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JACOB



1362



JACOB I



Ja'cob, (EDWARD,) a topographical and antiquarian
writer of Kent, England. Died in 1788.

Jacob, (GiLES,) an English author, born in Hamp-
shire in 1686. Among his works are "The Poetical
Register," (1723,) composed of memoirs of the English
dramatic poets, and a "Law Dictionary," (1729,) which
has passed through many editions. Died in 1744.

Jacob, (HENRY,) an English Puritan and Independ-
ent minister, born in Kent about 1562. He founded in
London the first Independent Congregational church
that existed in England, and published several works.
In 1624 he removed to Virginia, where he died about
1626.

Jacob, (HENRY,) a philologist and Orientalist, born
in 1606 or 1607, was a son of the preceding. He became
a Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and published
"Graeca et Latina Poemata." Died in 1652.

Ja'cpb, (JEHODAH LEON,) a Jew of the seventeenth
century, born in Spain, resided in Holland. He wrote
a " Description of the Temple of Solomon," also a
description of the Tabernacle, and an "Exposition of
the Psalms."

Jacob, (JOHN,) a British general, born in 1812 or
1813. He distinguished himself in India in 1843 as
commander of the Sinde Horse. Died in India in 1858.

Jacob, (JOHN,) an Armenian carpenter, lived about
1650. He is distinguished for having introduced the art
of printing into Persia.

Jacob OF EDESSA. See BARAD^EUS.

Jacob or James [Gr. 'laxuSof ; Lat JACO'BUS] OP
NISIBIS, surnamed THE GREAT, a Christian bishop, who
was regarded as a prophet and was distinguished for his
ascetic life. He became Bishop of Nisibis, and attended,
in 325 A.D., the Council of Nice, where he advocated the
orthodox creed. He is said to have delivered Nisibis
from the besieging Persians by his prayers. His death
is variously dated from about 340 to 350 A.D.

See SAINT JEROME, "De Viris illustribm ;" FABRICIUS, " Bibli-
theca Grajca;" CAVK. " Historia Literaria."

Jacob (or James) OF VITRY, a French priest, who
in 1217 became Bishop of Acre in Syria, where he con-
yerted many Saracens. In 1229 he was made Bishop of
Tusculum and a cardinal. He left a valuable " History
of Jerusalem," or " Historia Orientals, " as well as " His-
toria Occidentalis," and many letters. Died at Rome in
1230.

Ja'cpb Ben Ash'er, a learned Jew, born in Ger-
many, wrote a work called "Arba Thourim." Died at
Toledo about 1340.

Ja'cpb Ben Haj'im or Chajim, a Jewish rabbi
of the sixteenth century, distinguished for his learning,
was born at Tunis. He edited the Masora and Hebrew
Bible, with commentaries, and a Chaldean paraphrase,
" Biblia Rabbinica Bombergiana," (4 vols., 1525.)

Ja'cob Ben Naph'ta-U, a learned Jewish rabbi of
the fifth century, educated at Tiberias. To him is chiefly
attributed the invention of the Masoretic points used in
distinguishing the Hebrew vowels.

Jacob de Saint-Charles, zhiTcob' deh sin shin],
(Louis,) a French author and bibliographer, born at
Chalons-sur-Sa6ne in 1608. He became a monk of the
order of Carmelites. Among his works are a "Treatise
upon the Finest Libraries of the World," (1644,) "The
Parisian Library," and "The French Universal Library,"
(1646.) Died in 1670.

Jacob-Kolb, zhjfkob' kolb, (G4RARD,) a French
antiquary, born at Rheims in 1775. He made valuable
collections of Greek and Roman medals, autographs,
and books. He wrote " Historical Researches on the
Crusades and the Templars." Died in 1830.

Jacob le Bibliophile. See LACROIX, (PAUL.)

Jacobaa or Jacobaea. See JACQUELINE.

Jacobaeus, ya-ko-ba'us, or Jacobi, yl-ko'bee, (OLI-
OER,) a distinguished physician and philosopher, born
at Aarhuus, in Jutland, in 1650, became professor of
medicine and natural philosophy in the University of
Copenhagen. He wrote several works on natural
history, and elegant Latin poems. Died in 1701.

See NICERON, "Mimoires;" KRAFT og NVKRUP, " Litteratur-
lexicon."

Jacobazzi, yi-ko-bit'see, (DOMENICO,) an Italian



cardinal, born at Rome about 1443, wrote a " Treatise
on Councils," (1538.) Died in 1527.

Jacob! See JACOBAEUS.

Ja-co'bi, [Ger. prpn. ya-ko'bee,] (ABRAHAM,) M.D.,
a distinguished physician, born, of a Hebrew family, at
Hartum, in Westphalia, May 6, 1830. He studied at
Greifswalde and Gottingen, and graduated at Bonn in
1851. In 1853 he removed to New York, where he
ga%-e attention chiefly to gynaecology and diseases of
children, and held several professorships. His principal
works are " Dentition and its Derangements" (1862)
and a " Treatise on Diphtheria," (1880.)

Jacobi, ya-ko'bee, (HEINRICH FRIEDRICH,) an emi-
nent German writer and thinker, born at Dusseldorf in
1743. His father was a merchant, and young Jacobi
was destined to the same calling, although his tastes led
him to other pursuits. At the age of sixteen he was
sent to school at Frankfort. He afterwards went to
Geneva, where he remained three years, applying him-
self to literary studies. During this period he acquired
such a mastery of the French language as has rarely
been equalled by any of his countrymen. On returning
to Dusseldorf, he conducted his father's business for
several years, without, however, abandoning his favourite
pursuits. Afterwards, through the influence of his friend
and patron the Count of Goltstein, he received an ap-
pointment under the government, and was thus enabled
to devote his principal attention to philosophy and lite-
rature. About this time he married Betty von Clermont,
of Aix-la-Chapelle, a lady of considerable wealth as well
as of great accomplishments and personal attractions.
In 1779 Jacobi was invited to Munich, where he became
privy councillor. But, having exposed the abuses of the
Bavarian system of customs, he fell into disfavour with
the government, and withdrew to his estate near Dus-
seldorf. In 1804 he was again called to Munich, to aid
in the establishment of the new Academy of Sciences
in that city, of which institution he became president
in 1807. He resigned this position in 1813, and died
in 1819.

Among the works of Jacobi may be named " Edward
Allwill's Correspondence," ("Eduard Allwill's Brief-
sammlung," 1781,) " On the Doctrine of Spinoza,"
(" Ueber die Lehre des Spinoza," 1785,) in a series of
letters to Mendelssohn, " David Hume on Faith, or
Idealism and Realism," (" David Hume iiber den Glau-
ben, oder Idealismus und Realismus," 1787,) "Wolde-
mar," (2 vols., J799,) and "Of Divine Things and their
Revelation," (" Von gottlichen Dingen und ihrer Offen-
barung," 1811.)

"As a writer of fiction," observes Mrs. Austin, "Ja-
cobi is distinguished for vigorous painting, admirable
delineation of nature and the human heart, warmth and
depth of feeling, and a' lively, bold, yet correct turn of
expression. As a philosopher, he is admired for his
rare depth of thought, for the fervour of his religious
feelings, and for the originality and beauty of his style."
Again she says, " His character is rich in all that can
attract the wise and good." "Jacobi is ranked, and
justly," says Dr. Hedge, " among the philosophers of
modern Germany, although his philosophy, far from
shaping itself into a system, denies, and that denial
may be regarded as one of its leading characteristics,
on philosophical grounds, the possibility of a system,
and maintains that any system of philosophy, carried to
Its legitimate results, must lead to fanaticism. He vin-
dicated the ' affective' part of man's nature, which the
Kantian exaltation of pure reason had seemed to dis-
parage, at least to neglect, and gave to feeling its due
place and authority as a medium and interpreter of truth.
. . . He differed from contemporary philosophers in being
a devout believer in revelation, in the Christian revela-
tion. The gospel was to him the test and criterion of all
truth. For the rest, he was an eclectic, and welcomed light
from whatever quarter it came. In philosophical insight
he is surpassed by none ; and, though his fixed idea of
the impossibility of a systematic philosophy may have
somewhat vitiated his view of existing philosophies, his
criticisms on some of them are among the best that
have been essayed."

See J. KUHN, "Jacobi und die Philosophic seiner Zeit," 1834:



a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I. o. u. y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; mf t; n6t; good; moon;



JACOB1



1.363



JACQUARD



rale."

Jacob!, (JoHANN GEORG,) brother of the preceding,
was born at Dusseldorf in 1740. He became professor
of philosophy and eloquence at Halle, and in 1784
professor of belles-lettres at Freiburg. He published
a collection of poems. Died in 1814.

See ROTTECK, " Gedachtnissrede auf Jacobi," 1814; ERSCH und
GRUBER, "AUgemeine Encyklopaedie."

Jacobi, (KARL GUSTAV JAKOB,) an eminent German
nathematician, born at Potsdam in 1804, became in 1829
professor of mathematics at Konigsberg. He wrote
" Foundations of the New Theory of Elliptical Func-
ti .ns," (1829,) and "Canon Arithmeticus," and contrib-
uted a number of able treatises to the Academy of
Sciences, of which he was a member. Died in Berlin
in 1851.

Jacobi, (MARY PUTNAM,) an American physician, a
daughter of G. P. Putnam, of New York, was born in
London, England, in 1842. She was educated in the
Philadelphia Woman's Medical College, in the New
York College of Pharmacy, and in the Ecole de Mede-
cine, Paris, where she graduated in 1871. In 1873 she
married Dr. A. Jacobi. She became professor of ma-
teria medica in a woman's medical college in New York,
and published many professional papers of high value.

Jacobi, (MAXIMILIAN,) a German alienist, a son of H.
F. Jacobi, already noticed, was born at Dusseldorf, April
10, 1775. He studied at Jena, Edinburgh, Gb'ttingen.
Erfurt, and London, taking the degree of M.D. in 1807.
He afterwards had charge of insane asylums at Salzburg
and at Siegburg. His writings on insanity are of high
importance. Died at Siegburg, May 18, 1858.

jacobi, (MORITZ HERMANN,) brother of K. G. J. Jaco-
bi, was born in 1801. He was the inventor of Galvano-
plastic, (1840,) on which he published a treatise, and of
the application of electro-magnetism to the moving of
machinery. Died at St. Petersburg, March 10, 1874.

Jacobini, ya-ko-bee'nee, (LuDOVico,) an Italian car-
dinal, born at Genzano, January 6, 1830. He became a
domestic prelate of the pope in 1862, and held various
offices, chiefly connected with the Propaganda. In 1874
he was made Archbishop of Thessalonica and nuncio at
Vienna. In 1879 he was created a cardinal-priest, and in
1880 was appointed papal secretary of state, administrator
of the property of the Holy See, and prefect of the
Lauretan congregation. Died Feb. 28, 1887. His rela-
tive, ANGELO JACOBINI, born in Genzano, April 25, 1825,
was in 1882 created a cardinal-deacon, and died in 1886.
Ja'cpbs, [Ger. pron. ya'kops,] (FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN
WILHELM,) an eminent German scholar and writer, born
at Gotha in 1764. He studied at Gottingen under Heyne
in 1784, and in 1807 became a teacher of ancient literature
in the Lyceum at Munich, and member of the Academy
of Sciences of that city. In 1810 he was appointed
chief librarian and director of the cabinet of coins at
Gotha. Among his numerous critical writings, which
are distinguished for profound learning and elegance of
style, are " Animadversions on Euripides," (" Animad-
versiones in Euripidem," 1790,) "Critical Emendations
on Ancient Writers," (" Emendationes criticae in Scrip-
tores veteres," 1796,) and "Emendations on Greek
Anthology," ("Emendationes in Anthologiam Graecam.")
He also prepared editions of Achilles Tatius, Bion and
Moschus, and other classics. He made translations from
the Orations of Demosthenes, the Greek Anthology, and
Velleius, and contributed a number of excellent treatises
to Wieland's " Attic Museum" and to the " Library of
Ancient Literature and Art" He also wrote "Glean-
ings from the Journal of the Pastor of Mainau," (1823.
Died in 1847.

Jacobs, (JACOBS,) a Belgian painter, whose true
name was JACQUES ALBERT MICHEL JACOBS. He
was born at Antwerp in 1812, and was noted for his
landscapes, sea-views, and town-pictures. Died in
1879.

Jacobs, (JOSEPH,) a British folk-lorist, born at
Sydney, Xew South Wales, in 1854. He is an



authority in England on fairy tales, of which he has
>ublished numerous collections, also works on the
listory of the Jews and other subjects.

Jacobs, ya'kops, (JURIEN,) a distinguished Swiss
jainter of animals and hunting-scenes, born in 1610 ; died
n 1664.
Jacobs, (LUCAS.) See LUCAS VAN LEYDF.N.

Jacobs, ya'kops, (SlMON,) a Dutch painter, born ai
Gouda, was killed at the siege of Haarlem in 1572.

Jacobsen, ya'kop-sen, (LEVIN,) a Danish surgeon,
Dorn at Copenhagen in 1783. He invented an instru-
ment called the "lithoclaste," and wrote several works.
Died in 1843.

See H. C. OERSTED, "Tale ved Jacobsens Liigfard."

Jacobsen or Jacopsen, ya'kop-sen, (MICHAEL,) a
naval commander, born at Dunkirk. He served in the
famous Spanish Armada sent against England in" 1 588,
and, by his skilful management, saved several vessels.
Died in 1633.

Jacobson, ya'kop-son, (JOHANN KARL GOTTFRIED,)
a Prussian technologist, born at Elbingen in 1726, pub-
lished a "Technological Dictionary of Useful Trades,
Arts," etc. Died in 1789.

Ja-co'bus, (MELANCTHON WILLIAMS,) D.D., LL.D.,
an American Presbyterian clergyman, born at Newark,
Mew Jersey, September 19, 1816. He graduated at
Princeton College in 1834, and at the theological school
n Princeton in 1838. In 1851 he became professor of
Oriental and Biblical literature in a theological seminary
at Allegheny City, Pennsylvania. He published " Notes '
on the Gospels, Acts, and Genesis, in six volumes, (1848
-65.) Died October 28, 1876.

Jacoby, ya-ko'bee, JOHANN,) a German democrat,
born at Konigsberg, May I, 1805. He was a physician,
when in 1841 a political pamphlet ascribed to him caused
his imprisonment. In 1848 he was a republican leader
and a member of the Frankfort Parliament and of the
National Assembly. He was later tried for high treason,
but got clear after a seven weeks' examination. He was
in later years often imprisoned as a socialist agitator,
Died March 6, 1877.

Jacometti, ya-ko-met'tee, (PIETRO PAULO,) a sculp-
tor, founder, and painter of the Roman school, born at
Ricanati in 1580; died in 1655.

Jacomb, jak'om, ? (THOMAS,) an English dissentirg
minister, born in Leicestershire in 1622. He wrote a
"Commentary on the Eighth Chapter of Romans," a
" Treatise of Holy Dedication," and other works. Died
in 1687.

Jacopo di Pietro, ya'ko-po de pe-a'tKO, an Italian
sculptor, born in Tuscany, was a pupil of Andrea Or-
cagna. He died after 1368.

Jacopo Tedesco, (architect.) See LAPO.

Jacopone da Todi, ya-ko-po'na da to'dee, or Ja-
copo, ya'ko-po, sometimes called Benedetto, an Italian
monk and poet, born at Todi. He wrote poems which
were approved by the Academy della Crusca. The
" Stabat Mater Dolorosa" is ascribed to him by some
writers. Died in 1306.

See G. Mopio, "Vita di Jacopone," 1558; GINGOKN*, "Histoire
litte'raire d'ltalie."

Jacopsen. See JACOBSEN.

Jacotin, zhi'ko'taN', (PIERRE,) a French officer of
engineers, bom near Langres in 1765, was distinguished
for his knowledge of topography. He drew a map of
Egypt and Syria which was taken from actual survey.
Died in 1827.

Jacotot, zhfko'to', (JOSEPH,) a French teacher, born
at Dijon in 1770. Under Napoleon I. he was a member
of the Chamber during the Hundred Days. He gained
distinction by his earnest efforts in the cause of national
education, for which he advocated a new and improved
system and on which subject he wrote several works.
Died in 1840.

See A. GUYARD, "Jacotot et sa Me'thode," 1840; C. F. WURW,
" Hamilton und Jacotot," 1831 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jacquand, zhrkdN', (CLAUDIUS,) a French historical
painter, born at Lyons in 1805, settled in Paris in 1833,
and obtained a medal of the first class. Died in 1878.

Jacquard, zhS'kSR', (JOSEPH MARIE,) a Frenchman,
celebrated for his inventions in the art of weaving, was



as k; 5 as s; g hard; g asj; G, H, n,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; as i; th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.)



JACQUELIN



JAGELLON



born in Lyons, July 7, 1752. At an early age, being
employed as a type-founder, and afterwards as a cutler,
he exhibited an uncommon mechanical genius. In 1793
he assisted in the defence of his native city against the
army of the Convention. He subsequently served for a
short period in the army of the Rhine. In 1801 he com-
pleted his great invention for weaving the finest and
richest kinds of figured doth. This apparatus, which
bears his name, the Jacquard loom, though at first
strongly opposed by the weavers of France, has been
brought into general use both in Europe and in America,
and, instead of destroying the occupation of labourers, it
has greatly increased the number of operatives employed
in the manufacture of figured stuffs. Jacquard also in-
vented a machine for wearing nets. For this invention
he received a gold medal in 1804 from the inspectors of
Paris.' While in that city, he was introduced to Napo-
leon I. Died in 1834. In 1840 a public statue was
raised to his memory by the citizens of Lyons.

See DE FORTIS, "E~loge historique de Jacquard," 1838; "Nou-
velle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" LAMAKTINK, ''Memoirs of Celebrated
Characters, 1856.

Jacquelin, zhJk'laN', (JACQUES ANDRE,) a French
dramatist, born in Paris in 1776; died in 1827.

Jacqueline, zhtk'len', Jac-o-bae'a or Jac-o-ba'a,
[Ger. pron. ya-ko-ba'a,] of Bavaria, Countess of Holland,
and heiress of William VI. of Bavaria, was born in 1400.
She was married successively to John the Dauphin of
France and son of Charles VI., to her cousin John of
Brabant, and to Humphrey Duke of Gloucester and
brother of Henry V. After a long contest with her
cousin Philip the Good of Burgundy, she was compelled
to give up to him her possessions. Died in 1436.

See PETIT, "Chronique ancienne et modeme de la Holiande;"
A. VAN OVERSTRATKN, " Jacoba van Beijeren, in V. Boeken," 1790;
MORBRI, " Dictionnaire Historique."

Jacquelot or Jaquelot, zhSklo', (ISAAC,) a learned
Protestant theologian, born in Champagne, France, in
1647. He wrote "On the Existence of God," (1697,)
a "Dissertation on the Messiah," (1699,) and on "The
Inspiration of the Old and New Testaments," (1715.)
Died in Berlin in 1708.

See DAVID DURAND, "La Vie de Jaquelot," 1785; NirfzoN,
" Memoires."

Jacquemard, zhtk'mf R', (fixiENNE,) a grammarian,
born in Paris in 1772, wrote a valuable "Elements of
French Grammar." Died in 1830.

Jacquemart, zhik'mSR', (ALBERT,) a French author,
born in Paris in 1808. His most important works are
those devoted to the history and description of the ceramic
art. Died in Paris, October 14, 1875. His son, JULES
FERDINAND JACQUEMART, born at Paris in 1837, won a
reputation as an engineer, and also as a designer, but
especially as an engraver and etcher. Died in 1880.

Jacquemont, zhlk'moN', (VICTOR,) a distinguished
naturalist, born in Paris in 1801. After making scientific
excursions through France and Switzerland, he sailed
in 1826 for America, and visited Canada, the United
States, and Hayti. He returned to France in 1827, with
a choice collection of plants and minerals. In 1828 he
went to the East Indies, and explored the greater part of
Hindpstan and Thibet. He was author of a " Geological
Treatise on the Alps," " Correspondence of Victor Jacque-
mont with his Family and many of his Friends during his
Journey in India," and "Travels in India from the Year
1828 to the Year 1832." Died at Bombay in 1832.

See E"DOUARD DB WARREN, " La Vie et les CEuvres de Jacque-
mont," 1852; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale :" "Foreign Quar-
terly Review" for February, 1834.

Jacques, zhik, (AM^DEE,) bom in Paris in 1813,
wrote several works on philosophy, and edited the
works of Leibnitz. Died in Buenos Ayres in 1865.

Jacques, FRERE. See BAULOT.

Jacques, (MATHIEU JOSEPH,) a French ecclesiastic,
and professor of theology at Lyons, was born in 1736.
He wrote " Convincing Proofs of the Christian Religion,"
and other theological works. Died in 1821.

Jacques, (NICOLAS,) a French miniature-painter, born
near Nancy in 1780 ; died in 1844.

Jacques de Chison, zhik deh she'zoN', a French
poet, who lived about 1250, was highly esteemed by his
contemporaries.



Jacquet, zhjPk^', (EUGENE VINCENT STANISLAS,) a
distinguished Orientalist, born at Brussels in 1811, was
particularly skilled in the Sanscrit. In 1829 he was
admitted a member of the Asiatic Society of Paris, and
soon became known by his writings. Died in 1838.

See FELIX NEVE, "Me'nvnre sui la Vied'Eugeae Jacquet," 1856;
" Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne.-ale."

Jacquet, (Louis,) a French ecclesiastic, born at Lyons
in 1 732, wrote a " Parallel between the Greek and French
Tragic Writers," and a prize essay upon the Discovery
of America. Died in 1794.

Jacquier, zhj'ke-i', ( FRANC.OIS, ) a distinguished
French mathematician', born at Vitry-le-Fran9ais in 171 1,
was appointed professor of philosophy at the Roman
College by Pope Benedict XIV. He edited the " Prin-
cipia" of Newton, and wrote, with Le Sueur, a " Treatise
on Algebra," and other scientific works. Died in 1788.

Jacquin, zhi'kiN', (ARMAND PIERRE,) a French
writer, bom at Amiens in 1721 ; died about 1780.

Jacquin, zhi'kaN',?( JOSEPH FRANZ,) a German bota-
nist and chemist, son of Nikolaas Joseph, noticed below,
was born about 1766. He was professor in the University
of Vienna, and wrote on natural history. Died in 1839.

Jacquin, (NIKOLAAS JOSEPH,) a celebrated botanist,
born at Leyden in 1727. Having removed to Vienna,
he was sent by Francis I. to the West Indies, whence he
returned at the end of six years, with a choice collection
of plants. He was subsequently appointed professor
of chemistry and botany in the University of Vienna,
and created baron and councillor of mines and coinage.
He wrote numerous works on botany, among which may
be mentioned his magnificent " Florae Austriacje," whicn
contained five hundred coloured engravings, (1773-77.)
Died in Vienna in 1817.

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgememe Encyklopaedie ;" MEUSEL,
"Gelehrtes Deutschland ;" "Nouvelle Biographic G^nerale;" KAI-
MANN, "Rede zur Gedachtnissfeier des N. J. Jacquin," 1818.

Jacquinot, zhfke'no', (CHARLES CLAUDE,) a French
general, born at Melun in 1 772, commanded two divisions
of cavalry at Waterloo. Died in 1848.

Jacquinot - Pampelune, zhi'ke'no' poMp'lnn',
(CLAUDE FRANC.OIS JOSEPH,) a French advocate and
politician, born at Dijon in 1771 ; died in 1835.

Jacquot, zhi'ko', (GEORGES,) a French statuary, bom
at Nancy in 1794, gained the grand prize in 1820, and
went to Rome with a pension. Died Nov. 23, 1874.

Jadassohn, ya'di-son, (SALOMON,) a German (Jew-
ish) musical composer, born at Breslau, August 13, i8jl.
He acquired distinction as a pianist, composer, and in-
structor, and especially by his " Science of Pure Compo-
sition," ("Lehre vom reinen Satze," 3 vols., 1883.)

Jadelot, zhid'lo', (NICOLAS,) a learned French phy-
sician, born at Pont-a-Mousson in 1738, became professor
of anatomy and physiology at Nancy. He wrote nume-
rous professional works, among which are a " Treatise
upon the Causes of the Pulsation of the Arteries," and
a "Complete Course of Anatomy." Died in 1793.

Jadin, zhi'daN', (Louis EMMANUEL,) a French com-
poser of dramatic music, born at Versailles in 1768 ; died
in 1853.

Jadin, (Louis GODEFROY,) a French landscape-painter,
son of the preceding, born in Paris in 1805 ; died in 1882.

Jadwiga. See HEDWIG.

Jaeger. See JAGER.

Jaerta, QOHAN or HANS.) See JARTA.

Jaffe, yif-fa', (PHILIPP,) a German (Jewish) historian,
born near Posen, February II, 1819. He was educated
at Berlin. His " History of Germany under Lothair the
Saxon," (1843,) an d " History of Germany under Conrad
III.," (1845,) were followed by the important " Regesta
Pontificum Romanorum," (1851,) a standard work. He
then studied medicine, but in 1862 he was appointed a
professor of history in the University of Berlin. His
"Bibliotheca Rerum Germanicarum" (6 vols., 1864-73)
is highly esteemed. Died by suicide, April 3, 1870.

Jagellon, ya-gellon, Duke of Lithuania, born about
1354. He embraced Christianity, and married Hedwig,
Queen of Poland, thus uniting the two territories under
one government He also caused Christianity to be
established in Lithuania. Died in 1434.



a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J?, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; nflt; good; moon;


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 29 of 425)