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German historian, born in Pomerania in 1780, became
professor of history in Berlin. He wrote, besides other
works, a " History of Sweden," (5 vols., 1803-13,) which
is commended, and a " Manual of Mediaeval History,"
(1816.) Died in 1820.

Ruinart, rii-e'nf R', (THIERRI,) DOM, a learned French
writer and Benedictine monk, born at Rheims in 1657.
He became a pupil and coadjutor of Mabillon. In i68c
he published the " Acts of the First Martyrs," (" Acta
primorum Martyrum." He took a large part in the
composition of Mabillon's "Acta Sanctorum," (1700.*
Died in 1709.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Gi*nrale."

Ruisch or Ruysch, roisK, (FREDERIC,) an eminent
Dutch anatomist, born at the Hague in 1638. He was
professor of anatomy at Amsterdam from 1665 until hi;
death. He discovered a mode of preserving deac
bodies for many years. He made several discoverie;
in anatomy, and published an " Anatomical Treasury,'
("Thesaurus anatomicus," 1701-15,) which is said to
be a capital work. Peter the Great purchased his
anatomical collection for 30,000 florins. Died in 1731.
See FONTBNELLE, " loge de Ruisch;" SCHRHIBER, "Vita F
Ruisch," 1732; NICKRON, "Memoires."

Ruisch or Ruysch, (RACHEL,) a skilful Dutcl
flower-painter, born in Amsterdam in 1664, was
daughter of the preceding. She married a painte
named Juriaen Pool in 1695. Her works commas
high prices. Died in 1750.

RuisdaeL See RUVSDAEL.

Ruiter, de. See RUYTER. DE.

Ruiz, roo-eth', (JUAN,) Archpriest of Hita, a Spanis
poet and satirist, born probably at Alcala de Henares
He was imprisoned thirteen years, (1333-47-) One o
his principal poems is entitled " Praise of Little Women.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Rukmeni. See RUKMIN!.

Rukmlni, rook'ml-nee', written also, but less cor
rectly, Rokmeny and Rukmeni, [i.e. "golden" o
"possessing gold," in allusion perhaps to Lakshm
being the goddess of riches,] the name of an avatar o
Lakshmi, who under this form was the favourite wif
of Krishna, (an avatar of Vishnu.)

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon."

Ruland, roo'lant, (MARTIN,) a German physician an
philologist, born at Freisingen in 1532; died in 1602.

philologist, born at Freisingen in 1532; died in 1002.
as *; 5 as s; g ftr^d: g as/; G, H, K,gvttural; N, natal; R,

Rulhiere, de, deh rii'lej-aiR', (CLAUDE CARLOMAN,)
French historian, was Corn at Bondy, near Paris, in
735. He accompanied the Baron de Breteuil to Russia
s secretary of embassy in 1760, and wrote "Anecdotes
f the Revolution of Russia in 1762," (1797.) In 1787
.e was admitted into the French Academy. His chief
vork is a " History of the Anarchy of Poland and of
le Partition of that Republic," (4 vols., 1807.) Died
n 1791.

See DAUNOU, " Notice sur Rulhiere :" QUKRARD, " La France
Jtte'raire ;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Ru'11-son, (NELSON S.,) D.D., an American bishop,
orn at Carthage, New York, April 24, 1842. He grad-
_ated at the General Seminary (Episcopalian) in New
Vork, and in 1876 became rector of a church at Cleve-
and, Ohio. In 1884 he was consecrated Assistant
rfishop of Central Pennsylvania. Died in 1897.

Rulliere, rii'lg^iR', (JOSEPH MARCELLIN,) a French
;eneral, born in Haute-Loire in 1787. He commanded
n army in Algeria in 1838, and was minister of war
rom December, 1848, until October, 1849. Died 1863.
Rumaucow. See RIOOMANTSOF.
Rum'bold, (Colonel RICHARD,) an English repub-
ican, was implicated in the Rye-House Plot, (1683,) and
was owner of the building from which that plot derived
ts name. He escaped to Holland, and in 1685 followed
Argyll in his expedition to Scotland, where he was mor-
illy wounded, and, after a hurried trial, executed.
Rum'ford, (BENJAMIN Thompson,) COUNT, a cele-
rated natural philosopher and economist, born at
Woburn, Massachusetts, March 26, 1753 or 1752.
rlis mother was named Ruth Simonds. After he left
school, about the age of fourteen, he was employed for a
short time as a clerk by a merchant in Salem. In 1770
ic attended lectures on experimental philosophy at
Harvard University. He was school-master at Rumford,
now Concord,) New Hampshire, for about two years,
,1770-72.) In 1772 he married a rich widow of Rum-
brd, named Mrs. Rolfe, and removed with her to Wo-
Durn. He was a person of tall stature, a model of manly
Deauty in form and feature, and had the manners of a
courtier. According to Renwick, he fought at Lexington,
and applied for a commission in the Continental army
j n 1775, but his services were rejected. Renwick speaks
of his "loyalty, manifested by actual service at the
battle of Lexington," but does not say on which side
he fought. His arguments, however, seem designed to
prove that Rumford would have fought for independence
if prejudice and persecution had not driven him into the
ranks of the royalists. He was regarded as a tory by his
fellow-citizens, and was pursued by a mob with threats
of violence. Having resorted for safety to the royalist
camp at Boston, he was sent to England in the autumn
of 1775 as a bearer of despatches to Lord George Ger-
main, who appointed him a clerk in the foreign office.
In the course of four years he rendered such services
that he obtained in 1780 the important position of under-
secretary of state. He returned to the United States in
1781 or 1782 with a commission as major or lieutenant-
colonel in the British army, but never took part in any
action of the war.

The next scene of his eventful and prosperous career
opens at Munich, whither he went in 1784. He soon
became aide-de-camp and chamberlain to the reigning
prince of Bavaria. Having reformed the military es-
tablishment and rendered important public services,
he was rewarded with the rank of major-general, and
appointed a councillor of state. Rising by rapid gra-
dations, he became successively lieutenant-general, com-
mander-in-chief, minister of war, and in 1790 a count of
the Holy Roman Empire. On this occasion he assumed
the title of Rumford, from the town where he resided in
early life. He suppressed mendicity at Munich by the
establishment of work-houses in which beggars were
compelled to earn their subsistence. In devising the
means to warm and clothe the poor with economy, he
was led to experiments on heat and light which resulted
in important discoveries. He proved that gases are
non-conductors, and fluids very imperfect conductors, of
heat, explained that heat is propagated in liquids only
by convection, or the continuous transposition of the

trilled; s as ; th as in this. ( Jt^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




particles of the liquid, and that a flame in open air gives
but little heat except to bodies placed above it. He made
improvements in the construction of chimneys and in
the apparatus for heating and lighting houses. In 1795
he visited London, where he published some essays on
the subjects above mentioned. He returned ^o Munich
in 1796, and was appointed ambassador to l_.ondon in
1798; but the English court would not receive him in
that capacity, because he was a British subject. He
formed the plan of the Royal Institution of London,
founded about 1800. His power and influence at the
court of Munich having ceased, in consequence of the
death of the Elector, in 1799, he removed to France.
His first wife, whom he left in the United States when
he first crossed the Atlantic, was no longer living. He
married the widow of Lavoisier, the great chemist, in
1805; but they soon separated, from mutual repulsion.
He died at Auteuil in August, 1814. His "Essays, Po-
litical, Economical, and Philosophical," were published
in 3 vols., (1798-1806.) The Rumford medal of the Royal
Society derives its name from him.

" It is a matter of just national pride that the two men
who first demonstrated the capital propositions of pure
science, that lightning is but a case of common elec-
tricity, and that heat is but a mode of motion, who first
converted these conjectures of fancy to facts of science,
were not only Americans by birth and education, but
men eminently representative of the peculiarities of
American character, Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin
Thompson." (Edward L. Youmans, "The Correlation
and Conservation of Forces.")

See CUVIEK, " filoge de Rumford ;" JAMES RENWICK, " Life of
Count Rumford." in SPARKS'S "American Biography," vol. v.,
second series: "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" "Edinburgh
Review" for July, 1804.

Rumford, de, deh ruN'foR',(MARiE ANNE Pierrette
Paulze pe'S'rdt' polz,) COUNTESS, a French lady of
superior talent, was born at Montbrison in 1758. She
was married to Lavoisier, the chemist, in 1771. She
aided him in experiments, and, having learned the art
of engraving, she engraved plates for his treatise on
Chemistry. In 1805 she became the wife of Count
Rumford, from whom she separated in 1809. Died
in 1836.

See GUIZOT, " Madame de Rumford." 1841, and his article in the
" Biographic Universelle."

Rumiantzov or Rumiantzow. See RIOOMANTSOP.

Riimker, rBm'ker, (KARL,) a German astronomer,
born at Stargard iii 1788. He made observations at
Paramatta, in Australia, from 1822 to 1831, and was
afterwards director of the Observatory at Hamburg
for many years. Among his works is a " Manual of
Navigation," (5th edition, 1850.) Died in 1862.

LIX,) a German writer on art, born near Dresden in
1785, was a pupil of Fiorillo, a painter. He made the
tour of Italy in 1804, and revisited that country in 1816
and 1828. His "Italian Researches" (3 vols.) came out
in 1827. It is a critical history of the origin and de-
velopment of modern painting, composed from original
documents, and is esteemed a standard work. He like-
wise published a " History of the Royal Collection of
Engravings at Copenhagen," (1835,) and other treatises
on art ; also a number of poems and prose essays on
various subjects. Died at Dresden in 1843.

See H. W. SCHUI^R, C F. von Rumohr, sein Leben und seme
Schriften," 1844; BROCKHAOS, "Conversations-Lexikon."

Rumowsky. See ROOMOFSKI.

Rumph, roomf, [Lat. RUM'PHIUS,] (GEORG EVE-
RARD,) a German naturalist, born at Hanau in 1637. He
passed some years at Amboyna, where he was consul
or counsellor to the Dutch East India Company. He
was author of a botanical work entitled " Herbarium
Amboinense," (7 vols., 1741-55.) Died in 1706.

Rumphius. See RUMPH.

Rum'Sey, (JAMES,) an American mechanician, born
in Cecil county, Maryland, in 1743, was the inventor of
a steamboat, which he exhibited on the Potomac in 1786.
A company called by his name was formed in Philadelphia
for the purpose of promoting his projects. In 1792 he
made a successful trial of his steamboat on the Thames,

and was preparing for another, when he died in Decem-
ier of the same year.

Run'cl-man, (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish historical
ainter, born in Edinburgh in 1736. Among his works
are " The Ascension," " King Lear," and a series of
pictures of scenes from Ossian. His style is extrava-
gant. Died in 1785.

Runeberg, roo'neh-bSRg 7 , (JoHAN LUDWIG,) a very
popular Swedish poet, born at Jacobstad, in Finland,
n 1804. He was educated at the University of Abo.
About 1840 he became a teacher of Greek at Borgi, (or
Borgo.) Among his principal productions are "Na-
deschda,"a poetical tale, (1841,) "Kung Fialar," (1844,)
and " Stories of Ensign Stil," (" Fanrik Stils S'agner.")
He died May 6, 1877.

Range, roong'eh, (OTTO PHILIPP,) a German painter,
Dorn in the latter part of the eighteenth century, fur-
nished illustrations to "Ossian." His son, Otto Siejr

mi'l, studied sculpture under Thorwaldsen at Rome.

Runius, roo'ne-us, (JpHAN,) a popular Swedish poet,
M>rn in West Gothland in 1679; died in 1713.

Runjeet Singh, run-jeet' sing, (or sing'h,) called
MAHA RAJAH, ma-ha' rl'ja, (i.e. "Great Rajah,") an am-
bitious East Indian prince, born at GugarSnwala, in the
Punjab, in 1780, is called the founder of the Sikh empire.
By a series of aggressions against feeble and unwarlike
chiefs he extended his dominions. He received the
province of Lahore as a gift from the Shah of Afghan-
istan in 1799, and obtained Cashmere by conquest in
1819. In 1809 he made a treaty with the British, with
whom he always maintained peaceful relations. Died
in 1839.

Run'yon, (THEODORE,) an American statesman,
born at Somerville, New Jersey, in 1822. He became
a general in the New Jersey National Guard and com-
manded a brigade in the civil war. He was elected
mayor of Newark in 1864, was chancellor of New
Jersey 1873-87, and was appointed minister to Ger-
many in 1893. Died in 1896.

Rupert, roo'pert, [ Ger. RUPRECHT, roo'pRiKt, ]
PRINCE, sometimes called ROBERT or BAVARIA, son
of the Elector Palatine Frederick V. and Elizabeth,
daughter of James I. of England, was born at Prague in
1619. Having previously served against the Imperialists
in the Thirty Years' war, he entered the royalist army
in England, and was appointed by his uncle, Charles I.,
commander of a regiment of cavalry. He distinguished
himself by his energy and headlong courage at Worcester
and Edgehill, and took Bristol ; but he was signally de-
feated at Marston Moor in 1644. Being made general
of all the royal forces, he commanded the left wing at
Naseby in 1645. Owing to his rash pursuit of a part of
Cromwell's army while the main body remained on the
field, the day was lost, and he soon after surrendered
Bristol, after a short defence. He was, in consequence,
deprived of his command by the king ; but in 1648 he
obtained command of the fleet, and arsisted Lord Or-
mond on the coast of Ireland. In 1649 he was blockaded
in the harbour of Kinsale by the parliamentary squadron
under Blake. Having forced his way out, he steered for
Portugal, where he was protected by the king of that
country. In 1651 Blake attacked his fleet and destroyed
all but five of his vessels. Rupert subsisted for some
time by piracy in the West Indies. After the restoration
of 1660, he served as admiral against the Dutch. Died
in 1682.

See " Historical Memoirs of Prince Rupert," London, 1683 ; E.
WARBURTON, "Memoirs of Prince Rupert," 3 vols., 1849; CLAR-
ENDON, " History of the Great Rebellion :" HUME, " History of
England ;" " Lives of the Warriors of the Civil Ware of France and
England," by SIR EDWARD CUST, London, 1867.

Ru-per'tus or Ruprecht, roo'pRSKt, called also
Rhodbert, one of the early apostles of Christianity
in Germany, was Bishop of Worms, and lived in the
seventh century.

Riippell or Rueppell, rHp'pel, (WILHELM PETER
EDUARD SIMON,) a German naturalist, born at Frank-
for'-cn-the-Main in 1794. He visited Arabia, Nubia,
and other parts of Africa, and published in 1829 " Travels
in Nubia, Kordofan, and Arabia Petraea." He also gave

i, e, 5, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, g, obscure; fie, fill, fat; mSt; not; good;




an account of the birds of Northern and Eastern Africa,
and made valuable contributions to the Senkenberg
Museum, at Frankfort. Died December 10, 1884.

Rupprecht, roop'preKt, (FRIEDRICH KARL,) a Ger-
man landscape-painter and etcher, born near Anspach
in 1779; died in 1831.

Ruprecht See RUPERT.

Rurik, roo'rik, [Fr. ROURIK, roo'rek',] the founder
of the Russian empire, was originally a Scandinavian.
He invaded Russia about 862 A.U., defeated the natives,
who were commanded by Vadim, and selected Novogo-
rod as his capital. He died in 879, leaving a son, Igor,
a minor.

Rusbroek. See RUYSBROEK.

Rusca, roos'ka, (CARLO FRANCESCO,) an Italian
portrait-painter, born at Lugano in 1701 ; died in 1769.

Rusca, riis'kS', (F. DOMINIQUE,) born near Nice in
1761, became a general in the French army. He con-
tributed to the victory at Lodi, and was made a general
of division in 1796. He was commander of Elba from
1802 to 1805. He was killed at Soissons in 1814.

Rusca, (GIOVANNI ALESSANDRO,) a learned Italian
monk and writer, born at Turin about 1600 ; died in 1680.

Ruscelli, roo-shel'lee, (GiROiAMo,) an Italian scholar
and prolific writer, born at Viterbo. Among his works
are "On the Art of making Verse," ("Del Modo di
comporrein Versi," 1559.) and" Illustrious Enterprises,"
("Imprese illustri," 1566.) Died at Venice in 1566.

Ruscheweyh, roosh'eh-w!', (FERDINAND,) an emi-
nent German engraver, born at Mecklenburg, commenced
his studies about 1802. and went to Rome in 1808. He
engraved some works of Raphael, Giulio Romano, Over-
beck, and others.

Rusconi, roos-ko'nee, (CAMILLO,) a skilful Italian
sculptor, born at Milan about 1658. Among his works
is the mausoleum of Gregory XIII. in Saint Peter's at
Rome. Died in 1728.

Rush, (BENJAMIN,) an eminent American physician
and philanthropist, born near Philadelphia, December
24, 1745. He graduated at Princeton College, New
Jersey, in 1760, and afterwards studied medicine in
Edinburgh, London, and Paris. He was elected pro-
fessor of chemistry in the Medical College of Philadelphia
in 1769. He was an active supporter of the popular
cause in the Revolution, was elected a member of Con-
gress in 1776, and signed the Declaration of Independ-
ence. In the same year he married Julia Stockton, a
daughter of Judge Richard Stockton, of New Jersey.

In 1777 he was appointed surgeon-general and phy-
sician-general of the army. He acquired distinction as a
writer on medicine, philosophy, political affairs, etc. He
voted for the adoption of the Constitution of the United
States in the State convention which met in 1787. In
1789 he became professor of the theory and practice of
medicine in the medical college of Philadelphia. He
was appointed professor of the institutes of medicine in
the University of Pennsylvania in 1791, when the medical
college was united with the University. He was a popu-
lar lecturer, and was eminently qualified as a teacher of
medical science by his fluency of expression as well as
his profound learning. His reputation was increased by
his successful treatment of cases of yellow fever, which
prevailed in Philadelphia in 1793. It is stated that he
visited and prescribed for one hundred patients in one
day. His remedies for yellow fever were purging and
bleeding. He was treasurer of the Mint during the last
fourteen years of his life, was president of the society
for the abolition of slavery, and vice-president of the
Bible Society of Philadelphia. He was distinguished
for his industry, benevolence, and piety. In 1811 the
Emperor of Russia sent him a diamond ring as a testi-
monial of respect for his medical skill. Among his
writings are " Medical Inquiries and Observations," (a
vols., 1788-93,) and a "Treatise on Diseases of the
Mind," (1812.) He died in Philadelphia in Apiil, 1813,
leaving about nine children, among whom was Richard
Rush, the statesman.


Americans," vol. iii.

Rush, (JACOB,) LL.D., an American jurist, bom in
1746, was a brother of the celebrated Dr. Rush. He was
president of the court of common pleas for Philadelphia.
Died in 1820.

Rush, (JAMES,) a son of Dr. Benjamin Rush, born in
Philadelphia in 1786, was author of a treatise entitled
" Philosophy of the Human Voice," (1827 ; 6th edition,
1867,) and of other works. About 1840 he married Miss
F.idgway, daughter of Jacob Ridgway, a noted millionaire.
He died May 26, 1869, leaving property to the value of
about one n.illion dollars, with which was established
the " Ridgway Branch of the Philadelphia Library."

Rush, (RICHARD,) an American statesman, born in
Philadelphia in August, 1780, was a son of Dr. Benjamin
Rush. He graduated at Princeton College in 1797,
studied law, and was appointed comptroller of the treas-
ury by President Madison. He was attorney-general of
the United States from February, 1814, to March, 1817.
In the latter year he was sent to England by President
Monroe as minister-plenipotentiary. After he had ne-
gotiated several important treaties, he returned in 1825.
He served as secretary of the treasury from March, 1825,
to March, 1829. He was nominated for the Vice-Presi-
dency by the friends of John Quincy Adams in 1828, and
received eighty-three electoral votes, but was not elected.
In 1836 he was sent to England as a special agent or
commissioner by the President. He was appointed min-
ister to France in 1847, and was the first of the foreign
ministers at Paris to recognize the French republic
formed in 1848. He resigned his office in 1849, and
retired from the public service. He published in 1833
" Memorials of a Residence at the Court of Saint
James," another volume on the same subject in 1845,
and "Washington in Domestic Life," (1857.) Died in
Philadelphia in July, 1859.

Rush'tpn, (EDWARD,) an English Roman Catholic
priest, born in Lancashire, graduated at Oxford in 1572.
He published Sanders's work " On the Anglican Schism,"
(" De Schismate Anglicano," 1585,) with additions. Died
at Louvain in 1586.

Rush'worth, ( JOHN, ) an English lawyer, distin-
guished as a compiler of materials for history, was born
in Northumberland about 1607. He was assistant clerk
to the House of Commons during the Long Parliament.
He diligently pursued the practice of taking notes of
public transactions, and reported, in short-hand, the
speeches of members of Parliament. He served Sir T.
Fairfax as secretary from 1645 to 1650, during which
period Fairfax was commander-in-chief. He published
" Historical Collections of Private Passages of State,
Weighty Matters in Law," etc., (8 vols., 1659-1701.)
Died in 1690.

Rusk, (JEREMIAH McLAlN,) an American states-
man, was born in Morgan county, Ohio, in 1830. He
was sent to the Wisconsin legislature in 1855, served
three years in the war, and was mustered out as
brevet brigadier-general. He was elected to Con-
gress in 1871, 1873, and 1875, and when the
back-pay salary bill was passed, refused to accept
the extra salary. He was elected Governor of Wis-
consin 1881, 1884, and 1886, was a candidate for the
Republican presidential nomination in iSSS, and was
appointed secretary of agriculture in Harrison's cabi-
net. Died in 1893.

Rusk, (THOMAS J.,) an American officer and politician,
born in South Carolina in 1803. He removed to Texas
about 1835, was the first secretary of war of the republic
of Texas, and commanded the army after General Hous-
ton was wounded at San Jacinto, April, 1836. In 1845
he was elected a Senator of the United States by the
legislature of Texas. He was re-elected Senator about
1851. Died at Nacogdoches in 1856.

Rus'kin, JOHN,) an English artist and eloquent
writer on art and nature, was born in London in Feb-
ruary, 1819. He was the only child of a wine-merchant,
and inherited an ample fortune. " The first thing which
I remember as an event in life," says he, " was being
taken by my nurse to the brow of Friar's Crag on Der-
wentwater." In his childhood he enjoyed other excur-
sions to the country, on which subject he remarks, " In

c. as *.- c. as s; g hard; g as ;'; G, H, K,o7ittural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z: th as in this.

anations, p. 81.)




such journeyings, whenever they brought me near hills,
and in all mountain ground and scenery, I had a pleasure,
as early as I can remember, and continuing till I was
eighteen or twenty, infinitely greater than any which has
been since possible to me in anything. . . . Although
there was no definite religious sentiment mingled with
it, there was a continual perception of sanctity in the
whole of nature, from the slightest thing to the vastest,
an instinctive awe mixed with delight ; an indefinable
thrill such as we sometimes imagine to indicate the
presence of a disembodied spirit." ("Modern Painters,"
vol. iii. chap, xvii.) He was educated at Christ Church,
Oxford, gained the Newdigate prize in 1839 for an
English poem entitled " Salsetto and Elephanta," and
graduated in 1842. He received lessons in drawing and
painting from Copley, Fielding, and J. D. Harding, and
became an ardent admirer of Turner. To defend Turner
from hostile critics, he wrote the first volume of his
"Modern Painters," (1843, by a Graduate of Oxford.)
This work, which was expanded into a treatise on art,
nature, etc. and extended to five volumes, established
his reputation as the greatest art-critic of England,
although many of his opinions are paradoxical. It dis-
plays a rare faculty of observation, a rich imagination,
and great mastery of language. He discusses many
questions of ethics and philosophy in an earnest but
rather impulsive and wayward spirit. He devoted sev-
eral years to the study of art in Italy, especially in Venice.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 276 of 425)