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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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In 1849 ne produced "The Seven Lamps of Architec-
ture," and afterwards an eloquent and brilliant work
on "The Stones of Venice," (3 vols., 1851-53.) He
advocated the cause of the Pre-Raphaelites in a pam-
phlet entitled "Pre-Raphaelitism," (1851.) In 1854 he
published "Lectures on Architecture and Painting,"
(delivered at Edinburgh.) In 1860 he contributed to the
"Cornhill Magazine" a series of essays on political
economy. Among his other works are " Sesame and
Lilies," (1864,) "The Ethics of the Dust: Ten Lectures
to Little Housewives on the Elements of Crystalliza-
tion," (1865,) "The Crown of Wild Olive: Three Lec-
tures on Work, Traffic, and War," (1866,) "The Queen
of the Air : being a Study of the Greek Myths of Cloud
ind Storm," (1869,) "Frondes Agrestes," (1875,) and
" Arrows of the Chace," (1883.) He built a number of
model houses for the poor, in London. He was elected
professor of art at Oxford in 1869, and again in 1876.

In 1871 he began to publish " Fors Clavigera," a
monthly paper, devoted to the conservation and eleva-
tion of the social life of the people, and especially to the
rescue of the laboring-classes from the evils which have
resulted from the modern industrial system. He
spent large sums in founding the St. George's Guild,
a kind of primitive agricultural community, which did
not prove a success. Died January 20, 1900.

Russ, (JOHN DENISON,) M.D., an American physician
and philanthropist, born at Essex, Massachusetts, in
1801. He was appointed in 1832 superintendent of the
New York Institution for the Blind. He was also one
of the vice-presidents of the New York Prison Associa-
tion, and was connected with various other charitable
institutions. Died March I, 1881.

Russ, rooss, (KARL,) a German historical painter,
born in Vienna in 1779, was patronized by the archduke
John of Austria. He etched some of his own pictures.
Died in 1843.

Rfis'sell, (ALEXANDER,) F.R.S., a Scottish physician
and naturalist, born in Edinburgh. He was appointed
physician to the English Factory at Aleppo in 1740. In
1754 he returned to England, and published a " Natural
History of Aleppo," (1755,) which was received with
favour. He afterwards practised in London. Died
in 1768.

See " Essay on the Character of Alexander Russell ;" CHAMBERS,
"Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

RuVsell, (BENJAMIN,) an American journalist of the
Revolution, was born at Boston in 1761. In 1784 he
founded the " Columbia Centinel," a leading journal of
the Federal party. Died in 1845.

Ras'sell, (CHARLES WILLIAM,) D.D., an Irish Cath-
olic theologian and antiquary, born at Killough, county
of Down, in 1812. He studied for the priesthood at



Maynooth, where at the age of twenty-three he was
chosen professor of humanity. Before he was thirty his
reputation had extended to Oxford, where he stood high
among the tractarian leaders. He corresponded with
Newman in 1841, and was largely instrumental in bring-
ing him over to the Catholic Church. Dr. Russell was
selected by Cardinal Wiseman as his chief coadjutor in
the conduct of the " Dublin Review," for which he wrote
many able articles. He was the author of a " Life
of Cardinal Mezzofanti," (1858,) a " Calendar of State
Papers, Ireland, James I.," (4 vols., 1872-77,) etc. Died
February 26, 1880.

Russell, (DAVID A.,) an American general, a son A
David Russell, M.C., of Salem, New York, was born
about 1822. He graduated at West Point in 1845, served
in the Mexican war, and became a captain in 1854. He
commanded a division at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863,
and at the battle of the Wilderness, May 5 and 6, 1864.
He was killed at the battle of Opequan Creek, near
Winchester, in September, 1864.

See THNNHY, " Military History of the Rebellion," p. 790.

Rus'sell, (EDWARD,) Earl of Orford, an English
admiral, bom in 1651, was a nephew of the first Duke
of Bedford. He was a prominent Whig chief in the
revolution of 1688. About 1690 he was appointed
commander of the combined navies of England and
Holland ; but, not satisfied with this honour, he is said
to have secretly conspired to restore James II. In
1692 he gained a great victory over the French off La
Hogue. He became first lord of the admiralty in 1693,
after which he commanded with success in the Mediter-
ranean. He was created Earl of Orford and Viscount
Barfleur in 1697. Died in 1727.

See MACAULAV, " History of England."

Russell, (FRANCIS,) seventh Duke of Bedford, born
in 1788, was a brother of Lord John (Earl) Russell. He
was an active supporter of the Whig measures in Par-
liament. He devoted much attention to agriculture, in
which he is said to have made important improvements.
Died in 1861.

Russell, (GEORGE,) an English poet and parson,
bom in Minorca in 1728; died in 1767.

Russell, (Sir HENRY,) an English judge, born in
1751. He was appointed chief justice of Bengal in
1797. Died in 1836.

Russell, (JOHN,) first Earl of Bedford, obtained a
high position at court in 1505. He served with distinc-
tion in the expedition which Henry VIII. led against
France in 1513, and was rewarded with lands attached
to the abbey of Tavistock and the monastery of Woburn.
He was appointed lord high admiral and created Earl
of Bedford in 1550. Died in 1555.

See J. H. WIFFHN, " Historical Memoirs of the House of Ru-
ell." 1833.

Russell, (JOHN,) fourth Duke of Bedford, an Eng-
lish statesman, born in 1710, succeeded to the dukedom
in 1732. He became secretary of state in 1748, and ne-
gotiated in 1762 a treaty of peace with France. He was
president of the council in the Grenville ministry, (1763-
65.) He was a man of good intentions, but was misled
by a set of political jobbers, called the " Bloomsbury
gang." Died in 1771.

See DAVID Ross, " Sketch of the History of the House of Rus
ell," 1848.

Russell, (Lord JOHN,) afterwards EARL RUSSELL,
an eminent british Whig statesman, born in London on
the iSth of August, 1792. He was the third son of the
sixth Duke of Bedford. His mother was a daughter of
the fourth Viscount Torrington. He studied first at the
Westminster School, from which he passed to the Uni-
versity of Edinburgh, where he attended the lectures of
Dugald Stewart and Thomas Brown and was a pupil of
Playfair. He was elected to Parliament for Tavistock in
1813, and began his career as a member of the Whig party,
which was then in the opposition. He soon became
a zealous advocate of Parliamentary reform, and made
motions for the suppression of rotten boroughs, which
he repeated year after year. In 1821 he published " An
Essay on the History of the English Government and
Constitution," and in 1822 "Don Carlos, or Persecu-



i, e, 5, 6, u, y, long: a, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; m<56n:



RUSSELL



2103



RUST



In July, 1861, he was raised to the
sell of Kingston-Russell, and passed



tion,"a tragedy. He procured in 1828 the repeal of the
Test acts which subjected Protestant dissenters to civil
disabilities. On the accession of the Whig party to
power in 1830, Lord John was appointed paymaster of
the forces, and a member of the committee of four by
which the celebrated Reform bill was prepared. Russefl
is reputed to be the principal author of this bill, which
was introduced in March, 1831, and was rejected by a
small majority. The ministers, having dissolved Parlia-
ment and appealed to the country, obtained a large ma-
jority in the new House of Commons, and, after a long
and violtnt crisis, caused by the hostility of the House
of Lords, the Reform bill became a law in 1832. Lord
John was the leader of the Whig party in the House of
Commons after 1834, and was appointed secretary for
the home department by Lord Melbourne in April, 1835.
He married in 1835 Adelaide, the widow of Lord Ribbles-
dale and the daughter of Thomas Lister. He represented
Stroud in Parliament from 1834 to 1841, and was secre-
tary for the colonies from August, 1839, to September,
1841. In the latter year he was chosen one of the mem-
bers for the city of London, and resigned office with his
colleagues. He contributed in 1845 to the repeal of the
Corn Laws. The Whig party having been restored to
power by the defeat of Sir Robert Peel, Russell became
prime minister in July, 1846. He resigned office in
February or March, 1852, and in December of that year
entered the ministry of Lord Aberdeen as secretary for
foreign affairs. Having retired from this position in
February, 1853, he was president of the council from
April or June, 1854, to January, 1855. He served under
Palmerston as colonial secretary for a short time in 1855.
On the formation of a new ministry by Lord Palmer-
ston in June, 1859, Lord John was appointed secretary
for foreign affairs. In Jul
peerage, as Earl Russell of

into the House of Lords. During the civil war in Amer-
ica he pursued a policy of neutrality and non-interven-
tion. Like many other European statesmen, he hastily
judged that the Union was doomed to a premature
dissolution. In October, 1865, he was called by public
opinion and the will of the queen to the office of prime
minister, vacated by the death of Lord Palmerston. The
cabinet on this occasion was reorganized by the admis-
sion of a few new members. His principal colleagues
were W. E. Gladstone, chancellor of the exchequer,
Lord Clarendon, secretary for foreign affairs, Lord Gran-
ville, president of the council, the Duke of Somerset,
first lord of the admiralty, Edward Cardwell, secretary
for the colonies, and Milner Gibson, president of the
board of trade. In the early part of the session of 1866
the ministry introduced a bill for the extension of the
elective franchise, with which they pledged themselves
to stand or fall. In this Reform bill they proposed to
give the franchise to every citizen of a borough who
occupied, as owner or tenant, a house of the clear
yearly value of seven pounds. A long and excited
debate followed. Although the professed Liberals
were a large majority of the House, the bill was de-
feated by a majority of eleven, June 18, 1866, and the
ministry resigned. He died May 28, 1878.

Russell, (JoHN SCOTT,) F.R.S., a British engineer
and naval architect, was born in the Vale of Clyde, in
Scotland, in 1808. He settled in London in 1844. He
distinguished himself by his experiments to ascertain the
form of ships which will encounter the least resistance,
and adopted the theory that a ship should resemble in
form a " wave of translation." The Great Eastern is
constructed according to his system. Died June 8, 1882.
Russell, (MICHAEL,) LL.D., Bishop of Glasgow, an
able writer, born in Edinburgh in 1781. He became
incumbent of Saint James's Chapel, Leith, about 1810.
His principal work is "The Connection of Sacred and
Profane History," (3 vols., 1821-27,) which is highly
esteemed. He became Bishop of Glasgow in 1837. Died
April 2, 1848.

Russell, (Lord ODO.) See AMPTHILL.

Russell, (PATRICK,) M.D., born in Scotland in 1726,

was a brother of Alexander, noticed above. He sue

ceeded his brother in 1754 as physician at Aleppo, when

he witnessed the prevalence of the great plague of 1760



He published in 1791 an excellent "Treatise on the
Plague." Died in 1805.

Russell, (Lady RACHEL Wriothesley rot'es-le,)
aorn about 1636, was a daughter of the Earl of South-
ampton, and one of the most lovely and noble of women.
Her first husband was Lord Vaughan. In 1669 she was
married to Lord William Russell, at whose trial she
served him as amanuensis. Her conduct on this occa-
sion excited general admiration and sympathy. Died
in 1723.

Russell, (THOMAS,) an English poet, born at Beamin-
ster, Dorsetshire, in 1762 ; died prematurely in 1788. A
volume of his sonnets appeared in 1789, and was highly
praised by Southey and Wordsworth.

Russell, (WILLIAM,) fifth EARL, and afterwards Duke
of Bedford, born about 1614, inherited the earldom at
the death of his father, in 1641. He was an adherent
of the Parliament in the beginning of the civil war, but
became a royalist in 1643. He was the father of Lord
William Russell who was beheaded in 1683. In 1694
he was created Duke of Bedford. Died in 1700.

Russell, (WILLIAM,) LORD, an English patriot, son of
the preceding, was born in 1639. He entered Parliament
in 1660, and married in 1669 the widow of Lord Vaughan,
(see RUSSELL, LADY,) with whom he passed many happy
years. By his honourable character and high rank he
acquired great political influence, which he employed in
defence of civil and religious liberty. He was appointed
by Charles II. a member of a new council of ministers
formed in 1679. In 1680 he and his friends procured
the passage of a bill for the exclusion of the Duke of
York from the throne because he was a papist. The
bill was rejected by the peers. A conspiracy against the
king, called the Rye-House Plot, was formed by some
inferior partisans. This plot having been detected, Lord
Russell was accused of complicity in it, and unjustly
condemned to death. He was beheaded on the 22d of
July, 1683. He left a son, who became Duke of Bedford.
" He had given such proofs of an undaunted courage and
unshaken firmness," says Burnet, "that no man of that
time had so entire a credit in the nation as he had."

See LORD JOHN RUSSBLL, " Life of William Lord Russell," 1819;
f. H. WIFFEN, "Memoirs of the House of Russell," 2 vols., 1833;
"Lord Russell's Case, with Observations upon it," by HENRY
LORD DE LA MERE; BURNET, "History of his Own Time;" D.
Ross, "Sketch of the History of the House of Russell," 1848,
"Monthly Review" for March, 1820.

Russell, (WILLIAM,) LL.D., a British historian, born
in the county of Selkirk in 1741. He became a resident
of London in 1767, and published various works in
prose and verse. His most popular work is a " History
of Modern Europe," (5 vols., 1779-84.) Died in 1793.

See IRVINK, " Life of William Russell," 1801 ; " Blackwood's
Magazine" for July, 1818.

Russell, (WILLIAM CLARK,) an English novelist,
born in 1844. Most of his books are sea-tales,
written with spirit and originality. " The Wreck of
the Grosvenor" is considered his best story.

Russell, (Sir WILLIAM HOWARD,) an Irish writer,
noted as correspondent of the London "Times," was
born at Dublin in 1821. He accompanied the British
army to the Crimea in 1854, and wrote letters on the
Crimean war, which attracted great attention and
were collected in two volumes, (1856.) He was
" Times" correspondent in the American civil war
1 86 1, and in several later wars, and was knighted in
1895. His books include " The Adventures of Dr.
Brady," (a novel, 1868,) "A Visit to Chile," (1890,)
and "The Great War with Russia," (1895.)

Russell of Killowen, (CHARLES,) BARON, a
distinguished English jurist, was born at Killowen,
Ireland, in 1832. He graduated at Trinity College,
Dublin, became a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1859,
and was attorney-general of England 1886 and 1892-
94. He was in Parliament for Dundalk 1880-85. In
1894 he was appointed lord chief justice of England,
and raised to the peerage as Baron Russell of Kill-
owen. Died August 10, 1900.

Rust, (GEORGE,) an English divine, born at Cam-



cas /i; 9 as*; %hard; gasy';G, H, Y., guttural; N, nasal; v.,trillid; sasz; thasinMw.



xplanations, p. 23.)



RUSTAM



2104



RUVIGNY



bridge. He became Bishop of Dromore in 1667, and
published several religious works. Died in 1670.

Rustam or Rustem. See ROOSTAM.

Rustic!, roos'tee-chee, (FRANCESCO,) an able Italian
painter, born at Sienna about 1595. He died prema-
turely in 1625.

Rustic!, (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) a skilful Italian
sculptor, born at Florence about 1460 or 1470, was a
pupil of Leonardo da Vinci. He executed three colossal
bronze statues Saint John, a Pharisee, and a Levite
for the baptistery of Florence. He removed to France
about 1528. In the latter part of his life he worked in
Paris for Francis I. Died about 1550. " He was without
an equal for the casting of works in metal," says Vasari,
who also praises his character in high terms.

See VASAXI, " Lives of the Painters and Sculptors."

Riistow, riis'to, (WlLHELM,) a German military
writer, born at Brandenburg, May 25, 1821. He served
for a time in the engineers, but was involved in diffi-
culties on account of his independence of spirit He
left the country and joined Garibaldi's army in 1860.
Among his very numerous writings are a " History of
Greek Warfare," " Greek Military Writers," " History
of Infantry," " General Tactics," " Modern Strategy and
Tactics," " Military Dictionary," etc. Died by suicide
at Zurich, August 14, 1878.

Rute or Ruete, ru'teh, (CHRISTIAN GEORG,) a Ger-
man medical writer and oculist, born near Bremen in
1810. He settled at Leipsic in 1852. Died in 1867.

Rutebceuf, riit'buf, a French poet, whose birthplace
and real name are unknown. He was born about 1230,
was married in 1260, and probably died after 1285. He
wrote poems autobiographical, comic, satirical, elegiac,
and devotional, and was one of the most vigorous and
productive authors of his time.

Rttt'gers, (Colonel HENRY,) an American patriot,
born about 1746, fought in the Revolutionary war, and
was afterwards a citizen of New York City. He was very
rich, and gave large sums for charity. Died in 1830.

Rutgers, rut'gers or rut'Hers, (JOHN,) an able Dutch
critic, born at Dort in 1589, was a brother-in-law of
Daniel Heinsius. He was appointed a councillor of
tate by the King of Sweden in 1614, after which he
was employed by Gustavus Adolphus in diplomatic mis-
sions. Among his works are " Varis Lectiones," (1618,)
and an autobiography, (1646.) Died in 1625.

See NiciRON, " Meraoires."

Ruth, [Heb. nil,] a Moabite woman, who was mar-
ried to Mahlon, a Hebrew, and afterwards to Boaz. She
was a great-grandmother of King David. Her story is
the subject of the canonical book of Ruth.

Riith'er-foTd, (DANIEL,) a Scottish physician and
botanist, born in Edinburgh in 1749. He is regarded as
the discoverer of nitrogen, on which he wrote a thesis,
" De Acre mephitico," (1772.) He became professor of
medicine and botany at Edinburgh in 1786. Died in 1819.

Rutherford, (SAMUEL,) a Scottish minister and Cov-
enanter, born in the parish of Nisbet, Roxburghshire,
about 1600, was an eloquent and zealous preacher. He
was ordained minister at Anworth in 1627, and became
professor of divinity at Saint Andrew's in 1639. He
wrote against the divine right of kings, in a work en-
titled " Law is King," ( " Lex Rex." ) Among his
works are "The Trial and Triumph of Faith," (1645,)
and religious "Letters." Died in 1661.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;''
CHARLES THOMSON, " Letters and Life of the Rev. Samuel Ruther-
ford," 3 vols., 1846.

Ruth'er-forth, (THOMAS,) D.D., F.R.S., an English
writer, born in Cambridgeshire in 1712. He became
rector of Barley and Archdeacon of Essex. He wrote
leveral works on religion, philosophy, etc. Died in 1771.

Ruth'er-furd, (ANDREW,) a learned and able Scot-
tish lawyer and judge, born in 1791, was an intimate
friend of Lord Jeffrey. He was appointed lord advocate
of Scotland in 1839, retired from that office in 1841, and
was restored in 1846. In 1851 he became a lord of
session. Died in 1854.

Ruth'erfurd, (LEWIS MORRIS,) an American scientist,
born at Morrisania, New York, November 25, 1816.



He graduated in 1834 at Williams College, and Became
a lawyer of New York. He gave great attention to
photographic astronomy, and invented many important
appliances, chiefly for use in that and similar departments
of science. Died in 1892.

Ruthven. See GOWRIE, EARL OF.

Ru-till-us Lu'pus, a Roman rhetorician of an un-
certain epoch. He was author of a work "On the
Figures of Sentences and Elocution," ("De Figuris Sen-
tentiarum et Elocutionis,") which is accounted valuable.
Some suppose he was a son of Rutilius Lupus who was
tribune of the people about 55 B.C.

Rutil'ius Numatia'nus, (nu-ma-she-a'nus,) (CLAU'
Dius,) a Roman poet, born in Gaul about the end of tht
fourth century, was a pagan. He became pratfectus urk
at Rome, and described a journey from Rome to Gaul
in a poem called " Itinerarium," which is a work of
much merit. Nearly half of it is lost.

Rut'land, (CHARLES CECIL JOHN MANNERS,) DUKI
OF, eldest son of John Henry Manners, fifth Duke of
Rutland, was born in 1815. He was styled Marquis of
Granby before he succeeded to the dukedom, in 1857.
He was a conservative in politics. Died in 1888.

Rutland, (CHARLES MANNERS,) fourth DUKE OF, was
the eldest son of the general, Marquis of Granby. He
succeeded his grandfather, the third duke, in 1779. He
was a personal and political friend of William Pitt, and
was a patron of the poet Crabbe. He was eminent foi
generosity and benevolence. Died in 1787.

Rutland, EARL OF, an English peer, whose family
name was MANNERS, was a favourite of Henry VIII.
He held important offices in the reign of that king, and
was created Earl of Rutland in 1525. One of his de-
scendants, JOHN MANNERS, the tenth earl, was created
Marquis of Granby and Duke of Rutland in 1703.

Rufledge, (EDWARD,) an American jurist, and signer
of the Declaration of Independence, was born at Charles-
ton, South Carolina, in 1749. At the age of twenty-five
he was elected to the Congress of 1774, and in 1798
became Governor of South Carolina. He enjoyed a high
reputation as a lawyer and orator. Died in 1800.

Rutledge, (FRANCIS HUGER,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1799,
graduated at Yale College in 1820, and at the General
Theological Seminary, New York, in 1823. He became
a priest of the Episcopal Church in 1825, and in 1851
was consecrated Bishop of Florida. Died in 1866.

Rutledge, (JOHN,) an American jurist and orator,
born at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739, was a
brother of Edward. He became in 1774 a member
of the General Congress, in which he was a bold and
prominent supporter of independence. He was elected
president of South Carolina in 1776, and Governor of
that State in 1779. In 1787 he was a member of the
National Convention which framed the Constitution of
the United States, the adoption of which he afterwards
advocated. He was appointed a judge of the supreme
court of the United States in 1789, and chief justice of
South Carolina in 1791. He was nominated chief justice
of the United States in July, 1795, but was rejected by
the Senate in December of that year. He was an elo-
quent orator, and a man of eminent talents. Died in
July, 1800.

See the " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
vol. iv.

Rut'tjf, (JOHN,) a physician and writer, born in Dub-
lin in 1698, was a member of the Society of Friends.
He practised in Dublin, and wrote, besides some medical
works, a " History of the Rise and Progress of the
People called Quakers in Ireland," (1751,) and a " Spir-
itual Diary and Soliloquies," (2 vols., 1776.) Died in
1775.

Ruvigny, de, deh rii'ven'ye', (HENRI de Massue
deh mJ'su',) MARQUIS, a French Huguenot general and
able diplomatist, born fn 1610, was an uncle of the excel-
lent Lady Rachel Russell. He fought for the king in the
war of the Fronde. Having been sent by Louis XIV. on a
mission to Charles II. in 1675, he induced the latter for
a pecuniary consideration to become subservient to the
designs of the French king. He emigrated to England



U. e, I, o, u, v, /?; 4, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e, I. o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obsnire; far, fall, fat; met; not; cood; moon:



RUXTON



2105



RYLAND



in 1686, and died in 1689, leaving a son, who was a
famous general. (See GALWAY, EARL OF.)
See HAAG, "La France protestante."

Riix'tpn, (GEORGE FREDERICK,) an English traveller,
born in 1820, became a lieutenant in the British army.
He wrote "Adventures in the Rocky Mountains and
Mexico," and " Life in the Far West." Died at Saint
Louis, Missouri, in 1848.

Ruysbroek. See RUBRUQUIS.

Ruysbroek, de, deh rois'bRook, (JAN,) called THE
ECSTATIC DOCTOR, a Flemish mystic and writer, born
about 1294; died in 1381.

See ENGELHARDT, " Richard von St. Victor und Jan Ruysbroek,"
1838.

Ruysch. See RUISCH.

Ruysdael, Ruysdaal, or Ruisdael, rois'dSl, (JA-
COB,) a Dutch landscape-painter of high reputation, was
born at Haarlem about 1630. His birth is variously
dated 1625, 1630, and 1635. He was a friend of Nicholas
Berghem, from whom perhaps he received instruction
in art He imitated nature with fidelity. His favourite
subjects were sylvan scenes, cascades, and marine views.
Among his master-pieces is "The Stag-Hunt," in the


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 277 of 425)