerous works include poems,
novels, biographies, historical sketches, etc. Among
them are "An Italian Garden, a Book of Songs,"
(1886,) "A Mediaeval Garland," (1897,) "La Vie
de Renan," (1898,) etc. Her sister, FRANCIS
MABEL, has written " A Woman of the World,"
(1890,) "Chimera," (1895,) and other novels.

Robinson, (ANNIE DOUGLAS,) an American author,
known by the pseudonym of MARIAN DOUGLAS. She
was born at Plymouth, New Hampshire, January 12,
1842. Her maiden name was GREEN. Her writings
include " Picture Poems," (1872,) " Peter and Polly," (a
story, 1876.) and many fugitive poems.

Robiuaon, (CHARLES SEYMOUR,) D.D., an American
Presbyterian divine, born at Bennington, Vermont, March,
31, 1829. He graduated at Williams College in 1849,
and studied theology in New York and at Princeton.
Besides volumes of sermons, etc., he published many
hymn-compilations. Died in 1899.

Rob'in-son, (EDWARD,) an eminent American bibli-
cal scholar, born at Southington, Connecticut, in 1794.
He graduated at Hamilton College, New York, in 1816,
and went to Europe in 1826, after which he studied
Oriental languages at Paris and Halle. About 1828 he
married a daughter of Professor Jacobi or von Jakob,
of Halle. He began to edit the "Biblical Repository"
in 1831, was appointed professor of biblical literature
in the Union Theological Seminary, in the city of New
York, in 1837, and travelled in Palestine in 1838. In
1841 he published his principal work, " Biblical Re-
searches in Palestine, Mount Sinai, and Arabia Petraea,"
(3 vols. ) which is considered the best that had then
been published on that subject. "The work was recog-
nized," says R. W. Griswold, "as one of the most
learned and judicious produced in the world ffi this
century." He received for this work the gold medal of

as k; 5 as s; g hard; as /', G, H, K,uttural; N, natal; R, tnllid; s as z; th as in this.

lanatioi s, p.




the Royal Geographical Society of London. Among his
other works is "The Harmony of the Four Gospels," in
Greek, (1845,) and " Bibliotheca Sacra." Died in New
York in January, 1863.

Robinson, (EZEKIEL GILMAN.) D.D., LL.D., an
American Baptist divine, born at Attleborough, Massa-
chusetts, March 23, 1815. He graduated at Brown Uni-
versity in 1838, and in 1842 at Newton Theological
Institution. He was Hebrew professor in the Seminary
at Covington, Kentucky, 1846-48, and was first a pro-
fessor, and then president, in the Rochester (New York)
Theological Seminary, 1853-72. _ From 1872 to 1889 he
was president of Brown University, and in 1892 he was

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 266 of 425)