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posed numerous operas. Died at Vienna in 1796.

Scarlett, (JAMES.) See ABINGER.

Scarlett, (Sir JAMES YORKE,) an English general,
born in 1799. He served in the Crimean war of 1854,
and attained the rank of major-general, and commander
of the cavalry. Died in 1871.

Scarpa, skaR'pa, (ANTONIO,) a celebrated Italian
anatomist and surgeon, born at La Motta, in Friuli, on
the I3th of June, 1747. He studied under Morgagni,
at Padua, and was appointed professor of anatomy at
Midena in 1772. After a journey to France and Eng
land, he obtained the chair of anatomy in the University
of Pavia in 1783. He acquired a European reputation
by his researches and treatises on the anatomy of the
ear, the organs of smell, the nerves of the heart, etc.
In 1 80 1 he produced an able treatise on the diseases of
the eye. He received the title of surgeon to Napoleon
in 1805. Among his numerous works is an excellent
"Treatise on Hernia," ("Sull" Ernie Memorie," 1809.)
He was an accomplished scholar, and a very skilful
draughtsman. He was never married. Died in 1832.

See TAGLIAFERRI, " Ragionamento intorno la Vita del Cavaliere
A. Scarpa," 1834 ; TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italian! illustri ;"
BEGIN, notice in the " Biographic Me'dicale ;" " Nouvelle Bic-
graphie Ge'nirale."

Scarron, skfr6N', (PAUL,) a French dramatist and
comic writer, born in Paris about 1610. After leading
a very dissolute life, he was deprived of the use of his
limbs by an accident, at the age of twenty-seven, and
henceforth devoted himself to literature. His principal
works are "The Comic Romance," (1651,) and the
'VEneid Travestied." He married in 1652 Mademoi-
selle d'Aubigne\ afterwards known as Madame de
Maintenon. (See MAINTENON.) Died in 1660.

See COUSIN D'AVALON, " Scarroniana," 1801 ; BAILLET, "Juge
merits des Savants:" TALLEIIANT DES REAUX, " Historiettes ;'
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale ;" " Retrospective Review," vol.
xii., 1825.

Scarsella, skaR-sel'll, or Scaraellino, skaR-sSl-
lee'no, (IPPOLITO,) a skilful Italian painter, born at
Ferrara about 1560. He imitated Paul Veronese with
success. Died in 1621.

Scars'gill or Scar'fill, (W. P.,) an English writer,
published, among other works, " Provincial Sketches,"
" The Usurer's Daughter," and " The Puritan's Grave."
Died in 1836.

Scartazzini, skaR-tJt-see'nee, (JOHANNES ANDREAS,)
a Swiss author, born at Bondo, in the Grisons, December
30, 1837. He became a Protestant clergyman, and in
1871 Italian professor in the cantonal school at Coire.
He published a valuable Life of Dante, (1869,) a critical
edition of the " Divina Commedia," (1874-75,) and various
works, chiefly relating to Italian literature.

Scau'rus, (M. J?SMILIUS,) a Roman soldier and states-
man, born in 163 B.c After sen-ing for a time in
Spain, he became successively praetor urbanus, consul,
and princeps senatus. His talents and virtues are eulo-
gized by Cicero. He died about 90 B.C., and his widow
afterwards married the celebrated Sulla.



i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, p, eliscun; fir, fall, fat; mlt; not; good; moon.



SCAURUS



SCHAMMAI



Scaurus, (M. ^MILIUS,) a son of the preceding,
served as quaestor under Pompey in the Mithridatic
war, and afterwards filled several offices in the republic.
He was chiefly noted for his profligacy and extrava-
gance, and was twice brought to trial for his crimes,
being on both occasions defended by Cicero.

Scaurus, (MAMERCUS,) a grandson of the preceding,
was distinguished as a poet and orator. Accused of high
treason and other crimes, he committed suicide, 34 A.D.

Sceve, siv, (MAURICE,) a French poet, born at Lyons,
was an advocate by profession. Among his works are
"La Saulsaye," (1547,) and "Le Microcosme, ou petit
Monde," (1562.) Died in 1564.

Scevole. See SOEVOLA.

Schaaf, shif, (CHARLES,) a German Orientalist, born
in 1646, became professor of the Oriental languages
at Leyden. He published several grammatical works.
Died in 1729.

Schack, von, fon shlk, (ADOLF FRIEDRICH,) a
German litterateur, born near Schwerin in 1815. He
published a " History of Dramatic Literature and Art
in Spain," (1845,) which has a high reputation, and made
several translations from the Persian. Died in 1894.

Schad, shit or shad, (JoHANN BAPTIST,) a German
philosopher, born at Mursbach in 1758. He succeeded
Fichte as professor of philosophy at Jena about 1800,
and obtained a chair of philosophy at Kharkof, in Rus-
sia, in 1804. He published several esteemed works
designed to popularize the philosophy of Fichte. Died
in 1834.

See his Autobiography, 2 vols., 1804.

Schadow, shi'do, QOHANN GOTTFRIED,) a cele-
brated German sculptor, born at Berlin in 1764. Having
spent several years in Italy, he returned to Berlin in
1788, and was subsequently appointed director of the
Academy of Arts. Among his master-pieces are stetues
of Frederick the Great, Marshal Bliicher, and Genera!
Ziethen, a group of Queen Luise and her sister, the
Duchess of Cumberland, the monument of Luther at
Wittenberg, and that of Tauenzien at Breslau. He
numbered among his pupils Dannecker, Rauch, and
other eminent sculptors, and he is regarded as the
founder of the modern school of sculpture in Germany.
He was the author of several valuable treatises on art.
Died in 1850.

See his autobiography, entitled " Kunstwerke und Kunstan-
tichten," 1849: NAGLER, "Allgemeines KUnstler-Lexikon."

Schadow, (RUDOLF,) a sculptor, a son of the pre-
ceding, was born in 1785. He was instructed by his
father, and afterwards visited Rome, where he died in
1822. He left several portrait-busts and statues of great
beauty. Among the latter may be named " The Girl fast-
ening her Sandal."

Schadow-Godenhaus, von, fon shi'do go'den-
howss', (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) an eminent painter of
history and portraits, a brother of the preceding, was
born at Berlin in 1789. He studied at Rome under
Cornelius and Overbeck, whose peculiar views of art
he adopted. (See CORNELIUS and OVERBECK.) Having
joined the Catholic Church while at Rome, he returnee
to Berlin, where he became professor in the Academy of
Fine Arts, and in 1826 succeeded Cornelius as directoi
of the Academy at Dusseldorf. Among his principa
historical pictures are the Four Evangelists, in the
Werder Church at Berlin, an " Ascension of Mary," in
the Paulskirche at Aix-la-Chapelle, and a series repre-
senting " Paradise," " Purgatory," and " Hell." Schadow
numbers among his pupils Lessing, Schroter, and other
distinguished German artists. Died in 1862.

See NAGLKE, "Allgemeines Kiinstler- Lexikon. "

Schaefler. See SCHAFFER.

Schaeffer, sha'fer, (CHARLES FREDERICK,) an Ameri-
can divine and scholar, born at Germantown in 1807,
graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1827.
He published, besides othe'r works, a translation from
the German of Lechler's " Acts of the Apostles : an
Exegetical Commentary," etc., (1866.) He was chairman
of the faculty in the Lutheran Seminary in Philadelphia
from its organization in 1864 till his death, Nov. 23, 1879.

Schafei. See SHAFEY.

Schafarik, sha'fa-rik, written also Safarik, (PAUL



TOSEPH,) a distinguished philologist and antiquary, born
n Northern Hungary in 1795. Among his works are a
' History of the Slavonic Language and Literature,"
etc., (in German, 1826,) "Slavonic Ethnology," and
'' Bohemian Antiquities." Died in 1861.
Schafei. See SHAFEY.

Schafer, sha'fer, (ARNOLD,) a German historian, born
at Seehausen, October 16, 1819. He was educated at
Leipsic, and held professorships of history at Greifswalde
and Bonn. Among his works are " Demosthenes and
lis Times" (3 vols., 1856-58) and a " History of the
Seven Years' War," (1867-74.) Died in 1883.

Schafer, (JOHANN WILHELM,) a brothei of Ainold
Schafer, was born at Seehausen, September 17, 1809.
He was educated at Leipsic, and was a teacher of literary
listory at Bremen. He published three works on the
listory of German literature, also a " History of German
Poetry," (1859,) Lives of Goethe (1850) and Schiller,
^1853,) and a volume of poems, "Liebe und Leben, 1 '
llSjjS.) Died at Bremen, March a, 1880.

Schaff, shaf, (PHILIP,) D.D., a theologian and divine
of the Reformed (later of the Presbyterian) Church, was
born at Chur, in Switzerland, January i, 1819. He
graduated at Berlin in 1841, and in 1844 emigrated to
America, and was appointed professor of theology at
Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. He published "The Prin-
ciples of Protestantism," (in German and English, 1845,)
a " History of the Apostolic Church," (in German, 1851,)
a " History of the Christian Church from the Birth of
Christ to the Reign of Constantine, A.D. 1-311," (1859,)
"The Person of Christ the Miracle of History," (1865,)
and many other works. He became in 1870 professor
in Union Theological Seminary, New York, assisted in
the Bible Revision, and edited the " Schaff-Herzog En-
cyclopaedia," (1882 ft sef.) Died October 20, 1893.

Schaffer or Schaeffer, sheTfer, (JAKOB CHRISTIAN,)
a German naturalist, born at Querfurt, Prussia, in 1718.
He wrote on entomology, botany, etc., and was skilful
in the fabrication of optical instruments. Died in 1790.

See HIRSCHING, " Historisch-literarisches Handbuch."

Schafne, (ALBERT EBERHARD FRIEDRICH,) a
German economist, born at Nurtingen, Wurtemberg,
in 1831. He wrote " The Quintessence of Socialism,"
" Labour Protection," etc., but his most important
works are treatises on political economy and on the
framework of society.

Schagen, van, vin SKa'gen or sKt'Hen, (yEciDlus,)
a Dutch historical painter, born at Alkmaar in 1616.
Among his works are interiors and conversation-pieces.
Died in 1668.

Schalcken, sKal'ken, (GODFREY,) a Dutch painter
of genre, born at Dort in 1643, was a pupil of Gerard
Dow. He painted the effects of candle-light with suc-
cess. Died at the Hague in 1706.

Schaldemose, shal'deh-mo'seh, (FRIEDRICH JU-
LIAN,) a Danish littlrateur, born in the island of Fionia
in 1782, made numerous translations from the German,
English, French, and other languages, and published
several original works. Died in 1853.

Schall, shal, (JoHANN ADAM,) a German Jesuit and
missionary, born at Cologne in 1591. He went to China
in 1622, and obtained favour at the court of Peking by
his skill in astronomy and other sciences. Died in
Peking in 1669.

Schall, (KARL,) a German dramatist, born at Breslau
in 1780, was the founder, and for many years the editor,
of the "Breslau Zeitung." Died in 1833.

Schaller, shal'ler, (ANTON,) a German painter, born
at Vienna in 1772 ; died in 1844.

Schaller, (JoHANN,) a brother of the preceding, was
born in 1777. He became in 1823 professor of sculp-
ture in the Academy at Vienna. Died in 1847.

Schaller, ( JULIUS,) a German writer, born at Magde-
burg in 1810, publishec a "History of Natural Philos-
ophy from Bacon to the Present Time." Died in 186

Schammai, sham'ml, a celebrated Jewish doctor of
law, lived at Jerusalem about 80-50 B.C., and was a rhrtl
of Hillel the Elder.

See QEIGER et GBISSMANN, " Brevis C jmmentatio de Hillela
Schammai," 1707.



east; $ass; gkard; gas/;G, H, Yi.guttura!; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. l^g^See Explanations, p. 23.



SCHAMYL



2140



SCHEINER



SchamyL See SHAMYL.

Schanfari. See SHANFAREE.

Schank, shank, ? (JOHN,) a Scottish naval officer and
engineer, born in Fifeshire in 1740. He served in the
American war, and was subsequently employed in the
defence of the British coast against the French. He was
made admiral of the blue in 1821. Died in 1823.

Schannat, shin'nit, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a Ger
man historian, born at Luxemburg in 1683. He wrote
several works on German history. Died in 1739.

Schard, shaRt, (SlMON,) a learned German lawyer
and compiler, born in Saxony in 1535, published " Opus
historicum de Rebus Gerraanicis," (4 vols., 1574.) Died

in 573-

Scharf, (GEORGE,) an English author and artist, of
German parentage, born in London, December 16, 1820.
As an artist, his principal reputation is that of an able
illustrator of books. He wrote " History of the Charac-
teristics of Greek Art," for Wordsworth's " Greece,"
"Artistic and Descriptive Notes," and many criticisms
on old portraits and historical pictures. Died in 1895.

Scharling, shaR/ling, (CARL EMILE,) a Danish theo-
logian, born at Copenhagen in 1803. He published,
besides other works, "The Theological Review," (1837
-49-)

Scharling, (EDWARD AUGUSTUS,) a chemist, abrother
of the preceding, was born at Copenhagen in 1807.

Scharnhorat, von, fon shaRn'hoRst, (GERHARD
DAVID,) a Prussian commander and military writer,
born at Hamelsee, in Hanover, in 1756. He was pres-
ent at the battle of Auerstadt, in 1806, and, as chief of
Bliicher's staff, distinguished himself at Eylau, in 1807.
Having been made lieutenant-general, and retaining the
position of chief of the staff of Blucher, he was severely
wounded in the battle near Grossgb'rchen, and died from
the effects of his wound, in June, 1813.

See BOYKN. " Beitrgge mr Kenntniss von Scharnhorst," 1833
CLAUSKWITI, " Leben von Scharnhorst," 1832.

Schatz, shits, (GEORG,) a German writer, born at
Gotha in 1763, published fables, sonnets, and critical
essays ; he also made a translation of Machiavelli's
"History of Florence," (unfinished.) Died in 1795.

Schauffler, showf rler, (WILLIAM GOTTLIEB,) D.D.,
LL.LX, a missionary, born at Stuttgart, Germany, August
22, 1798, lived at Odessa, Russia, 1804-26, studied divinity
at Andover, 1826-30, was ordained a Congregational
minister in 1831, was a missionary at Constantinople,
1832-74, and returned to the United States in 1877.
His principal literary works are "Meditations on the
Last Days of Christ," and translations of the entire
Bible into Turkish and into Spanish-Hebrew. Died in
New York, January 27, 1883.

Schauflein or Schauffelein. See SCHEUFFELIN.

Schaumbourg. See LIPPE-SCHAUMBURG.

Schedone. See SCHIDONI.

Schedoni, ski-do'nee, (PIETRO,) an Italian philoso-
pher, born in the duchy of M6dena in 1759, published
several works on moral philosophy. Died in 1835.

Scheele, sheel, [Sw. pron. shti'leh,] (CARL WIL-
HELM,) an eminent Swedish chemist, born at Stralsund
in December, 1742. He served an apprenticeship loan
apothecary of Gothenburg, and devoted his leisure and
his nights to the study of chemistry. About 1770 he re-
moved to Upsal, where he formed friendships with Gahn
and Bergman. In 1774 he produced a remarkable treatise
on Manganese. He discovered tartaric acid, fluoric (or
fluo-silicic) acid, barytes, chlorine, and several other
substances. He settled as an apothecary at Koping in
1775. In 1777 he published his discovery of " empyreal
air," (oxygen.) This gas had been previously discovered
by Priestley ; but Scheele was not aware of the fact.
He was the first that ascertained the composition of
prussic acid. Among his works is a "Treatise on Air
and Fire," (1777.) He was an excellent observer and
experimenter. Died at Koping in 1786.

See VICQ-D'AZVR, " filoge de Scheele," 1787: GBIKLIUS,
" Biographiskt-Lexicpn ;" F. HOEFER, " Histoirc de la Chimie ;"
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'n^rale."

Scheelstrate, van, vin sKal'stRa'teh or shil'stRit,
DT Schelatraate, sKe'l'stRl'teh, (EMANUEL,) a Flemish



antiquary and priest, born at Antwerp in 1649, was a zeal-
ous asserter of papal supremacy. Died in Rome in 1692.

Scheemakera, sKa'mi'kers, (PiETER,) a distin-
guished sculptor, born at Antwerp in 1691, studied at
Rome, and subsequently resided many years in England.
Among his principal works are the monuments to Shak-
speare and Dryden in Westminster Abbey, and the statue
of Lord Clive in the India House. Died about 1770.

Sohefer, sha'fer, (LEOPOLD,) a German physician
and litterateur, born in Lower Lusatia in 1784, published
numerous poems and novels. Died in 1862.

Scheffel, von, fon sheTfel, (JOSEPH VICTOR,) a very
popular German poet, born at Carlsruhe, February 16,
1826. He studied at Heidelberg, Munich, and Berlin,
and graduated as a law-practitioner in 1847. He wrote
the "Trompeter von Sakkingen," a celebrated mock-
heroic epic, in 1853, " Gaudeamus," a collection of songs,
" Ekkehard," his most popular tale, " Frau Aventure," a
series of poems, "Juniperus," a tale, " Hugideo," a ro-
mance, and " Berg Psalmen," (1869,) a volume of hymns
and verses. Died April 10, 1886.

Scheffer, sheffer, (ARNOLD,) a brother of Ary
Scheffer, was born in Holland in 1796. He was for a
rime associated with Armand Carrel as editor of the
" National" in Paris. He published (in French) " Po-
litical Pictures of Germany," " Essays on Four Political
Questions," and other works. Died in 1853.

Scheffer, (ARY,) an eminent painter, of French ex
traction, born at Dort, in Holland, in 1795, studied under
Gue'rin in Paris. He painted portraits of La Favette,
Be>anger, and Lamartine. He worked chiefly in Paris.
Among his master-pieces are " Francesca da Rimini,"
(1835,) Byron's "Giaour," "Christ the Comforter,"
(1836,) Goethe's "Faust," "Margaret at the Spinning-
Wheel," and "Margaret at Church." He married the
widow of General Baudrand about 1850. His work*
are characterized as sentimental and poetical. Died
near Paris in 1858.

See fi-nx. "Ary Scheffer." 1859; MRS. GROT*, "Life of An
Scheffer." 1860; NouYelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Scheffer, (HENRI,) a painter, a brother of the pre-
ceding, was born at the Hague in 1798. He studied in
Paris under Guerin. Among his works we may name
"Charlotte Corday protected by the Members of the
Section against the Fury of the People," and " Parents
Weeping for the Death of their Child." Died in 1862.

Scheffer, sheffer, (HENRY THEOPHILUS,) a grandson
of Johann Scheffer, noticed below, was born at Stock-
holm in 1710. He acquired considerable reputation
as a chemist, and was a member of the Academy cX
Sciences in his native city. Died in 1759.

See CRONSTBDT, " Aminnelse Tal ofver H. T Scheffer," 1760.

Scheffer, (JOHANN,) a German scholar, born at
Strasburg in 1621, published editions of numerous
classics, and a treatise " On the Naval Militia of the
Ancients." Died in 1679.

Scheibel, shi'bel, JOHANN GOTTFRIED,) a German
Protestant theologian, born at Breslau in 1783. He be-
came professor of theology in his native city in 1818.
Died in 1843.

Scheld, sKit, [Lat. SCHEI'DIUS,] (EVERARD,) an
:minent Dutch philologist, born at Arnhem in 1742,
Decame professor of Oriental literature at Leyden.
Among his principal works are an Arabic Grammar,
' Minerva, seu de Causis Latinae Linguae," and " Ebn-
Doreydi Kassida, sive Idyllium Arabicum," etc. Died
'n 1795.

Scheidiua, See SCHEIDT.

Scheldt, shit, (BALTHASAR,) a German scholar and
theologian, born at Strasburg in 1614, became professor
of Oriental languages in his native city. He was the
author of several learned works. Died in 1670.

Scheldt, [Lat. SCHEI'DIUS,] (CHRISTIAN LUDWIG,)
a German jurist, born at Waldenburg in 1709. He
studied at Gottingen, and became professor of the law
of nature and of nations at Copenhagen. He was the
author of several legal works, in Latin. Died in 1761.

Scheiner, shi'ner, (CHRISTOPH,) a German Jesuit
and savant, born near Mundelsheim, in Suabia, in 1575,
>ecame professor of mathematics and astronomy at In-



i, e, T, o, fi, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; 5. e. I, o, ft, y, short; a, e, j, p, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good: moon



SCHELHAMMER



2141



SCHERER



golstadt. He observed the spots on the sun in 1611,
wrote a number of scientific works, and was the in-
ventor of the instrument called the pantograph. Died
in 1650.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Schelhammer, shJl'ham'mer, (GuNTHER CHRIS-
roPH,) a German physician and writer, born at Jena in
1649, became professor of medicine at Kiel, in Holstein.
Died in 1716.

Schelhorn, shil'hoRn, ( JOHANN GEORG,) THE ELDER,
a German theologian and scholar, born at Memmingen
in 1694. He became pastor of that town in 1734, and
published, besides other works, " Literary Amenities,"
(" Amcenitates Literariz," 7 vols., 1725.) He was dis-
tinguished as a bibliographer. Died in 1773.

Schelhorn, (JOHANN GEORG,) THE YOUNGER, born
at Memmingen in 1733, published several historical and
theological works. Died in 1802.

Scheller, shel'ler, (!MMANUEL JOHANN GERHARD,)
a German lexicographer, born at Jhlow, in Saxony, in
1735. ^ e published a "Complete Latin-German and
German-Latin Dictionary," (3 vols., 1783,) a "Small
Latin Dictionary," a " Latin Grammar," and other simi-
lar works. Died in 1803.

Schelling, von, fon shSl'ling, (FRIEDRICH WIL-
HKI.M JOSEPH,) an eminent German philosopher, born
at Leonberg, near Stuttgart, on the 27th of January,
1775. His early education was directed by his father, a
distinguished Orientalist, who became prelate at Maul-
bronn. About 1790 he entered the University of Tu-
bingen, where he studied philosophy and theology and
remained until 1795. In the latter year he published a



(" Vom Ich als Princip der Philosophic.") He removed
about 1795 to Leipsic, where he was employed as tutor
to a young nobleman, and in 1798 became professor-
extraordinary at Jena, which was then the great focus
of German philosophy. Here he associated with Fichte
and Hegel, and delivered lectures on philosophy which
excited great enthusiasm and displayed a remarkable
beauty of style. He produced, in rapid succession,
"Ideas for a Philosophy of Nature," ("Ideen zu einer
Philosophic der Natur," 1797,) " On the Soul of the
World," etc., (" Von der Weltseele, eine Hypothese der
hbhern Physik," etc., 1798,) a "First Sketch of a System
of the Philosophy of Nature," (" Erste Entwurf eines
Systems der Naturphilosophie," 1799,) and a "System
of Transcendental Idealism," (" System des transcen
dentalen Idealismus," 1800.)

In 1803 he was appointed professor of philosophy at
Wurzburg, and in 1808 became secretary to the Academy
of Arts in Munich, where he remained until 1841. He
obtained the chair of philosophy in the University of
Munich about 1826. His celebrity as a lecturer attracted
multitudes of students from various countries of Europe.
He was appointed president of the Academy of Sciences,
and was ennobled by the King of Bavaria. Having lost
his first wife, Caroline Michaelis, in 1810, he married
Pauline Cotter. He succeeded Hegel as professor of
philosophy at Berlin in 1841.

Schelling is one of the four chief metaphysical philoso-
phers of Germany. His system, like those of Fichte and
Hegel, was originally a sort of idealistic pantheism ; but
in his later writings his views seem to approximate more
and more nearly to those which may be said to form
the philosophic basis of Christianity. On his succeeding
Hegel, in 1841, he was hailed as one who was destined
to deliver Philosophy from the logic of pantheism and
lead her back to Christ. Schelling is distinguished from
the other great philosophers of Germany by his com-
bining with rare intellectual powers poetic gifts of a
high order.

Among his works, besides those already mentioned, are
" Bruno, or the Divine and Natural Principle of Things,"
("Bruno, oder iiber das gbttliche und natiirliche Princip
der Dinge," 1802,) " Philosophy and Religion," (" Phi-
losophic und Religion," 1804,) and "On the Relation of
Art to Nature," (" Ueber das Verbal tniss der bildenden



KUnste zu der Natur," 1807.) He regarded art as the
perfect union of the real with the ideal. He also wrote
" Philosophic Researches on the Essence of Human
Liberty," (" Philosophischen Untersuchungen iiber das
Wesen der menschlichen Freiheit," 1809.) He died at
Ragaz, in Switzerland, in August, 1854, leaving several
sons and daughters. His collected works were pub-
lished at Stuttgart, in 14 vols. 8vo, 1856-61.

See ROSENKRANZ, " Schelling, Vorlesungen gehalten im Sommer
1842,'* etc., 1843: MATTER, " Schelling, ou la Philosophic de la
Nature," etc., 1845 ; L. DE LOMBNIB, " M. Schelling, par un Homme
de Rien," 1844 : COLHRIDGS, " Biographia Literaria :" RITTHR,
" History of Philosophy ;" Appleton's " New American Cyclo-
pedia."

Schellinks, sKSllinks, (DANIEL,) a Dutch landscape-
painter, born at Amsterdam in 1633 or 1638 ; died in
1701.

Schellinks, sKel'links, (WiLLEM,) a Dutch painter
of landscapes and sea-ports, born at Amsterdam in 1632,
was a brother of Daniel. He worked in England. Ac-
cording to Bryan, he was a first-rate artist. Died in 1678

Schemmelpenninck, sKem'mel-pen'nink, or
Schimmelpenninck, sKim'mel-pen'nink, ( RUTGER
JAN,) a Dutch statesman, born at Deventer in 1761.
was grand pensionary of Holland in 1805. He refused
to hold office under King Louis Bonaparte. Died in


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 289 of 425)