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Jablonski, (PAUL ERNST,) an eminent Prussian
scholar and divine, a son of Daniel Ernst, noticed above,
was born in Berlin in 1693. He devoted himself par-
ticularly to the study of the Coptic and other Oriental
languages. Among his numerous works are " Pantheon
Egypriorum," (3 vols., 1750-52,) a work relating to the
religion of the Egyptians, and " Of the Memnon of the
Greeks and Egyptians." Died in 1757.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Jablonsky, ya-blon'skee, (KARL GUSTAV,) a Prus-
sian entomologist, born in 1756, published a "System
of all the Known Insects, arranged according to the
Method of Linnaeus." Died in 1787.


Jachaeus. See JACK.

Jack, [Lat. JACH^E'US,] (GILBERT,) a Scottish meta-
physician, born at Aberdeen about 1578. He became
professor of philosophy at Leyden in early life. He
published severa. works, among which is " Institutiones
Physics," (1612.) Died in 1628.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Jack, (THOMAS,) a Scottish minister of Eastwood,
wrote "Onomasticon Poeticum," (1592.) Died in 1596.

Jack, (WILLIAM,) LL.D., a Scottish mathematician,
born at Stewarton in 1834. He was educated at the
Universities of Glasgow and Cambridge, was professor
of natural philosophy in Owens College, Manchester,
186670, and in 1879 became professor of mathematics
in the University of Glasgow.

Jack'son, (ANDREW,) a celebrated American general
and statesman, born in the Waxhaw settlement, North
or South Carolina, on the 151(1 of March, 1767. Parton
states that he was born in Union county, North Caro-
lina, but adds that " General Jackson always supposed
himself to be a native of South Carolina," for in his
proclamation to the nullifiers of South Carolina he thus
addresses them : " Fellow-citizens of my native State."
He was a son of Andrew Jackson, an Irishman, who
emigrated to America in 1765 and died poor in 1767.
The name of his mother was Elizabeth Hutchinson. We
have little definite information about the schools that he
attended. According to Parton, " he learned to read, to
write, and cast accounts ; little more. . . . He was never
a well-informed man." Having taken arms against the
British in 1781, he was captured, and afterwards wounded
by an officer because he refused to clean his boots.
About 1785 he began to study law at Salisbury, North
Carolina. He was addicted in his youth to gambling,
horse-racing, and other sports. He was an excellent
horseman, " a capital shot," was very dignified in man-
ner, and was distinguished for his courage and activity.
His stature was six feet and one inch high.

In 1788 he removed to Nashville, Tennessee, where
he began to practise law. He speedily obtained a large
practice, of which disputed land-claims formed the prin-
cipal subject. About 1792 he married Rachel Robards,
originally Rachel Donelson, whose first husband was
living and had taken preliminary measures to obtain
a divorce, which was legally completed in 1793. The
marriage ceremony was again performed in 1794. Jack-

son, following a custom then extremely common in the
South and West, fought a number of duels in the early
part of his life. He was a member of the Convention
which framed the Constitution of Tennessee in 0796, and
in the autumn of that year was elected representative to
Congress by the people of Tennessee, which was then
entitled to only one member. He supported Thomas
Jefferson in the Presidential election of 1796. In 1797
he became a Senator of the United States for Tennessee.
He resigned his seat in the Senate in 1798, "partly be-
cause he felt himself out of place in so slow and digni-
fied a body, but chiefly for pecuniary reasons." He was
a judge of the supreme court of Tennessee from 1798 to
1804. In 1806 he challenged and killed Charles Dick-
inson in a duel with pistols, receiving himself a severe
wound. This affair impaired for many years his popu-
larity in Tennessee and other parts of the United States.

In 1807, while the trial of Aaron Burr was still unde-
termined, Jackson "harangued the crowd, [at Richmond,]
defending Burr, and angrily denouncing Jefferson as a
persecutor." (Parton's " Life.") After war had been
declared against Great Britain, General Jackson (who
several years before had been appointed major-general
of militia) offered his services, and those of 2500 volun-
teers, in June, 1812. He was ordered to New Orleans,
and led a body of 2070 men in that direction ; but at
Natchez he received an order dated February 6, 1813, by
which his troops were dismissed from public service. In
September, 1813, he had an affray with Colonel Thomas
H. Benton at Nashville, and was severely wounded by his
brother, Jesse Benton. In October next he took the field
against the Creek Indians, whom he defeated at Talla-
dega in November. By his services in this Creek war,
which ended in 1814, he acquired great popularity, and
in May, 1814, he was appointed a major-general in the
regular army. He was soon after ordered to the Gulf
of Mexico, to oppose an expected invasion of the British.
In November he seized Pensacola, which belonged to
Spain but was used by the British as a base of operations.
About the 1st of December he moved his army to New
Orleans, which was then ill prepared for defence. The
British fleet, conveying an army of veterans who had
fought under Wellington, entered Lake Borgne Decem-
ber 13, and captured several gunboats. General Jackson
proclaimed martial law in the city on the i6th. On the
23d the enemy advanced to a point about nine miles be-
low the city, and were attacked in the night by General
Jackson, who had about 2100 men. The result of this
action was favourable to the defenders of the city, who
gained time to fortify their position. On the 25th of
December Sir Edward Pakenham arrived and took com-
mand of the invaders, whose number was about 12,000.
Jackson, who had a much smaller army, composed partly
of the unerring marksmen of Tennessee and Kentucky,
repulsed an attack on the 1st of January, 1815. On the
8th of January the British made a general assault on the
American lines, but were defeated with great loss by
the deadly fire of the riflemen and artillery. Generals
Pakenham and Gibbs were killed. " Seven hundred
killed," says Parton, " fourteen hundred wounded, and
five hundred prisoners, were the dread result of that
twenty-five minutes' work. Jackson's loss was eight
killed and thirteen wounded." The victory of New
Orleans, which was one of the most brilliant and de-
cisive ever gained by an American army, raised Jackson's
reputation as a general to the highest point, and made
him the idol of a large portion of the American people.
This was the last battle of the war, a treaty of peace
having been signed in Europe in December, 1814.

In March, 1815, while that city was still under mar-
tial law, Judge Hall, of New Orleans, granted a writ of
habeas corpus for the release of Mr. Louaillier, who had
been arrested by order of Jackson, for exciting discontent
among the troops. The latter, instead of obeying the
writ, had the judge arrested and kept in custody. Peace
having been formally proclaimed, Hall was set at liberty.
General Jackson was then summoned to answer for con-
tempt of court. He was found guilty, and sentenced to
pay a fine of one thousand dollars. He immediately
paid the fine ; but it was afterwards refunded with the
interest by an act of Congress passed in February, 1844.

eas k: 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (J^T'See Explanations, p. 23.)




In 1817-18 he waged a successful war against the
Seminoles in Florida, seized Pensacola, and executed
Arbuthnot and Ambrister, two British subjects, accused
of inciting the savages to hostile acts against the Ameri-
cans. He was appointed Governor of Florida in 1821.
Before this date he had built, near Nashville, a mansion
called the " Hermitage," in which he resided many years.
In 1823 he was elected a Senator of the United States,
and nominated as candidate for the Presidency by the
legislature of Tennessee. His competitors were John
Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and William H. Crawford.
Jackson received ninety-nine electoral votes, Adams
eighty-four, Crawford forty-one, and Clay thirty-seven.
As no candidate had a majority, the election devolved
on the House of Representatives, voting by States, each
State having one vote. Through the influence of Mr.
Clay, John Quincy Adams was elected, by the vote of
thirteen States. General Jackson, who received the
vote of seven States, became the implacable enemy of
Mr. Clay, whom he stigmatized as " this Judas of the
West." He habitually attributed the conduct of his
political opponents to mean or improper motives, and,
accordingly, hated Crawford, Clay, Adams, and Calhoun,

In 1828 he was elected President, receiving one hun-
dred and seventy-eight electoral votes, while Mr. Adams
received eighty-three. Calhoun became Vice-PresidenL,
Martin Van Buren was appointed secretary of state.
Jackson was the first President who proscribed public
servants for political opinions. He made more removals
in one year than all the other Presidents in forty years
before. At a banquet in April, 1830, the President gave
thij famous toast: "Our Federal Union: it must be
preserved." In April, 1831, he reorganized his cabinet,
appointing Edward Livingston secretary of state, Louis
McLane secretary of the treasury, Lewis Cass secretary
of war, Levi Woodbury secretary of the navy, and Roger
B. Taney attorney-general.

Among the principal events of his first term was his
veto of the bill which granted anew charter to the Bank
of the United States, (July, 1832.) This subject became
the chief issue between the partisans of Jackson and his
opponents, who supported Henry Clay in the Presiden-
tial election of 1832. General Jackson was re-elected,
receiving two hundred and nineteen electoral votes out
of two hundred and eighty-eight, which was the whole
number, and Martin Van Buren succeeded Calhoun in
the Vice-Presidency. In November, 1832, a Convention
in South Carolina adopted an ordinance of nullification,
by which they ordained that the tariff-law of 1828 " is
null and void." The President electrified the country
by his memorable proclamation against the nullifiers,
December II, 1832, in which he announced his resolu-
tion to crush any disunion movement with the strong
hand. He was censured by the Senate for removing
the public deposits from the Bank of the United States,
September, 1833.

He used his influence to procure the election of Mar-
tin Van Buren to the Presidency in 1836, and retired
finally from public life March 4, 1837. He afterwards
joined the Presbyterian Church. In his last illness Dr.
Edgar asked "what he would have done with Calhoun
and the other nullifiers if they had kept on." " Hung
them, sir, as high as Haman," was his reply. He
died, without issue, at the Hermitage, on the 8th of
June, 1845.

See EATON, " Life of Jackson," 1824; WILLIAM COBBHTT, "Life
of Andrew Jackson," 1834; J. S. JENKINS, "Life of General An-
drew Jackson," 1850; J. T. HEADLBY, "Life of Andrew Jackson,"
1852; AMOS KRNDALL,"Lifeof Andrew Jackson," 1844; ALEXANDER
WALKER, "Jackson and NewOrleans," 1856; JAMES PARTON, " Life
of Andrew Jackson," 3 vols., 1860, (by far the most complete life of
the Hero of New Orleans that has been published ;) " National Por-
trait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," vol. i. ; "New American
Cyclopaedia ;" W. G. SU.MNER, " Life of Jackson."

Jack'son, (ARTHUR,) an English Puritan minister,
born in Suffolk in 1593, preached at Saint Faith's, Lon-
don, until 1662, when he was ejected; He wrote "An-
notations on the Old Testament," (1643-58.) Died in

Jackson, (CHARLES,) LL.D., an American jurist,
was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1775. He
graduated at Harvard with the highest honours of his
class in 1793, studied law with Theophilus Parsons, and

obtained an extensive practice in his native town. In
1803 he removed to Boston, where he practised law for
many years. In 1813 he was made judge of the supreme
court of Massachusetts, the duties of which he discharged
for ten years. He was placed at the head of the com-
missioners appointed by the State in 1832 to revise her
legislative enactments. Died in Boston in 1855. He
published a "Treatise on the Pleadings and Practice in
Real Actions, with Precedents," etc., (1828.)

Jackson, (CHARLES THOMAS,) M.D., an American
chemist and geologist, born at Plymouth. Massachusetts,
in June, iScj. He took the degree of M.D. at Harvard
in 1829, after which he continued his studies in Palis,
and passed several years in visits to various countries
of Europe. In conjunction with Francis Alger, he pub-
lished a work called " Mineralogy and Geology of Nova
Scotia," (1832.) He became a resident of Boston about
1833, was appointed State geologist of Maine in 1836,
and produced a " Report on the Geology of the State
of Maine," (1837.) His second and third Reports on
the same subject appeared in 1838 and 1839. He was
appointed geologist of the State of New Hampshire in
1 8/0. He claimed to be the original discoverer of anaes-
thetics, and was involved in a long controversy on this
subject Died August 29, 1880.

Jackson, (CYRIL,) DR., a noted English divine, bom
at Stamford in 1742. He was offered the primacy of
Ireland and an English bishopric, both of which he de-
clined. He was tutor to the Prince of Wales, (George
IV.) Died in 1819.

Jackson, (FREDERICK GEORGE,) an English
Arctic explorer, born at Leamington in 1860, and edu-
cated at Edinburgh University. His first field of
travel was in the Australian desert, when he made a
midwinter journey across the Great Tundra. He led
the lackson-Harmsworth expedition to Franz-Josef
Land, and remained there engaged in investigation for
three years. He had the good fortune to rescue the
famous explorer Nansen (</.') He returned in the
summer of 1897.

Jackson, (HELEN HUNT,) an American poet and
author of much merit, was born in Amherst, Massachu-
Setts, in 1831. She was the daughter of Professor N. W.
Fiske. Her first husband was Mr. Hunt, an officer of
the United States engineers, who died in 1863. In 1875
she married a Mr. Jackson. Her works include " Verses
by H. H.," (1871.) "Bits of Travel," (1872,) "Bits of
Talk," " A Century of Dishonour," and several volumes
of tales for children. Died August 12, 1885.

Jackson, (HENRY R.,) was born in Georgia in 1820.
He served as a colonel in the Mexican war, and was
minister to Austria from 1853 to 1858. He published in
1851 "Tallulah, and other Poems." He was a general
in the Confederate service, 1861-65, ?"d won distinction
as a lawyer. He was appointed United States minister
to Mexico in 1885. He was a trustee of the Peabody
Education Fund 1875-88. Died in 1898.

Jackson, QAMES,) a lawyer, born in Devonshire,
England, in 1757, emigrated to America in 1772. He
fought with distinction against the British in Georgia
in 1776-82, was elected to Congress in 1789, and was a
United States Senator for Georgia from 1792 to 1795.
In 1798 he became Governor of Georgia, and in 1801
was again elected a Senator of the United States. Died
in Washington, March 19, 1806.

Jackson, (JOHN, ) a clergyman of the Anglican
Church, born in Yorkshire, England, in 1686. He was a
zealous advocate of the Arian doctrines, which prevented
his advancement in the church. Died in 1763. He wrote
a valuable work entitled "Chronological Antiquities,"
(3 vols., 1752,) and numerous controversial treatises.

Jackson, (JoHN,) an able English engraver on wood,
flourished about 1725-45.

Jackson, (JOHN,) an eminent English portrait-painter,
born at Lastingham, Yorkshire, in 1778, became a resi-
dent of London about 1797, and was elected a member
of the Royal Academy in 1817. Among his best works
are portraits of Canova and Flaxman. Died in 1831.
See CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of British Paiuters."

See CUNNINGHAM, "Lives of British Paiuters."
>, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; nSt; good; moon:

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u,




Jackson, (JOHN ADAMS,) an American sculptor, born
at Bath, Maine, November 5, 1825. He learned the trade
of a machinist. He afterwards studied portrait-painting
and crayon-work with success under D. C. Johnson, in
Boston, and then practised sculpture in France and Italy.
His portrait-busts and medallions are often excellent.
Among his other works are " Eve lifting the Dead Abel,"
(1862,) "Peasant-Boy and Goat," "Culprit Fay," "Read-
ing-Girl," the soldiers' monument at Lynn, Massachu-
setts, and " Hylas," (1879.) Died at Pracchia, in Tuscany,
August 30, 1879.

Jackson, (PATRICK TRACY,) a merchant and manu-
facturer, born at Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1780.
He organized in 1821 the Merrimac Manufacturing
Company, and founded Lowell. Died in 1847.

Jackson, (ROBERT,) an English physician, born in
1751. He served as surgeon in the army, and wrote,
besides other works, a "Treatise on the Fevers of
Jamaica," (1791.) Died in 1827.

Jackson, (SAMUEL,) a distinguished physician and
physiologist, born in Philadelphia March 22, 1787. He
was elected in 1835 to the chair of the institutes of medi-
cine in the University of Pennsylvania, which he filled
with great credit to himself and the institution for
twenty-eight years. He resigned in 1863. He wrote,
besides other works, "Principles of Medicine," (1832,)
and an " Introduction to Lehman's Chemical Physi-
ology," (1856.) Died April 5, 1872.

Jackson, (THOMAS,) a learned English divine, born
in Durham in 1579. He was the author of a "Com-
mentary on the Apostles' Creed," and of several devo-
tional treatises. He became Dean of Peterborough in
1638. His works are highly praised by Southey. Died
in 1640.

See E. VAUOHAN, " Life of Thomas Jackson," 1673.

Jackson, (THOMAS,) an eminent English Methodist
preacher, born at Sancton, Yorkshire, December 12,
1783. He was the author of a large number of religious
and biographical works. Died at Richmond in 1873.

Jackson, (THOMAS GRAHAM,) an English archi-
tect and author, born at Hampstead in 1835. He
published "Modern Gothic," (1873,) "Dalraatia,"
(1887,) "W.-idham College," (1893,) "St. Mary's,
Oxford," (1897,) etc. He was elected to the Royal
Academy in 1896.

Jackaon, (THOMAS JONATHAN,) commonly known bj
the name of STONEWALL JACKSON, a distinguished Amer-
ican general, born in Lewis county, Virginia, January 21,
1824, graduated at West Point in 1846, standing seven-
teenth in a class of fifty-nine. He was considered at
West Point to be rather a dull and slow student. In the
Mexican war (1846-47) he served as first lieutenant with
distinction. Having resigned his commission in 1852,
he became a professor in the Military Institute at Lex-
ington, Virginia. About 1853 he married Miss Junkin,
a daughter of Dr. Junkin, of Lexington. He was ap-
pointed a colonel of the Virginian troops in April, 1861,
and commanded the force that was attacked by the Union
army at Martinsburg, July 2. He served as brigadier-
general at the battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, and was
promoted to the rank of major-general in the following
September. It has been currently stated that he received
his surname from the fact that he and his men " stood like
a stone wall" at the battle of Bull Run ; but, according to
one of his biographers, the name " Stonewall" was first
applied to his brigade because it was recruited in a stone-
wall country, the counties of Jefferson, Page, Frederick,
etc. He was defeated by General Shields near Win-
chester, March 23, 1862, and retreated up the valley to
Harrisonburg, pursued by General Banks. Having been
reinforced, he resumed the offensive with about twenty
thousand men, attacked General Banks near Strasburg,
May 23, and drove him back to the Potomac. On the
approach of General Fremont from the west, General
Jackson moved hastily up the valley to Harrisonburg.
His army was overtaken by General Fremont at Cross
Keys, where an indecisive battle was fought on the 8th
of June. Before the end of June he moved his army
to Richmond and joined that of General Lee. He
commanded a corps at the battle of Gaines's Mill, June

'\ 27, and at that of Malvern Hill, July i, 1862. On the
1 9th of August he defeated a small army under General
Banks at Cedar Mountain, Virginia. He captured
Harper's Ferry, with eleven thousand Union prisoners,
on the I5th of September, and joined General Lee in
time to take part in the battle of Antietam, September
17. He contributed to the victory at Fredericksburg,
December 13, 1862, for which service he was promoted
to the rank of lieutenant-general. He remained inactive
for several months, (January-April, 1863,) employed
partly in preparing official reports. On the 1st of May
he was ordered by General Lee to execute a flank move-
ment on the right wing of General Hooker's army. He
surprised and routed the eleventh corps, near Cnancel-
lorsville, on the evening of the 2d of May. As he was
riding with his staff from the front towards the rear
during that battle, he received a volley from his own
men, who in the darkness mistook the staff for a party
of Federal cavalry. General Jackson received three
wounds, of which he died at Guinea's Station on the
loth of May, 1863. " His loss," says Mr. Greeley, " was
the greatest yet sustained by either party in the fall of a
single man ; though Sidney Johnston had probably mili-
tary talents of a higher order. But Jackson's power over
his men was unequalled ; and it was justified by the
soundness of his judgment, as well as the intrepidity of
his character. Contrary to the vulgar notion, his attacks
were all well considered, and based on a careful cal-
culation of forces ; and he showed as high qualities in
refusing to squander his men at Antietam, and again at
Fredericksburg, as he did in his most brilliant charges.
... It is doubtful if all the advantages, including pres-
tige, which the rebels gained around Chancellorsville,
were not dearly purchased by the loss of Thomas J.
Jackson." ("American Conflict," vol. ii. pp. 359-60.)
Stonewall Jackson was a man of deep and earnest re-
ligious convictions ; and in his general character, as well
as in his serene, indomitable courage and the extraoi-
dinary influence which he exerted over the minds of his
soldiers, he reminds us of the great Puritan leaders who
fought under Cromwell.

See DABNHY, " Life of General T. J. Jackson," and a " Life ot
General T. J. Jackson," in " Southern Generals," 1865.

Jackson, (THOMAS K.,) born in South Carolina about
1829, was made a brigadier-general in the Confederate
army in 1861.

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) a clergyman of the Anglican
Church, born in Ireland about 1737. In 1794 he was
detected in a treasonable correspondence with France,
in which he recommended the invasion of Ireland. He
was tried and found guilty of high treason, but died
from the effects of poison, before sentence was passed
upon him, in 1795.

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English musician
and landscape-painter, was born at Exeter in 1730.
Among his musical compositions are " Twelve Popular
Songs," " Six Sonatas for the Harpsichord," and " Twelve
Canzonets for Two Voices." He published "Thirty
Letters upon Various Subjects," (1782,) and "The Four
Ages," (1798.) Died in 1803.

Jackson, (WILLIAM,) known as JACKSON OF MASHAM,
from his native place, an English musician and composer,
born January 9, 1816. He composed oratorios, cantatas,
anthems, glees, etc. Died April 15, 1866.

Jackson, (Dr. WILLIAM,) Bishop of Oxford, and
brother to Dr. Cyril Jackson, noticed above, was born
at Stamford in 1750. He published several sermons.
Died in 1815.

Jacme, or En Jacme, King of Aragon. See JAMES I.

Ja'cpb, [Heb. 3p>'"; Gr. 'laxufi,] a celebrated Hebrew
patriarch, a son of Isaac, and the great progenitor of the
Israelitish nation. He was also called ISRAEL.

See Genesis xxv., xxvii., xxviii., xxix.. TTT

Ja'cob, a Hungarian adventurer, and chief of the
Pastoureaux. About 1250 he incited the common people
to enlist in a crusade for the liberation of Saint Louis,
who was then a captive. He mustered a vast multitude
of French peasants, who massacred priests and com-
mitted other outrages in France. Jacob was killed, and
his dupes were dispersed.

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/',- G, H, K, guttural '; N, nasal; R, trilltd; as z; th as in this.


Explanations, p. 23.)

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