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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Avignon in 1730. Among his works is "New French
Synonyms," ("Nouveaux Synonymes Fran9ais," 4 vols.,
1785,) which is commended. Died in 1791.

Roubiliac, roo'bene-Jk', sometimes written Rou-
billac, (Louis FRANC.OIS,) an eminent French sculptor,
born at Lyons in 1695. He passed a large part of his
life in England, where he worked with great success.
Among his works, which are remarkable for minuteness
of finish, are a statue of Sir Isaac Newton, at Cambridge,
the monument of the Nightingale family, in Westminster
Abbey, and a statue of Shakspeare, executed for Garrick
and given by him to the British Museum. Died in Lon-
don in 1762.

See ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of Painters," etc. ; WALPOLE,
"Anecdotes of Painting."

Roubiliac. See ROUBILIA&

Roucher, roo'shi', (JEAN ANTOINE,) a French poet,
born at Montpellier in 1745. He published a poem en-
titled "On the Months," ("Des Mois," 1779.) He was
imprisoned in Paris for seven months, and guillotined,
with his friend Andre^ Chenier, in July, 1794.

See RIGAUD, "filoge de Roucher," 1807 ; " Nouvelle Biographic

Rouelle, roo'eT, (GUILLAUME FRANC.OIS,) a French
chemist, born near Caen in 1703, was the father-in-law
of J. Darcet. The celebrated Lavoisier was one of his
pupils. He contributed greatly to popularize chemistry
by his lectures in Paris, and exerted, says Dr. Hoefer, a
great influence on the progress of that science. He was
professor or dlmonstratfur at the Jardin du Roi. Died
in 1770.

See " Biographic Universclle ;" PAUL ANTOINB CAP, " Biogra-
phic Chimique Rouelle," 1843; "Nouvelle Biographic CWneraie ;"
HOBFKR, " Histoire de la Chimie."

Rouelle, (HILAIRE MARIN,) a French chemist, born
in 1718, was a brother of the preceding, whom he suc-
ceeded in 1768 at the Jardin du Roi. Died in 1779.

Rouge, de, deh roo'zha', (OLIVIER CHARLES CA-
MILLE,) a French archaeologist, born in Paris in 1811.
He distinguished himself as an Egyptologist, and was
admitted into the Institute in 1853. Among his works
is " Chrestomathie Egyptienne." He became professor
of Egyptian archaeology, etc. in the College of France
in 1860. Died December 27, 1872.

Rougemont, de, deh roozh'mAN', (FREDERIC CON-
STANT,) a Swiss Protestant author, born at Neufchatel,
July 28, 1828. He studied at Berne, Gottingen, and
Berlin, and became a writer on politics, theology, phi-
losophy, geography, etc. He was of profoundly religious

finished work on the history of philosophy,) some com-
mentaries on Scripture, and " A Mystery of the Passion,"
(1876.) Died April 3, 1876.

Rouget, roo'zhi/, (GEORGES,) a French painter ol
history and portraits, born in Paris in 1781. He gained
a medal of the first class in 1855. Died April 9, 1869.

Rouget de Lisle, (or Delisle,) roo'zh|' deh ill,
(CLAUDE JOSEPH,) a French poet and musician, born at
Lons-le-Saulnierin 1760. He was an officer of engineers
in the army when the Revolution began. Just after the
declaration of war in April, 1792, he dined with the
mayor of Strasbourg, where a wish was expressed thai
some poetical inspiration might respond to, or appeal
to, the national enthusiasm. In the ensuing evening
he composed for this purpose the famous war-song
called the "Marseillaise." He was imprisoned during
the reign of terror, and wounded at Quiberon, in 1795.
He was author of numerous ballads, musical airs, etc.
Died near Paris in 1836.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" MIRAMONT,
"Biographic de Rouget-Delisle," 1842; FELIX PYAT, "La Mar-
aeillaise, avec une Notice litteraire sur Rouget-Delisle," 1843;
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rougier, roo'zhe-4', (Louis AUGUSTF,,) a French
medical writer, born at Lyons in 1793. He published
several valuable medical works. Died in 1863.

Rougier de la Bergerie, roo'zhe-4' deh It b?Rzh're',
(JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French writer on agriculture, was
born at Beaulieu in 1757. Among his numerous works
are "French Georgics," a poem, (2 vols., 1804,) and z
" History of the Ancient Agriculture of the Romans,"
(1834.) Died in 1836.

Rougnon, roon'yon', (NICOLAS FRANgois,) a French
medical writer, born in Franche-Comt^ in 1727; died
in 1799.

Rouher, roo'4', (EUGENE,) an eloquent French ad-
vocate and minister. of state, born at Riom in 1814.
Having made profession of republican principles, he was
elected to the Constituent Assembly in 1848. He suc-
ceeded Odillon-Barrot as minister of justice in October,
1849, and retired from office in October, 1851. He was
afterwards vice-president of the council of state, and in
February, 1855, was appointed minister of agriculture,
commerce, and public works. In June, 1863, he ex-
changed that office for the position of president of the
council. He became minister of state October 19, 1863,
and as such had precedence of all the other ministers.
In January or February, 1867, he was appointed minister
of finance. Rouher was the chief organ of the govern-
ment in the corps Ugislatif. In July, 1869, he ceased to
be minister of state, and became president of the senate,
which was abolished in September, 1870. In 1872 he
was returned to the Nationa) Assembly for Corsica, and
in 1876 was elected to sit for Riom. Died Feb. 3, 1884.

RoutU6, roo'yi', (PIERRE.) Seigneur de Marbeuf, a
French diplomatist, born in Paris in 1657. He was
sent as a'mbassador to Portugal in 1697, and negotiated
a treaty of alliance, offensive and defensive, between
France and that power. In 1709 he was sent to Holland
to treat secretly for a general peace ; but he failed in
this mission. Died in 1712.

Rouille, (PIERRE JULIEN,) a French Jesuit, born at
Tours in 1681. He was one of the authors or compilers
of the "M^moires de TreVoux." Died in 1740.

Roujoux, de, deh roo'zhoo', (PRUDENCE GUIL-
LAUME,) BARON, a French historian, born at Lander-
neau in 1779. He published, besides other works, a
translation of Lingard's " History of England," (14
vols., 1825-31.) Died in 1836.

Rouland, roo'loN', (GusTAVE,) a French minister
of state, born at Yyetot in 1802. He was appointed
advocate-general of the court of cassation in 1847, and
was minister of public instruction and worship from
1856 to 1863. Died December 12, 1878.

Roulin, roo'laN', (FRANC.OIS DESIRE,) a French nat-
uralist, born at Rennes in 1796. He contributed to
several scientific journals, and was one of the editors of
an edition of Cuvier's " Regne animal." Died in 1874.

Roullet, roo'14', (JEAN Louis,) a French engraver,
born at Aries in 1645. He eftgraved after the Italian
masters. Died in Paris in 1699.

Roulliard, roole-iR', (SEBASTIEN,) a French lawyer
and pedantic writer, was born at Melun. He died it>
Paris, at an advanced age, in 1639.

a, e, I, 6. u, y, long; 4, e, A. same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ti, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mft; nftt; good; mOon:




Roumanllle, roo'mrneel', (JOSEPH,) a French (Pro-
rensal) poet or felibre, (a title adopted by certain writers
who are striving to restore the Proven9al literature,) was
born at Saint-Remy, August 8, 1818. He early won fame
as an improvisator. Among his poems are " Li Marga-
rideto," (1847,) "Lis Oubreto," (1859,) etc. Died, 1891.

Round, (WILLIAM MARSHALL FITZ,) an American
novelist, born at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, March 26,
1845. Among his books are " Achsah," (1876,) "Child
Marian Abroad," (1877,) "Torn and Mended," (1877,)
" Hal," (1879,) and " Rosecroft," (1881.) He is a journalist
by profession, and is active in prison-reform.

Rouquette, roo'keV, (ADRIAN,) an American poet
nd priest, (1813-1887,) born at New Orleans, laboured
as missionary among the Choctaw Indians. His brother,
Fran9ois Dominique, born in 1810, wrote a work on the
Choctaw nation, and a number of poems. Died, 1890.

Rourlk. See RURIK.

Rous or Rouse, (FRANCIS,) an English republican
legislator and writer on theology, was born at Halton
in 1579. He was a friend of Pym, the great orator, and
was a member of several Parliaments. He became a
supporter of Cromwell, and obtained a seat in the House
of Lords in 1657. Died in 1659.

Rouse, (JOHN.) See Ross.

Roussat, roo'si', (JEAN,) a French patriot, born at
Langres in 1543, was noted for his devotion to Henry
IV. and his hostility to the League. Eighty letters
written to him by that king are extant, and were printed
in 1816. Died in 1613.

Rousseau, roo'so , (GEORG LUDWIG CLAUDE,) a
German chemist, born near Wurzburg in 1724, was
professor of chemistry at Ingolstadt. Died in 1794.

Rousseau, roo'so', (JACQUES,)- a French painter and
engraver, born in Paris in 1630, was a Protestant. He
worked some years for Louis XIV. at Versailles and
Saint-Cloud ; but after the revocation of the edict of
Nantes (1685) he went into exile. Died in London in
1693 or 1694.

Rousseau, (JEAN BAPTISTS,) a French lyric poet of
great eminence, was born in Paris on the 6th of April,
1670. He was the son of a shoemaker, by whom he
was liberally educated. His first productions were come-
dies, which were not successful. About 1698 he served
Marshal Tallard as secretary in his embassy to London.
His reputation is founded on his odes, sacred and pro-
fane, epigrams, and cantatas. He was admitted into
the Academy of Inscriptions in 1701. He irlade many
enemies by his satires and couplets. -In 1712 he was
banished for life for anonymous satires against La Motte
and Saurin. It seems that he was convicted on circum-
stantial evidence only. He passed the rest of his life
in exile at Brussels, Vienna, London, etc., and found
powerful patrons, among whom was Prince Eugene.
About 1717 he declined the offer of a pardon from the
French court, and insisted on a formal recognition ol
the injustice of his sentence. He died at Brussels in
March, 1741. By some critics he is considered the
greatest lyric poet of France. According to the "Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," his reputation has declined
since the eighteenth century. " Rousseau is extremely
skilful in versification," says Fournel, "a very adroit
artisan of lyrical strophes. It was by calculation and
not by inspiration that he became a lyrical poet." (" Nou-
velle Biographic G^nerale.")

See SEGUY, " Notice sur la Vie et les CEuvres de J. B. Rous-
teau," 1743; AMAR-DURIVIER, " Nouvel Essai sur la Vie et les

BOUREY, " J. B. Rouss
' Portraits HtteVaires."

Rousseau, (JEAN FRANQOIS XAVIER,) a French
diplomatist, born at Ispahan in 1738. He was consu
at Bagdad, and was employed in negotiations with the
Persian court. Died at Aleppo in 1808.

His son, JEAN BAPTISTE Louis JACQUES, born in
1780, was an Orientalist. He wrote a "Historica
Notice of Persia," (1818,) and other works. Died at
Tripoli in 1831.

Rousseau, (JEAN JACQUES,) a celebrated Swiss phi
losopher and eloquent writer, born at Geneva on the 28th
of June, 1712, was a son of Isaac Rousseau, a watch-

maker. His mother, whose maiden name was Bernard,
and who is said to have been amiable and highly gifted,
died during the infancy of the subject of this article,
who was not fortunate in his education. His favourite
author in childhood was Plutarch, to whose influence
iousseau ascribed his own republican tendencies and his
ove of independence. Jean Jacques had one brother,
who in early youth went to seek his fortune in a foreign
country and was never heard of afterwards. In conse-
quence of a quarrel with a military officer, Isaac Rous-
seau fled or removed to Nyon in 1722, leaving his son at
Geneva in the care of his uncle, M. Bernard. About
1726 he was placed as an apprentice with an engraver
named Ducommun, a coarse man and harsh master, by
whom he was so ill treated that in Marcn, 1728, he ran
away in the direction of Savoy. He was received as a
;uest at the house of Madame de Warens, of Annecy, a
Benevolent and frail lady, to whom he formed a lasting
attachment. Having become an outcast and wanderer
n a strange country and without resources, he changed
lis relig'on by a formal abjuration at Turin. He was
employed for a short time at Turin as a servant of the
Countess de Vercellis and the Count de Gouvon ; but his
success was hindered by irregular habits and instability.
He returned and became a second time an inmate in
:he house of Madame de Warens, who procured for
fiim a situation as clerk in the bureau of the cadastre.
Finding this employment uncongenial, he soon aban-
doned it, and adopted the profession of a teacher of
music, (of which he was very fond,) although he was
scarcely qualified to teach it. He obtained, however, a
number of pupils.

In the summer of 1736 Rousseau and Madame de
Warens removed to a rural residence called Charmettes,
near Chambe'ry, where they passed two or three years,
which, he informs us, were among the happiest of his
life. His early career presents a series of bizarre ad-
ventures, absurd vagaries, and surprising vicissitudes, of
which he has given an extremely candid and unreserved
narrative in his " Confessions." He was subject to hy-
pochondria and morbid imaginations even in his youth.
Having invented a system of musical notation by figures,
(chijfres,) which he hoped would promote his interest
and^reputation, he went to Paris in the autumn of 1741,
with only a few silver coins in his purse. He was
presented to the Academy of Sciences by Reaumur, and
read a memoir on his system of notation to that body
which decided that it was neither new nor practicable.
He lived in great indigence until he obtained, in 1743,
the place of secretary to M. de Montaigu, French
ambassador to Venice, whom Rousseau represents as an
incompetent and villanous person. After he had passed
about eighteen months at Venice, Rousseau returned
to Paris in 1745, and formed intimacies with Diderot,
Grimm, Madame d'fipinay, and Therese Le Vasseur
The last was an illiterate woman, of low birth, whom he
married after they had lived together as husband and
wife for many years. They had five children, whom
Rousseau sent to the foundling-hospital. He received
a small legacy from his father, who died in 1747, after
which he served as secretary to Madame Dupin of Paris,
and her son, M. de Francueil, receiver-general of nuances.
In 1750 he gained the prize offered by the Academy of
Dijon for an essay on the question whether the progress
of the sciences and arts had contributed to corrupt
morals. He took the affirmative; and never was a
paradox supported with greater eloquence.

Rousseau's physical infirmities, his fondness for para-
dox, and his hostility to conventional maxims and usurp-
ation, combined to render him eccentric and singular
in his manners and mode of living. He simp Sfied his
costume, renounced fashionable and convivial parties,
and affected a stern and sententious tone. According
to his own confession, a peculiar contempt for the riches
and pleasures of the world was one of the prominent
traits of his character. About 1750 he was appointed
cashier to M. de Francueil ; but he soon resigned that
place, because it seemed fatal to his health and incom-
patible with his principles," for with what grace could
the cashier of a receiver-general preach disinterest-
edness and poverty ?" He afterwards earned a scant*

eas/i; casj; gAarti; feas/VG, H, K., guttural: N. nasal: -trilled; sas*; thasinMr. (J^=~See Explanations, p. 23.)




subsistence by copying music. In 1752 he produced
his opera " Le Devin du Village," which was performed
before the king at Fontainebleau and had a great success.
The king expressed a wish to see the author ; but the
timidity of Rousseau caused him to decline the honour.

He produced in 1753 a " Discourse on the Origin of
Inequality among Men," in which he maintains that al)
men are born equal. " He was the father of modern
democracy," says Professor Lowell, in the "North
American Review" for July, 1867, "and without him
our Declaration of Independence would have wanted
some of those sentences in which the immemorial long-
ings of the poor and the dreams of solitary enthusiasts
were at last affirmed as axioms in the manifesto of a
nation, so that all the world might hear." He offended
the national vanity by his " Letter on French Music,"
(1753,) but in many respects he was a typical French-
man. In 1754 he visited Geneva, where he was received
with honour and was formally admitted into the Prot-
estant communion. He passed seven days in a tour or
promenade, by means of a boat, around Lake Geneva.

In 1756 he was persuaded by Madame d'Epinay to
occupy the Hermitage, a rural residence which she
built for him in the valley of Montmorency, near Paris.
He resided there about two years, and began to write a
novel entitled " Julie, or the New Heloise," (" Nouvelle
HeMo'ise," 1760,) which was greatly admired for its elo-
quence and sensibility. Before this work was finished
he became enamoured of Madame d'Houdetot, who was
a sister of Madame d'Epinay and was a married woman.
He was alienated from Diderot, Grimm, and other friends,
whom he accused of perfidious intrigues against his peace
and reputation. " It was not so much my literary celebrity
as my personal reformation that excited their jealousy.
They could not pardon me for giving, in my conduct, an
example which seemed to testify against them." (Rous-
seau, " Confessions.") It appears certain that Grimm
became a malevolent calumniator of Rousseau. His
next important works were "The Social Contract,"
("Du Contrat social, ou Principes du Droit politique,"
1762,) and "Emile, ou de 1'Education," (4 vols., 1762,)
which, considered as a speculative philosophical treatise,
is a work of a high order. It produced some useful re-
forms in the treatment of young children ; but its tend-
ency was considered so dangerous that it was burned at
Geneva, and the Parliament of Paris issued an order for
the arrest of Rousseau, who escaped by flight He found
refnge in the principality of Neufchitel, the governor of
which, Lord Keith, received him with kindness. In 1765
David Hume, who was then in France, offered the exiled
author of "Emile" an asylum in England. Rousseau
accepted the invitation, arrived in London in January,

1766, and went to reside at Wootton, in Staffordshire.
He was annoyed by an offensive and libellous letter pub-
lished in the journals with the signature of the King of
Prussia; but the real author of it was Horace Walpole.

Having become possessed by a suspicion that Hume
was not his true friend, he returned to France in May,

1767. It is stated by M. Morin in the "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ginerale" that Hume avowed, in a letter pub-
lished in 1820, that he co-operated in the redaction of
the forged letter from the King of Prussia. Rousseau
married The>ese Le Vasseur in 1768, resided in Paris
from 1770 untii 1778, and was always on the verge of
poverty. Among his later works were a " Dictionary of
Music," (1767,) and his autobiographic "Confessions,"
which he began to write about 1766 and which were not
published before 1782. Botany was one of his favourite
pursuits when in the country. In the spring of 1778 he
removed to Ermenonville, where he died on the 2d of
July in the same year. He was a man of middle stature
and well proportioned. "It was perhaps his sensibility
to the surrounding atmosphere of feeling and specula-
tion which made Rousseau more directly influent-al on
contemporary thought (or perhaps we should say senti-
ment) than any other writer of his time." (" Rousseau
and the Sentimentalists," in the " North American
Review" for July, 1867, written by Professor Lowell.)
The same critic observes, " There was a faith and an
ardour of conviction in him that distinguish him from
most of the writers of his time. Nor were his practice

and his preaching always inconsistent. He contrived to
pay regularly, whatever his own circumstances were,
one hundred livres a year to a maternal aunt who had
been kind to him in childhood." " Though I see," says
Hume, " some tincture of extravagance in all his writings,
I also think I see so much eloquence and force of
imagination, such an energy of expression, and such
a boldness of conception, as entitle him to a place
amongst the first writers of his age." (Quoted in the
" Encyclopedia Britannica.")

See BARRUHL-BEAirvERT, "Vie de J. J. Rousseau," 1789 : HEM-
NINGS, "Rousseau," Berlin, 1797; MUSSET-PATHAY, " Histoire de
la Vie et des Ouvrages de j. J. Rousseau," z vo!s., 1821 : LORD
BROUGHAM, "Voltaire and Rousseau," 1845: G. H. MORIN, " Es-

sai surla Vie et leCaractere de J. J. Rousseau," 1851 ; P. H. AZAIS,
"Jugement philosophique sur J. J. Rousseau," etc., 1817: ZOLLER,
"Pestalozzi und Rousseau," 1851: SAINTE-BEUVK. " Causeries da

Lundi :" EROCKERHOFF, "J. J. Rousseau," (in German,) 3 vols.
1863; "Lives of the Most Eminent French Writers," by MRS.
SKBLLEY : " Nouvelle Biographic Generate :" " Blackwood's Maga-
rine" for February, 1822 ; " Foreign Quarterly Review" for October,
1843: " Westminster Review" for October, 1859 : " North America*
Review" for July, 1832, (by A. H. EVERETT.)

Rousseau, (Louis FRANCOIS EMMANUEL,) a French
naturalist, born at Belleville in 1788; died in 1868.

Rousseau, roo's5', (LovELL H.,) an American general,
born in Lincoln county, Kentucky, about 1820. He was a
lawyer, and a resident of Louisville before the civil war.
He commanded a brigade of the Union army at Shiloh,
April, 1862, and a division at the battle of Stone River,
which ended January 2, 1863. He became a member
of Congress about 1865. Died in January, 1869.

Rousseau, (PHILIPPE,) a French landscape-painter,
born in Paris about 1816. He obtained a medal of the
first class in 1848. Died December 6, 1887.

Rousseau, (SAMUEL,) an English Orientalist, born
in London in 1765. He published "The Flowers of
Persian Literature, in Prose and Verse," (1801,) and
other works. Died in 1820.

Rousseau, (THEODORE,) an excellent French land-
scape-painter, born in Paris in 1812. He gained a medal
of the first class in 1849. His works are commended
for harmony of colour and for the transparency of the
skies. Died in 1867.

Roussel, roo'se 1 !', [Lat. RU'FUS,] (GERARD,) written
also RufB, a French Protestant Reformer, born near
Amiens. He became in 1526 chaplain to Marguerite, a
lister of Francis I., and in 1536 Bishop of Oleron. He
wished to propagate Reformed doctrines without a
separation from the old Church. Died in 1550.

See CH. SCHMIDT, "Gerard Roussel," 1843: "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ginerale."

Roussel, (GuiLLAUME,) a French Benedictine and
writer, born at Conches in 1658. He produced a French
version of the " Letters of Saint Jerome," (3 vols., 1704-
07.) Died in 1717.

Roussel, (HENRI PIERRE ANSELME,) a French
medical writer, born near Domfront in 1748; died at
Caen in 1812.

Roussel, (NAPOLEON,) a French Protestant minister,
born about 1805. He preached for many years at Saint
Etienne, from which he removed to Paris. He published
numerous works on theology. Died June 9, 1878.

Roussel, (PIERRE,) a French physician and able
writer, born at Aqs, near Foix, in 1742. He produced
in 1775 "The Physical and Moral System of Woman,"
which passed through many editions. He explained
the organization of woman with great penetration
and subtlety. " Roussel writes with elegance and in-
terest," says La Harpe : " his observations are truly
philosophic." Died in 1802.

See ALIBRRT, "Cloges de Spallanzani, Galvani, Rouwel
Bichat," 1806: "Biographic M^dicale,"


Rousselin. See SAINT-ALBIN.

Rousselot de Surgy, rooslo' deh siiR'zhe^,
(JACQUES PHILIBERT,) a French litterateur, born at Di-
jon in 1737, obtained the office of royal censor at Paris

Rousaet, roo'sj', (CAMILLE F*LIX MICHEL,) a
French historian, born in Paris, February 15, 1821. He
held various professorships of history, and in 1871 was
chosen to the Academy. His works include " A Sum-

i. e. T, o. \\. v, lone: 4. ^. \ <">nie, less prolonged; a, e, !, 6, u, ?, short: a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; eood; moon




mary of the History of the French Revolution," (1849,)
a "History of Louvois," (4 vols., 1861-63,) a " History
of the Crimean War," (1877,) and "The Conquest of
Algeria," 1879.) Died October 19, 1892.

Rousset de Missy, roo'si' deh me'se', (JEAN,) a
French historical writer, born at Laon in 1686, was
exiled for his religion (Protestantism) and settled in
Holland about 1705. He published numerous mediocre
->rks, among which are "Memoirs of the Reign of
Peter the Great," (4 vols., 1726.) Died in 1762.
See"Nouvelle Biographic Ginerale."
Roussin, roo'siN', (ALBIN REINE,) BARON, a French

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 273 of 425)