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admiral, born at Dijon in 1781. He was ambassador at
Constantinople from 1832 to 1839, and was minister of
marine from March to October, 1840. Died in 1854.

Roustain, roo'staN', ( ARON JEAN BAPTISTE PIERRE,)
a French jurist, born in Paris in 1804. He obtained a
chair of Roman law in Paris in 1855. Died in 1856.
Roustam. See ROOSTAM.

Roustan, roo'stoN', (originally Roustam, roos'tam,)
Mameluke, born probably in Georgia in 1782. Having
rendered some service to Napoleon in Egypt, the latter
brought him to France in 1799. Roostan became a
favourite personal attendant of Napoleon, and accom-
panied him in his campaigns and journeys, ni.rf '"
France in 1845.

Roustan, roo'stftN', (ANTOINE JACQUES,) a Swiss
Protestant minister and writer, born at Geneva in 1734.
He was minister of a Swiss church in London for twenty-
six years, (1764-90.) He was author of several religious
and moral works, which were highly esteemed, and of
an "Abridgment of Universal History," (9 vols., 1790.)
Died at Geneva in 1808.
Roustem. See ROOSTAM.

Routh, rowth, (EDWARD JOHN,) a British mathema-
tician, born at Quebec, Canada, in 1831. He was educated
in University College, London, under De Morgan, gradu-
ating B.A. at London University in 1849. He afterwards
studied at the Peterhouse, Cambridge, under Todhunter
nd Hopkins, gradaating in 1854 as senior wrangler
Clerk Maxwell being next below him. He then be
came a Fellow of the Peterhouse, and a very successfu
mathematical instructor. He has published "Rigid
Dynamics," and many scientific papers.

Routh, rowth, (Rev. MARTIN JOSEPH,) an English
scholar and writer, born near Beccles, in Suffolk, in Sep
tember, 1755, was educated at Oxford. He became
president of Magdalen College in 1791, and rector ol
Tylehurst, near Reading, in 1810. In 1814 he publishec
a work of superior merit on I he fragments of author
of the second and third centuries, most of whose writ
ings are lost, entitled " Sacred Relics," etc., (" Reliquiae
Sacrae," etc., 3 vols.) Died in 1854, aged ninety-nine.

Rouvier, roo've-i', (MAURICE,) a French republican
born at Aix, AprifT?, 1842. He became a lawyer o
Marseilles, and was sent to Egypt on the commission o
judiciary reform. In 1876 he was chosen to the Nationa
Assembly, in which he took a prominent place with th
extreme left.

Rouvier, (NoEMiE,) a French authoress and artist,
born in Paris, December 12, 1832. Her first husban
was the former Abbe Constant, known as Eliphas LeVi,
from whom she was soon separated. In 1875 she mar-
ried Maurice Rouvier. She wrote many romances under
the name of CLAUDE VIGNON, and executed many busts,
medallions, and groups in marble, chiefly exhibited under
the name of NOEMIE CONSTANT. Died in 1888.

Rouviere, roo've-aiR', (PHILIBERT,) a French painter
and actor, born at Nimes in 1806 ; died in 1865.

Roux, roo, (AUGUSTIN,) a learned French physician.
born at Bordeaux in 1726, settled in Paris about 1750.
He obtained the chair of chemistry in the Faculty of
Medicine in 1770, and published "Typographic Annals;
or, Account of the Progress of Human Knowledge,"
("Annales typographiques, ou Notice du Progres des
Connaissances humaines," 10 vols., 1758-62,) which is a
work of merit. Died in 1776.

Sec J. DARCKT, " filoge de Roux," 1777-
Roux, (JOSEPH PHILIBERT,) an eminent French sur-
geon, born at Auxerre in April, 1780, was a favour.te

iupil of Bichat. He published in 1812 a "Treatise on
Resection," ("Trait^ sur la Resection,") and invented
n 1819 an operation called Staphyloraphy. In 1820 he
btained the chair of pathology at the Ecole de Mede-
ine in Paris, and in 1835 succeeded Dupuytren at_ the
lotel-Dieu. He was author of several surgical treatises.
>ied in 1854.

See SACHAILK, "Les McSdecins de Paris;" "Biographic Mfdi-
cale;" MALGAIGNK, " filoge de M. Roux," 1855.

Roux, MA!TRE. See Rosso, IL.

Roux, (PIERRE PAUL EMILE,) a French bacteri-
logist, born at Confolens in 1853. He became an
assistant to Pasteur, and in 1894 discovered the anti-
method of treating diphtheria, for which he re-
ceived the Amliffred prize of twelve thousand francs.

Roux de FaziUao, roo deh fl'ze'yfk', (PIERRE,) a
French revolutionist, born at Excideuil in 1743. He
was a member of the Convention, and voted for the
death of Louis XVI. He wrote a " History of the Wat

Germany in 1756,'' (2 vols., 1803.) Died in 1833.

Roux-Lavergne, roo IfvSRfi', (PIERRE CELESTIN,)
a French publicist, born at Figeac in 1802. He aided
M. Buchet in the "Parliamentary History of the French
Revolution," (40 vols., 1833-38.) Died Feb. 16, 1874.

Roux, lie. See LEROUX.

Rovelli, ro-veVlee, (GIUSEPPE,) MARQUIS, an Italiai.
historian, born at Como in 1738. He published a
" History of Como," (5 vols., 1789 et seq.} Died in 1813.

Rovere, de la. See SIXTHS IV. and JULIUS II.

Rovere. della, del'la ro'va-ri, (FRANCESCO MARIA,)
Duke of Urbino, an Italian general, born in 1490,
was a nephew of Pope Julius II. He commanded the
papal army, and took several towns from the French, in
1512. Having been appointed captain-general of the
Venetian armies about 1526, he displayed great military
skill in the war against Charles V. Died in 1538.

Rovere, della, (FRANCESCO MARIA,) born in 1548,
was a grandson of the preceding, and was eminent as a
patron of learning. He was the last Duke of Urbino.
He died in 1631, when Urbino was annexed to the Papal

Rovigo, de, Due. See SAVARY.

Row, ro, (JOHN,) a Scottish divine, born near Stirling
about 1526. He was agent of the Scottish clergy at the
Vatican, Rome, in 1550, and afterwards became a Prot-
estant minister. He was one of the six ministers who
composed the Scottish Confession and " First Book of
Discipline." Died in 1580.

Row, (JOHN,) a son of the preceding, was born at
Perth in 1568. It is stated that he could read the Old
Testament in Hebrew at the age of seven. He was
minister of the parish of Carnock for about fifty years,
and wrote a " History of the Kirk of Scotland from 1558
to 1637." Died in 1646.

Row, (JOHN,) a Hebrew scholar, born at Carnock
about 1598, was a son of the preceding. He was a
Covenanter in the civil war, and, while Cromwell was
in power, held the office of principal of King's College,
Aberdeen. He published a Hebrew Grammar in 1644
Died about 1672.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."
Rowan ro'an, (STEPHEN C.,) a rear-admiral, born in
Ireland He came to the United States in early youth,
and entered the navy in 1826. He gained the rank of
commander about 1855. He took an active part m

the civil war, and commanded the iron-clad New
Ironsides in the operations against Charleston in 1863.
He was made rear-admiral in

1866 and vice-admiral

in 1870 ; became superintendent of the Naval Observ-


in'i882, retired in 1889, and died in 1890.


Rowbotham, (JOHN FREDERICK,) a
writer, born in 1854- He graduated at Oxl
in 1885 published his chief work, " History of Music."
In 1886 appeared "The Death of Roland," and in
1890 " The Human Epic," (epic poems.)

Rowe ro, (ELIZABETH SINGER,) an English authc
born at Ilchester in 1674, became in 1709 the wife ol
Thomas Rowe, noticed below. She wrote several works,
in prose and verse, one of which is entitled " Friendship
in Death," (1728.) Died in 1737.

as *,- 9 as ,; g hard; g as/V G, H. K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as ,,- th as in M

e Expl




Rowe, (NICHOLAS,) an English dramatic poet, bom
at Little Beckford, in Bedfordshire, in 1673. He studied
law in the Middle Temple, but did not practise. In
1698 he produced "The Ambitious Step-Mother," and
in 1702 the tragedy of "Tamerlane." which was veiv
popular. His other chief works are "The Fair Penitent,"
(1703,) "Ulysses," (1706,) "The Royal Convert." (1708,)
"Jane Shore," (1714,) and "Lady Jane Grey," (1715.)
He was under-secretary of state for three years while

praised by

works, with a life of the author, (1709.) He became

poet-laureate in 1714. Died in 1718.

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the English Poets:" BAKER, "Bio
graphia Dramatics ;" CAMPBELL, " Specimens of the British Poets ;'
ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors."

Rowe, (THOMAS,) an English poet and historian,
born in 1687, married Elizabeth Singer, an authoress.
He wrote a Supplement to Plutarch's "Lives," (1728.)
Died in 1715.

Rowland, (HENRY AUGUSTUS,) an American
physicist, was born at Honesdale, Pennsylvania, in
1848. He became professor of physics at Johns Hop-
kins University in 1876, and was made a member of
the National Academy of Sciences in 1881. He made
important discoveries in magnetic action, and his
machine for ruling diffraction gratings has greatly
developed spectrum analysis.

Rowlands, (HENRY,) a Welsh antiquary, born in
Anglesey. He published an account of that island,
called "Mona Restored," ("Mona Restaurata,") Died
in 1722.

RowOand-son, (THOMAS,) an English artist, noted
its a caricaturist, was born in London in 1756. Among
his works are the plates of "Doctor Syntax." Died
in 1827.

Rowley, rowle, (Sir JOSIAS,) a British admiral, born
in Ireland in 1765 ; died in 1842.

Rowley, row'le, (WILLIAM,) an English dramatist,
who flourished in the reign of James I. and was a
contemporary of Shakspeare. Among his plays are
a " Match at Midnight," and "The Birth of Merlin."

Rowley, (WILLIAM,) an English physician, born in
London in 1743, wrote " New School of Universal Medi-
cine," ("Schola Medians universalis nova," 1793.)
Died in 1806.

RBw'ning, (Rev. JOHN,) an English mathematician,
born in 1699. He wrote on philosophy and mathe-
matics. Died in 1771.

Row'spn, (SUSANNAH.) a novelist, born in Porte-
mouth, England, in 1762. She lived much in the
United States, was successful as an actress and teacher,
and published poems, plays, school-books, and many
novels. Chief among these was " Charlotte Temple,"
(1790.) Died in 1824.

Rox-a'na, [Fr. ROXANE, rok'sln',] a beautiful Bao
trian or Persian princess, was captured by the Macedo-
nians in 327 B.C. Soon after this date she became the
wife of Alexander the Great. She had a son, Alexander,
(born in 323,) who was recognized as one of the heirs
of the king. She procured the death of Statira, one
of the wives of Alexander, and was put to death by
Cassander in 311 B.C.

See JUSTIN, books xii.-xv. ; ARRIAN, "Anabasis," books iv., vi,
and vii.

Roxane. See ROXANA.

Roxas. See ROJAS.

Rpxas or Rojas, de, da ro'His, (DOMINGO,) a
Spanish Protestant, was originally a Dominican monk.
Having been condemned to death by the Inquisition,
he was burned at an auto de K in Valladolid in 1559.

See PRESCOTT, " History of Philip II.," vol. i. book ii.

Roxburgh, DUKE OP. See KER, (JOHN.)
Roxburgh, rox'bur-eh, (WILLIAM,) an eminent bota-
nist, born in Scotland in 1759, was employed for many
years as a physician in the service of the East India
Company. He introduced the culture of coffee, the
nutmeg, the breadfruit-tree, etc. into India. He was

superintendent of the botanic garden of Calcutta from
'793 'o 1814. His chief works are entitled " Coroman-
del Plants," and "Flora Indica," (3 vols., 1832.) Died
in 1815.

Roy, (PIERRE CHARLES,) a French dramatic poet of
little merit, born in Paris in 1683 ; died in 1764.


Roy, (Major-General WILLIAM,) F.R.S., a British
surveyor, who acquired distinction by a trigonometrical
survey of Great Britain. He received the Copley medal
in 1785 for his measurement of a base on Hounslow
Heath. He directed the triangulation by which a portion
of the British arc of the meridian was measured in 1788.
He wrote "The Military Antiquities of the Romans il
North Britain," (1793.) Died in 1790.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Roy, de, deh Rwa, [Lat. RE'GIUS,] (HENRI,) a Dutch
writer on medicine and philosophy, born at Utrecht in
1598. He published " Principles of Physics," (" Funda-
tnenta Physices," 1648,) and other works. Died in 1679.

Roy, de, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a Flemish painter of land-
scape and cattle, born at Brussels in 1759; died in 1839.


Roy, Le, leh Rwa, [Lat. RE'GIUS,] (Louis,) a French
scholar, who became professor of Greek at Paris in
1570. He wrote a " Life of Buda?us." Died in 1577.

Royce. (JosiAH,) an American educator, was bom
at Grass Valley, California, in 1855. He graduated
at the University of California in 1875, was instructor
in English literature and logic there 187882, and
afterwards at Harvard, where he became professor of
the history of philosophy. His works include "The
Religious Aspect of Philosophy," "The Conception
of God," " History of California," etc.

Roye, de, d?h Rwa, (Guv,) a French prelate, born
near Soissons about 1345. He became Archbishop of
Rheims, and founded the College of Rheims at Paris.
Died in 1409.

Royen, van, vtn roy'en, (ADRIAN,) a Dutch botanist,
born in 1705. He succeeded Boerhaave as professor of
botany at Leyden, and published " Florae Leidensis Pro-
dromus," (1740.) Died in 1779.

Royer, Rwa'ya', ( ALPHONSE,) a French dramatist,
born in Paris in 1803. He produced, besides other
works, "The Constable Bourbon," (2 vols., 1838,) " Don
Pasquale," an opera, (1843,) "The janissaries," (2 vols.,
1844,) and several comedies. Died April n, 1875.

Royer, Rwa'yi', (Louis,) a Belgian or Dutch sculptor,
born at Malines in 1793. He became director of the
Royal Academy of Amsterdam. Died June 5, 1868.

Royer-Collard, Rwl'yi' ko'lfR', (ALBERT PAUL,) a
French jurist, born in Paris in 1797, was a nephew of the
eminent statesman of that name. He obtained the chair
of the law of nations in Paris in 1829. Died in 1865.

Royer-Collard, ( ANTOINE ATHANASE, ) an able
French physician, born at Sompuis in 1768, was a
brother of Pierre Paul, noticed below. He founded in
1803 the "Bibliotheque M^dicale," a periodical. In
1806 he was placed at the head of the institution for
the insane at Charenton. He became professor of legal
medicine in Paris in 1816, and physician-in-ordinary
to Louis XVIII. He wrote some able treatises on
insanity, etc. Died in 1825.

See PHILIPPE, " Royer-Collard," 1861 ; "Biographic Me"dicale:'
" Nouvelle Biographic G^ne"rale."

Royer-Collard, (HiPPOLYTE Louis,) a French phy-
sician, born in Paris in 1802, was a son of the preceding.
He succeeded Desgenettes as professor of hygiene in
1838. Died in 1850.

See BOUCHARDOT, " filoges de Royer-Collard et d'A. Richard,"

Royer-Collard, (PIERRE PAUL,) an eminent French
philosopher and statesman, born at Sompuis (Marne) on
the 2ist of June, 1763. His father's family name was
Royer, to which he joined the name of his wife, Mademoi-
selle Collard. He chose the profession of an advocate,
and favoured the popular cause in the Revolution, but
was always a moderate royalist From 1790 to 1792 he
acted as a clerk ( ' slcritairc-grejffier ) of the municipality
of Paris. He retired for safety to the country in Jane,

HUlllIC^, Lilt LM MU1I U1V-LK.W) bfcVfl 1IIIIS &11U1CL. J CJ W cU I.M E m ID. Ait 1 till CM 1"' aAlLlJT WJ hLHn \,ISUII t. an J ""

*, e, T, o, ii, v, l<"tf *. *. . sa m .e, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, ?, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon;




'793> ar "l remained in privacy during the reign of terroi
About 1810 he was appointed professor of philosophy i
the University of France. He adopted an eclectic sys
tem of philosophy, and became the founder of a schoo
called the Doctrinaire. His system of philosophy is th
same as the Spiritualism of Reid. Jouffroy and Cousi
were his most eminent disciples.

In 1815 he was appointed president of the commissio
of public instruction, and elected to the Chamber o
Deputies, in which he supported liberal measures. H
preferred a moderate and middle course between tha
of the ultra-royalists and that of the Bonapartists am
democrats. He was admitted into the French Academ
in 1827, and was elected president of the Chamber 01
Deputies in 1828. In 1830 he presented to Charles X
the address of two hundred and twenty-one deputie
who protested against the arbitrary measures of th
court. He died in September, 1845, leaving a fair repu
tation for integrity, firmness, and civic virtues. His las
words were, "There is nothing solid or substantial in
this world except religious ideas."

See BARANTB, "Vie politique de Royer-Collard," 2 vols., 1861

"M. Royer-Collard, par un Homme de Rien," 1842; " Nou
Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" "North British Review" for August, 1863.

Royle, roil, (JOHN FORBES,) M.D., an English bota
nist, born at Cawnpore about 1799. He was educatet
at Edinburgh, and entered the service of the East India
Company as assistant surgeon. He made a large collec
tion of the plants of Hindostan. Having returned to
England about 1831, he published an important work
entitled " Illustrations of the Botany and other Branches
of Natural History of the Himalaya Mountains," (2 vols.
1839.) He was professor of materia medica in King's
College, London, and published a "Manual of Materia
Medica." Died near London in 1858.

Royou, Rwa'yoo', (JACQUES CORENTIN,) a French
historian and advocate, born at Quimper about 1745
He published a "Roman History," (4 vols., :So6,) a
" History of France," (6 vols., 1819,) and other histories
also the "Fault-Finder," (" Frondeur") a comedy,
(1819.) Died in 1828.

Royou, (THOMAS MAURICE,) ABB, a journalist, born
at Quimper about 1740, was a brother of the preceding.
He was professor of philosophy at the College Louis-le-
Grand for twenty years, and editor of the " Ami du Roi,"
a royalist journal of Paris, (1790-92.) Died in 1792.

Roze, roz, (NICOLAS,) a French philanthropist of
Marseilles, born in 1671, was a merchant in his youth.
His name was rendered memorable by his devoted and
courageous conduct during the prevalence of the plague
t Marseilles in 1720. Died in 1733.

Roze, (NICOLAS,) ABB, a French composer of sacred
music, born at Bourg-Neuf in 1745. He was appointed
mattre de chapelle to the First Consul, but declined the
office because he was an ecclesiastic. Died in 1819.

Rozee, ro'zV, MADEMOISELLE, a Dutch artist, born
at Leyden in 1632. She produced landscapes, portraits,
etc. embroidered with silk floss. Died in 1682.

Rozet, ro'zj', (CLAUDE ANTOINE,) a French geolo-
gist, born at Chauvart (Marne) in 1798. He published,
besides other works, "Travels in Algeria," (j vols
J833-) Died in 1858.

Rozier, ro'ze-i', (FRANC.OIS,) ABB, a French bota-
nist and writer on agriculture, born at Lyons in 1734.
He edited at Paris the "Journal de Physique" for ten
years, (1771-80.) His principal work is a treatise on
agriculture, " Cours complet d'Agriculture theorique et
pratique," (9 vols., 1781-93,) which was highly esteemed.
He was killed in his house by a bomb during the siege
of Lyons, in September, 1793.

See A. DB BOISSIEU, " filoge de F. Rozier," 1832: COCHARD,
Notice histonque sur M. 1'Abbi F. Rozier," 1832; " Nouvellc
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Roziere, de la, deh It ro'ze-aiR', (Louis FRAN-
COIS Carlet ktR'll',) MARQUIS, a French general
and writer on military tactics, was born near Charleville
in 1735. He served in the Seven Years' war with
distinction, became marechal-de-camp in 1781, and
emigrated in 1791, after which he fought against the

French republic. He wrote, besides other works, "The
Campaign of the Prince of Conde' in Flanders in 1674,"
(1765.) Died at Lisbon in 1808.
See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rozoi, de, deh ro'zwl', (BARNABK FARMAIN,) a
mediocre French litterateur, born in Paris in 1743, was
a royalist in the Revolution. He was guillotined in
Rozoir, du. See Du ROZOIR.

Rualdus. See RUAULT.

Ruar, roo'ir, [Lat. RUA'RUS,] (MARTIN,) a learned
German controversial writer, born in Holstein in 1588,
was a Protestant minister. Died near Dantzic in 1657.
"His ' Epistles,' " says Hallam, "throw much light on
the theological opinions of the age." (" Introduction to
the Literature of Europe.")

See BAYLK, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Ruarus. See RUAR.

Ruault, rii'6', [Lat. RUAL'DUS,] (JEAN,) a French
classical scholar, born at Coutances about 1575. He was
twice elected rector of the University of Paris, and he
became professor of belles-lettres at the College Royal
in 1629. He published a good edition of Plutarch,
(1624.) Died in 1636.

Rubbi, roob'bee, (ANDREA,) an Italian scholar and
mediocre poet, born at Venice in 1738. He edited
"Parnasso Italiano," (56 vols., 1784-91,) which is a col-
lection of Italian poetry. Among his best works is a
"Dictionary of Sacred and Profane Antiquities," (16
vols., 1793-1805.) Died in 1817.

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani illustri."

Rubeis or Rubeua. See ROSSL(BERNARDO M. DE.)

Ruben, the French of REUBEN, which see.

Ruben, roo'ben, (CHRISTOPH,) director of the Acad-
emy of Arts at Vienna, was born at Treves in 1805. He
studied painting under Cornelius. Died July 8, 1875.

Rubens, roo'benz, [Fr. pron. rii'boN',] (ALBERT,) an
antiquary, born at Antwerp in 1614, was a son of the
great painter. He wrote " On the Clothing Material
of the Ancients," ("De Re Vestiaria Veterum," 1665,)
which was edited by Graevius. Died in 1657.

Rubens, (PETER PAUL,) the most celebrated of the
Flemish painters, was born at Siegen (not, as often stated,
at Cologne) in 1577. His birth is variously dated in
rfay and on the 2gth of June. He was the son of John
iubens, a lawyer, and Mary Pypeling, both natives of
Antwerp, to which, after the death of John Rubens, his
widow returned with her children in 1587. His early
masters in art were A. van Noort and Otto van Veen,
or Otto Venius.) In 1600 he went to Italy, where he
>assed about eight years at Venice, Mantua, Rome,
r lorence, and Genoa, and painted numerous works,
ie returned to Antwerp in 1608, was appointed court
>ainter to the archduke Albert, and married Isabelle
irant or Brandt in 1609. Soon after this date he pro-
!uced his "Descent from the Cross," which is con-
idered by many his master-piece and is now i.i the
athedral of Antwerp. He rose rapidly to fame and
ffluence, and was employed in diplomatic missions by
be Flemish court. In 1629 he was sent as ambassador
o England, where he painted for Charles I. the alle-
orical picture of "War and Peace." He succeeded
n his mission, the object of which was to restore peace
>etween England and Spain. Having lost his first
wife, he married Helena Forman or Fourment, (1630,)
Tfho was only sixteen years of age. He received
ic honour of knighthood in 1630 from Charles I. of
Ingland, and also from Philip IV. of Spain. He was
imple and temperate in his habits. Rising early, he
went in the morning to church to hear mass. In the
vening he often took a ride on horseback.

Rubens painted history, portraits, landscapes, and ani-
mals with equal success. He was a magnificent colorist,
was unsurpassed in technical skill and facility of execu-
ion, but was deficient in a taste for form. Among his
amous productions are "The Last Judgment," at Mu-
ich, "The Battle of the Amazons," "The Rape of the
abines," and " The Judgment of Paris," in London. It
stated that the gallery of Munich contains no less than
inety-five of his works. He died at Antwerp in May,

-as,: casj; %hard; gas;',' G. H. K,futtural; N, nasal; f.. trilled: sasz; th as in Mir. (J^="See Explanations, p. 23.)




1640. His principal pupils were Van Dyck, Jordaens,
Van Thulden, Diepenbeck, and Quellyn. "Rubens,"
ays Ruskin, "was an honourable and entirely well-
intentioned man. He is a healthy, worthy, kind-hearted,
courtly-phrased Animal, without any clearly per-
ceptible traces of a soul, except when he paints chil-
dren. . . . We saw how Veronese painted himself and
his family as worshipping the Madonna. Rubens also
painted himself and his family in an equally elaborate
piece. But they are not worshipping the Madonna :
they are performing the Madonna and her saintly
entourage." (" Modern Painters.")

See A. VAN HASSELT, " Histoire de Rubens," 1840; G. ALVIN,
"Vie de Rubens," 1840: WAAGEN, "P. P. Rubens, sein Leben und
Genius," i840,(translated into English by R. R. NOEL :) A. MICHIRLS,
" Rubens et 1'Ecole d'Anvers," 1854 ; G. PLANCHB, " Rubens, sa Vic
et ses CEuvres," 1854: A. SIRET, "Raphael et Rubens," 1849: W
NOEL SAINSBURY, " Original Unpublished Papers illustrative of the
Life of Sir Peter Paul Rubens," iSsg ; WIERTZ, "P. P. Rubens,"
1840; MICHEL, " Histoire de Rubens," 1771 ; " Nouvelle Biographic
Ge'ne'rale :" " Edinburgh Review" for January, 1841, and January,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 274 of 425)