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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Rubens, (PHILIP,) a Flemish philologist, born at
Cologne in 1574, was a brother of the preceding. He
was appointed secretary of state by the senate of Antwerp
in 1609. Died in 1611.

Rublni, roo-bee'nee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) a popu-
lar Italian vocalist, born at Romano, near Bergamo, in
1795. He performed with success in Paris and London.
He was reputed the first Italian tenor of his time. Died
in 1854.

See " Biographic Universelle," (new edition.)

Rubini, (PlETRO,) an Italian medical writer, born at
Parma in 1760. He was professor of medicine at Parma.
Died in 1819.

Rubinstein, roo'bin-stln', (ANTON,) a Russian mu-
sician, born in Bessarabia, November 30, 1829. He was
of Jewish family, but was bred a Christian. He was
educated at Moscow. He acquired world-wide fame as
a pianist. Among his compositions are the operas
"Dmitri Donski," (1849,) "The Children of the Steppe,"
(1861,) "Feramors," "The Demon," (1875,) "The Mac-
cabees," (1875,) etc., tne oratorio of "Paradise Lost,"
and a vast number of symphonies and piano-composi-
tions. For some years he was superintendent of the
Saint Petersburg Conservatory Died Nov. 20, 1894.

Rubio, roo'be-o, (Luici,) an Italian painter of history,
born at Rome in 1797. He settled at Geneva about

Rubruquis, de, deh rii'bRu'kess', (GUILLAUME, )
sometimes called De Ruysbroek (rois'brook) or Rys-
bruck, (ris'bRook,) a mediaeval traveller and missionary,
born in Brabant about 1220 or 1230. In 1253 he and
two other friars were sent to Tartary by Louis IX. of
France, who charged them to propagate Christianity
among the Tartars, to search for Prester John, and to
risit Sartach, a Tartar chief who was reported to be a
Christian. Rubruquis performed this arduous enterprise
bravely, and, returning through Persia and Asia Minor,
reached home in August, 1255. He wrote a narrative
in which the Caspian Sea is correctly described.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Gdnirale."

Rucellai, roo-chSl-11', [Lat. ORICELLA'RIUS,] (BEK
NARDO,) an Italian writer, born of a noble family at
Florence in 1449. He married Nannina, a sister of
Lorenzo the Magnificent. He was a liberal patron
of the Platonic Academy. His chief work is entitled
"On the City of Rome," ("De Urbe Roma,") written
in elegant Latin. Died in 1514.

See TIRABOSCHI, " Storia deila Letteratura Italiana."

Rucellai, (GIOVANNI,) an eminent poet, born at
Florence in 1475, was a son ol the preceding, and a
cousin-german to Pope Leo X. He wrote " Rosmunda,"
a drama, (1525,) and a poem on bees, ("Le Api,") which
is regarded as his finest production. It was printed in
1539. He was sent as nuncio to France by Leo X.
Died in 1525.

See NICB'RON, "Me'moires;" GINGUENK, "Histoire Litte'raire

Ruchat, rii'sht', (ABRAHAM,) a Swiss writer, born
ibout 1680, taught theology at the Academy of Lau-

sanne. He published a " History of the Reformation
of Switzerland, 1516-56," (6 vols., 1727-40.) Died
in 1750.

Ruchel, von, fon rooK'el, (ERNST FRIEDRICH WrL-
HELM,) a Prussian general, born in Pomerania in 1754.
He commanded a division at the battle of Jena, (1806.)
Died in 1823.

Ruchrath, rooK'rSt, (called JOHANN von Wesel
fon wa'zel,) a German Reformer, born at Ober- Wesel,
on the Rhine, about 1410. He became a professor of
divinity at Erfurt, and afterwards preached at Worms
for seventeen years. He wrote a " Treatise against
Indulgences," and a work "Concerning the Authority,
Duty, and Power of Pastors." He was accused of
heresy, tried before the Inquisition in 1479, and, to
escape death or torture, recanted. Died in 1481.

Ruckert, rttk'kert, (FRIEDRICH,) a popular German
lyric poet and Oriental scholar, born at Schweinfurt in
I78S. He studied at Jena, and in 1818 visited Rome.
In 1826 he became professor of Oriental languages at
Erlangen. His "German Poems" came out in 1814,
and were followed by "Napoleon; a Political Comedy,"
(1816,) "The Crown of the Time," (1817,) and "Eastern
Roses," (1822.) He also published " Legends and Tales
of the East," (1837,) "Brahman Tales," (1839,) and a
translation of Hareeree's (Hariri's) "Makamat," under
the title of " Metamorphoses of Abu-Seid." His poems
are remarkable for beauty of versification as well as the
great variety of forms of which he is a master, and he
resembles in glowing fancy and inventive power the
Eastern poets whom he made his study. He was pro-
fessor in the University of Berlin from 1840 to 1849.
Died January 31, 1866.

See LONGFBLLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe:" "Atlantic
Monthly" for July, 1866; G. PFIZER, "Uhland und Ruckert:
kritischer Versuch," 1837; " Biographic Universelle."

Riickert, (HEINRICH,) a German historian, son of
the preceding, was born at Coburg in 1823. He pub-
lished " Annals of German History," (1850,) and other
works. Died September II, 1875.

Rudbeck, rood'bek, [Lat RUDBECK'IUS,] (JoHAN,)
a learned and meritorious Swedish prelate and Re-
former, born at Oerebro about 1580. He was chaplain
to Gustavus Adolphus, and Bishop of Westeris. Died
in 1646.

Rudbeck, [Lat. RUDBECK'IUS,] (OLAUS or OLAF,)
an eminent Swedish anatomist and botanist, born at
Westeris in 1630, was a son of the preceding. He dis-
covered the lymphatic vessels about 1650, after which
he became professor at Upsal. His principal works are
" Atlantica," (4 vols., 1675-98.) in which, with great
learning and ingenuity, he maintains that Sweden is the
"Atlantis" of Plato, and a botanical treatise called
"Elysian Fields," ("Campi Elysii," 2 vols., 1701.) He
was remarkable for versatility and activity of mind.
The genus Rudbeckia was named in his honour. Died
in 1702.

See NlciRON, "Me'moires;" SAX, "Onomasticon:" " Biogra-
phiskt-Lexicon ttfver namnkunnige Svenska Man."

Rudbeck, (OLAUS,) THE YOUNGER, a naturalist and
philologist, born at Upsal in 1660, was a son of the pre-
ceding. He succeeded his father as professor of botany
and anatomy at Upsal, and published some works on
botany, etc. He assisted his father in writing the
"Campi Elysii." Died in 1740.

See C. R. BBRCH, "Olaus Rudbeck's Lefvernesbcskrifning,

Rudberg, rood'be'Rg, (FREDRIK,) a Swedish natn
ral philosopher, born at Norrkjoping in 1800. Hi*
became professor of physics at Upsal about 1828. He
was the author of a number of able treatises on phi-
losophy, and ascertained the rate of the expansion of air
by heat. Died in 1839.

Rfid'bprne or Rod'burne, (THOMAS,) an English
prelate and skilful architect. He was chaplain to Henry
V., and became Bishop of Saint David's in 1433. He
built the tower and gateway of Merton College, Oxford.
Died about 1442.

Rudder, de, deh rii'daiR', (Louis HENRI,) a French
painter of history, born in Paris in 1807. He gained a
medal of the second class in 1848. Died in 1881.

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Rud'dl-man, (THOMAS,) an eminent Scottish gram-
marian and critic, born in the parish of Boyndie, county
of Banff, in October, 1674, was educated at King's Col-
lege, Aberdeen. He published in 1714 his "Rudiments
of the Latin Tongue," a popular school-book. Among
his other works is " Institutes of Latin Grammar,"
(" Grammaticae Latins Institutiones," 1725-32.) Died
in 1757.

Rude, riid, (FRANgois,) an eminent French sculptor,
born at Dijon in 1784. He went to Rome in 1812 to
pursue his studies, and returned to Paris about 1827.
He adorned with some figures the Arc de 1'Etoile at
Paris. At the Exposition of 1855 he gained the grand
medal of honour. Among his works are a marble
statue of Joan of Arc in the Luxembourg, and bronze
statues of Monge and Marshal Ney. Died in 1855.

See " Rude, sa Vie, ses (Euvres," etc., (anonymous,) Paris, 1856 ;
" Biographic Universelle."

Rudel, rii'dSl', (GEOFFROI,) a French poet of the
latter part of the twelfth century, was Prince of Blaye
and a favourite of Geoffrey Plantagenet. He was born
about 1140, and died about 1170. He was famous for
his fantastic passion for the Countess of Tripoli, whom
he never saw till he was dying.

Rudelbach, roo'del-blK', (ANDREAS,) a Danish the-
ologian, born at Copenhagen in 1792. He published
a number of dogmatic works, in which he advocates the
orthodox Lutheran creed. He became superintendent
at Glauchau, Saxony, in 1829. Died in 1862.

Rudiger, ru'dic-er, (FEODOR VASILIEVITCH,) COUNT,
a Russian general, born about 1785. He commanded a
division in the war against the Turks in 1828, and gained
several victories over the Poles in 1831. Having obtained
command of a corps-d'arme'e in the Hungarian war, he
defeated Gbrgei, who surrendered to him at Vilagos in
August, 1849. Died in 1856.

Ru'ding, (Rev. ROGERS,) an English antiquary and
numismatist, born at Leicester in 1751. He became
vicar of Maldon, in Surrey, in 1793. He published an
important work, entitled " Annals of the Coinage of
Britain and its Dependencies," (4 vols., 1817.) Died
in 1820.

Rudolf. See RUDOLPH.

Rudolph or Rudolf OP EMS, a mediaeval German
poet or minnesinger, born in Switzerland, flourished
between 1220 and 1250. His works are highly extolled
by some critics.

Ru'dolph (or Ru'dolf) [Lat. RUDOL'PHUS ; It. Ri-
HABSBOURG, ro'dolf deh hibs'booR ,] Emperor of Ger-
many, and founder of the Austrian empire, was born in
1218. He was the son of Albert IV., Count of Habs-
burg, and at an early age fought under Frederick II. in
Italy. In 1255 he assisted Ottocar, King of Bohemia,
in his crusade against the pagans of Prussia. On the
death of his father, in 1240, he had succeeded to his
possessions, and was involved in many contests with the
feudal barons of the country, in which he was generally
victorious. His high reputation for courage and love
of justice caused him to be elected in 1273 Emperor
of Germany, and he was soon after crowned at Aix-la-
Chapelle. He procured from Pope Gregory X. the
ratification of his right, which had been contested by
Alfonso of Castile and Ottocar of Bohemia; and, after
a war with the latter, a treaty was concluded by which
Rudolph confirmed him in the possession of Bohemia and
Moravia. He had previously given two of his daughters
in marriage to Albert, Duke of Saxony, and the Count
Palatine Louis of Bavaria. Having secured himself on
the throne, he gave his attention to various reforms in
the government and to restraining the power of the
turbulent nobles, nearly seventy of whose castles in
Thuringia he is said to have destroyed. He afterwards
gave one of his daughters in marriage to Wenzel, the
young king of Bohemia. He died in 1291, having beep
unable to secure the election of his son Albert as emperor,
and was succeeded by Adolphus of Nassau.

See J. J. FISCHER, " Biographic Rudolph's I. von Habsburg,"
1784 : HUNKLER, " Rodolphe de Habsbourg Empereur," etc . 1843 ;
. M. VON LICHNOWSKY, " Geschichte des Hauses Habsburg," 8
vols., 1836-42 : L. MBISTER. " Kaiser Rudolph von Habsburg,"
1783; MAILATH, " Histoire d'Autriche. "

Rudolph (Rudolf) II., Emperor of Germany, bom
in 1552, was the son of Maximilian II., and was educated
at the Spanish court. He ascended the throne in Oc-
tober, 1576, and, through the influence of the Jesuits,
prohibited the exercise of the Protestant religion and
gave all the principal offices to the Catholics. He waj
an intolerant and incapable ruler. Absorbed in the
study of astrology and alchemy, he neglected the affairs
of his empire, which was subject to much disorder during
his reign. To protect themselves against persecution,
the Protestant princes of Germany formed in 1608 a
confederation, of which the Elector Palatine Frederick
IV. was the head. Between 1608 and ifjn his brothei
Matthias extorted from Rudolph successively the sove-
reignty of Austria, Moravia, Hungary, Bohemia, etc
He died, without issue, in January, 1612, and was suc-
ceeded by Matthias.

See P. SANTORIO, "Vite di Ridolfo II. e Mattias Imperatori,"
1664; F. S. KURZ, "Oesterreich unter Rudolph," 1821; IMMANUBL
WEBER, " Dissertatio de Rudolpho II.," 1707.

Rudolph von Rpthenberg, roo'dolf fon ro'ten-
b^RG', a German soldier and minnesinger, lived under
the reign of the emperor Frederick II.

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Rudolph!, roo-dol'fee, (CARL ASMUND, ) an able
Swedish naturalist and physiologist, born at Stockholm
in 1771. He became professor of anatomy and physi-
ology at Berlin in 1810. Among his numerous works
are "The Anatomy of Plants," (1807,) "The Natural
History of Entozoa," (2 vols., 1808-10,) and "The Prin-
ciples of Physiology," (3 vols., 1821-28.) Died in Berlin
in 1832.

See J. MOLLBR, " Gedachtnissrede auf C. A. Rudolpbi," 1837;
" Nouvelle Biographic G^n^rale."

Rudra, rood'ra, [etymology uncertain,] in the Hindoo
mythology, a name of Siva, also applied to certain mani-
festations of Siva in his character of fate or destiny.
The eleven Rudras appear to correspond in the main,
though not in number, to the Parcae of the Romans
and the Moirje (Moipoi) of the Greeks. (See SIVA.)

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon ;" WILSON, " Sanscrit Dictionary.*

Rttd'yard, (Sir BENJAMIN,) an English gentleman
and elegant scholar, born in 1572. He became an influ-
ential and eloquent member of the Long Parliament, in
which he acted with Hampden and Pym. In the civil
war which began in 1642 he was a moderate partisan
of the Parliament, and often raised his voice for peace.
Some of his speeches and poems have been published.
Died in 1658.

Rue, de la, (CHARLES.) See LA RUE.

Rue, de la, deh It rii, (CHARLES,) a French Bene-
dictine and eminent scholar, born at Corbie, Picardy, in
1684. He published a good edition of the works of
Origen, (3 vols., 1733.) Died in Paris in 1739. His
nephew, VINCENT DE LA RUE, born in 1707, published
the 4th volume of Origen in 1759. Died in 1762.

Rue, de la, (GERVAIS.) See DELARUE.

Rueda, de, (LOPE.) See LOPE DE RUEDA.

Ruediger. See RODIGER.

Ruehle von Lilienstern. See RUHLE.

Ruel, rii'el', [Lat. RUEL'LIUS,] (JEAN,) a French pn>-
sician and botanist, born at Soissons in 1479. He was
physician to Francis I., and wrote, besides other works,
"On the Nature of Plants," ("De Natura Stirpium,"
1536.) Died in Paris in 1537.

Ruellius. See RUEL.

Rueppell. See RUPPELL.

Ruff'head, (OWEN,) an English bamster and writer,
born in Westminster about 1723. Among his works is
a "Life of Alexander Pope." Died in 1769.

Ruffi or Rufly, de, deh rii'fe', (ANTOINE,) a French
historian, born at Marseilles in 1607, wrote a " History
of Marseilles," (1643.) Died in 1689.

Ruffi or Rufiy, de, (Louis ANTOINE,) a historian, a
son of the preceding, was born at Marseilles in 1657;
died in 1724.

Ruffin, rii'faN', (FRANCOIS,) COUNT, a French general,
born at Bolbec in 1771. He served with distinction at
Austerlitz in 1805, and at Eylau. He became a general
of division about 1808, after which he was employed in
Spain. He was mortally wounded near Cadiz in iSlI.

as k; c as t; g hard; g asy'; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.


Explanations, p. 33.)




diplomatist and linguist, of French extraction, born at
Salonica, in Turkey, in 1742. He became interpreter
to the king for Oriental languages at Paris in 1774,
and charge-d'afiaires at Constantinople in 1798. Died
in 1824.

See BIANCHI, " Notice historique sur M. Ruffin," 1825.

Ruffini, roo-fee'nee, (GIOVANNI DOMENICO,) an Ital-
ian novelist, born at Genoa in 1807. He studied law,
and was admitted to practice in 1830, but three years
later he emigrated, from political causes, going first to
France, then to Switzerland, and in 1836 to England.
Here he devoted himself to a careful study of the Eng-
lish language. In 1842 he left England for Paris, and in
1848, on the promulgation of the Statute of Piedmont,
returned to Italy. In 1852 he began his literary career
by the publication, in London, of an English novel en-
titled " Lorenzo Benoni," which was followed, at long
intervals, by " Doctor Antonio," " Lavinia," " Carlino,"
and other works. Died November 3, 1881.

Ruffini, (PAOLO,) an Italian mathematician, born at
Valentano (Papal States) in 1765. He was professor
of mathematics and medicine at M6dena, and author of
several works on algebra, which were highly esteemed.
Died at M6dena in 1822.

See LOMBARDI, "Notizie sulla Vita di P. Ruffini," 1824.

Ruffinus. See RUFINUS, and RUFFIN.

Ruffo, rooffo, (DioNioi FABRIZIO,) an Italian cardinal
and general, born at Naples, or in Calabria, about 1744.
He raised in Calabria a large body of royalists, called
the army of the Holy Faith, which, under his command,
expelled the French and republicans from the country
in 1799 and restored King Ferdinand IV. to the throne.
He took at Naples a number of republican chiefs as
prisoners of war, who were treacherously put to death
by order of the king. Died in 1827.

See LACCHINBLLI, "Memorie sulla Vita di F. D. Ruffo," 1836;
"Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ruffo, (FABRIZIO,) Prince of Castelcicala, an Italian
diplomatist, born at Naples about 1755. He was ac-
cessary to the judicial murder of the republicans who
were taken prisoners and executed in 1799. He was
Neapolitan ambassador at Paris from 1815 until his
death, which occurred in 1833.

Ruffy. See RUFFI.

Rufin. See RUFINUS.

Rufino, roo-fee'no, (CASIMIR RUFINO Ruiz,) a Span-
ish economist, born at Soto de Cameros in 1806. He
published, besides other works, "The Universal History
of Commerce," ("La Historia mercantil universal," 2
vols., 1852-53.)

Ru-fi'nus, [Fr. RUFIN, rii'faN',] an ambitious Roman
courtier, born at Elusa, in Gaul, about 335 A.D. He
gained the favour of the emperor Theodosius at Con-
stantinople, and became in 394 chief minister. He
rendered himself odious by his cruelty, and engaged in
a disloyal intrigue with Alaric the Visigoth, in order to
thwart Stilico, who was his rival. He was assassinated
in 395 by a soldier, at the instigation of Gainas, a friend
of Stilico. He was the subject of Claudian's poem
"In Rufinum."

See GIBBON, "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman
Empire:" LK BEAU, " Histoire du Baa-Empire;" "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Rufinus, surnamed TORA'NIUS, TORA'NUS, TYRAN'-
Nius, or TURRA'NIUS, a theologian and monk, born
about 350 A.D. He is supposed to have been a native
of Aquileia. In early life he was a friend of Saint
Jerome. He went to Palestine in 377, and built a mon-
astery on Mount Olivet, where he passed many years,
and translated some works of Origen, whose doctrines
he favoured. On this subject he was involved in a con-
troversy with Saint Jerome, who denounced him with
extreme animosity. Rufinus wrote, besides other works,
an " Explanation of the Apostles' Creed," and translated
into Latin several works of the Greek Fathers. He
was an able writer. Died in 410.

See FONTANINI, "Historia literaria Aquilejensis;" "Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Rufinus, (LiCiNlus,) a Roman jurist, who flourished
about 215 A.D.

Ru'fus or Ru'phus, an ancient Greek medical writei
of Ephesus, called RUFUS EPHESIUS, of whom little is
known. According to Suidas, he lived in the reign of
Trajan, (98-117 A.D.) He wrote, besides other works,
an interesting treatise on anatomy, entitled " On the
Names of the Parts of the Human Body," which is
extant and was printed at Paris in 1554.

See SPRBNGKL, " Histoire de la Me"decine."

RufuB, (M. Ccelius,) a Roman orator, born at Puteoli
in 82 B.C., was a friend of Cicero, who calls him " adoles-
centem illustri ingenip." In the year 56 he was accused
of an attempt to poison Clodia, a woman of depraved
morals. He was defended by Cicero and acquitted. He
became tribune of the people in 52 B.C., and supported
Milo against Clodius. In 49 B.C. he was a partisan of
Caesar. Died in 48 B.C.

See CICERO, " Oratio pro M. Gaelic."

Rnfus, ( RUTILIUS,) a Roman orator, who became
consul in 105 B.C. and was banished unjustly in 92 B.C.

Rufus Fes'tus or Sex'tus Ru'tus, a Latin his-
torian, lived between 350 and 400 A.D. He wrote an
Abridged History of Rome, (" Breviarium de Victoriis
et Provinces Populi Romani.")

Huge, roo'geh, (ARNOLD,) a German scholar and
journalist, born at Bergen, on the island of Rugen, in
1802, studied at the University of Jena. During a five
years' imprisonment to which he was condemned for
nis liberal opinions, he translated the " CEdipus in
Colonos" of Sophocles. After his release he became
associated with Echtermeyer as editor of the " Halli-
schen Jahrbucher," which was suppressed in 1843. In
1848 he published at Leipsic a radical journal entitled
" Reform," and represented Breslau in the Frankfort
Parliament In 1850 he repaired to London, where he
wrote a German translation of the " Letters of Junius"
and the works of P. Courier. Died January i, 1881.

Rugendas, roo-geVdls, (GEORG PHILIPP,) one of
the greatest battle-painters of Germany, was born at
Augsburg in 1666. He visited Rome and Venice, and
after his return became director of the Academy of
Augsburg in 1710. He also produced a number of en-
gravings, among which is "The Siege of Augsburg,"
of which he was an eye-witness. Died in 1742.

See J. C. FCssLI, " Leben Georg Philipp Rugendas," 1758 : C.
BLANC, " Histoire des Peintres ;" NAGLKK, " Allgeraeines Klinstler-

Rugendas, (GEORG PHILIPP,) a painter and engraver,
born at Augsburg in 1701, was a son of the preceding.
Died in 1774.

Rugendas, (JoHANN CHRISTIAN,) a skilful engraver,
born at Augsburg in 1708, was a brother of the pre-
ceding. Died in 1781.

Rugendas, (JOHANN MORITZ,) a German painter
and designer, a relative of the preceding, was born at
Augsburg about 1800. He spent many years in South
America, and published in 1827 "A Painter's Journey
in Brazil." His collection of nearly three thousand
pictures and designs was purchased by the Bavarian
government. Died in 1858.

See NAGLER, " Allgemeines Kunstler-Lerikon."

Ruggieri, rood-ja'ree, (CONSTANTIN,) an Italian phi-
lologist and antiquary, born near Ravenna in 1714;
died in 1766.

Rug'gle, (GEORGE,) an English dramatist, born at
Lavenham in 1575, was a Fellow of a college at Cam-
bridge. He wrote a satirical play entitled " Ignoramus,"
(1614.) Died in 1622.

Ruggles, rug'gelz, (DANIEL,) an American general in
the Confederate service, born in Massachusetts about
1810 ; died June i, 1897.

Ruhl, rool, (JoHANN CHRISTIAN,) a German sculptor
and painter, born at Cassel in 1764; died in 1842.

Ruhl, riil, (PHILIPPE JACQUES,) a French Jacobin and
member of the Convention, was born near Strasburg.
He killed himself in May, 1795.

Ruble von Lilienstern, ruh'leh fon lee'le-en-st?Rn',
(JOHANN JAKOB OTTO AUGUST,) a Prussian general and
distinguished writer, born at Berlin in 1780, served in

i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long ; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, 5, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; m?t; not; good; m<5on;




the campaigns of 1813-15. He published several mili-
tary and historical works, among which is a " Historical
Sketch of the Prussian Nation," (1837.) Died in 1847.

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations-Lexikon."

Ruhmkorff, room'koRf, (HEINRICH DANIEL,) a mech-
anician, born in Germany in 1803. He settled in Paris,
and gained distinction as a maker of electro-magnetif
apparatus, etc. Died in Paris, December 19, 1877.

Ruhnken, rSon'ken, or Ruhneken, roo'neh-ken,
[Lat. RUHNKE'NIUS,] (DAVID,) an eminent German
philologist and critic, born at Stolpe, in Pomerania, in
1723. He studied history, law, and classical literature
at Wittenberg. Through the influence of his friend
the celebrated Hemsterhuys, he was appointed in 1757
lector of the Greek language in the University of Ley-
den, and in 1761 succeeded Oudendorp as professor of
history, eloquence, and antiquities in that city. Am6ng
his numerous and valuable works are editions of the
" Lexicon of Timaeus," of Velleius Paterculus, Homer's
" Hymn to Ceres,'' with a Latin translation and com-
mentary, (1780,) and the works of Muretus, (4 vols.,
1789.) He also wrote several Latin essays of remarb-

(1776.) He died at Leyden in 1797, with the reputa
tion of one of the first critics and Latin writers of the
eighteenth century.

See D. WYTTENBACH, "Vita Ruhnkenii," 1799; RINK, "T.
Hemsterhuys und D. Ruhneken," 1801 ; MBUSBL, " Lexikon ;
HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch;" "Nouvelte Bin
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Rubnkenius. See RUHNKEN.

Riihs or Rueha, riis, (CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH,) a

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 275 of 425)