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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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of Leonardo da Vinci," " The Temptation," and " Milton
Dictating to his Daughter."

Schraudolph, shRow'dolf, (JOHANN,) a German his
torical painter, born at Obersdorf in 1808. He painted
a number of frescos at Munich. Died May 31, 1879.

Schreber, von, fon shRa'ber, (JOHANN CHRISTIAN
DANIEL,) a German naturalist, born in Thuringia in
1739, studied under Linnaeus at Upsal. He became
professor of medicine and botany at Erlangen in 176^
Among his works is a " Description of the Grasses," (in
German, 1769-74.) Died in 1810.

Schreiber, shRfber, (ALOYS WILHELM,) a German
historian and miscellaneous writer, born in the grand
duchy of Baden in 1763 ; died in 1841.

Schreiber, shri'ber, (CHARLOTTE ELIZABETH,) LADY,
known by her earlier name of Lady CHARLOTTE GUEST,
an English lady, born in 1812. She was a daughter of
the Earl of Lindsay, was, 1833-52, the wife of Sir J. J.
Guest, and after his death married a Mr. Schreiber. She
was the principal restorer of the Eisteddfod in Wales.
She was the mother of Lord Wimborne. She published,
in English, " The Mabinogion," (3 vols., 183859,) from
the Welsh of " the Red Book of HergesL" Died in 1879.
Schrei'ner, (OLIVE,) a South African novelist,
born at Capetown about 1860, daughter of a Lutheran
clergyman. Her " Life on an African Farm," (1883,)
was a novel picture of Boer farm-life and exposition
of soul problems. A second notable story was
"Trooper Peter Halket of Mashonaland," (1897.)
Mir married a Mr. Cronwright in 1894. Her brother,
W. P. Schreiner, became premier of Cape Colony in
1898.

Schrevelius, skre-vee'le-us, [Dutch pron. sKRa-va'-
e-us,] originally Schrevel, sKRa'vel, (CoRNELis,) a
distinguished classical scholar, born at Haarlem, in Hoi-
and, about 1615, was rector of a school at Leyden. His
most important work is his "Lexicon Manuale Graeco-
,atinum," (1645,) which passed through many editions,
le also published editions of numerous Latin classics.
Died about 1665.

Schreyer, shrl'er, (ADOLPH,) a German painter, born
n Frankfort in 1828. He is noted as a colourist, and as
a figure-painter of great excellence, but his horse-pictures
are especially spirited.

Schrockh or Schroeckh, shRok, (JOHANN MAT-
THIAS,) a German scholar, born at Vienna in 1733, was
a contributor to the " Acta Eruditorum," and wrote two
valuable works on ecclesiastical history. Died in 1808.
Schroder or Schroeder, shRb'der, (FRIEDRICH
jUDWic,) a celebrated German actor and dramatist, born
.t Schwerin in 1744. He wrote a number of comedies,
and made translations from Shakspeare, whose works
e contributed to make popular in Germany. Died in
816.

Schroder or Schroeder, (JOHANN JOACHIM,) a
"jerman Orientalist, born in Hesse-Cassel in 1680. He
isited Armenia, and published, after his return, his
Thesaurus Linguae Armenicae." Died in 1756.

Schroder or Schroeder, (SOPHIE,) a German
ctress, born at Paderborn in 1781, attained the highest
eputation in her profession, particularly in tragic parts,
ler daughter, Wilhelmine Schroder-Devrient, was one



a, e, $, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; n8t; good; moon;



SCHR ODER-DE VR1ENT



2151



SCHUL TZE



of the most distinguished vocalists of Germany. Sophie
died about 1856.

Schroder-Devrient, (deVre-oN',) (WILHELMINE,) a
popular singer, a daughter of the preceding, was born in
Hamburg in 1805. She was married in 1823 to Karl
August Devrient, an actor. She performed in Paris,
London, and Saint Petersburg. Died in 1860.

Schrodei us. See SKYTTE.

Schrodter or Schroedter, shRbt'ter, (ADOLF,) a
German painter, born at Schwedt in 1805 ; died in 1875.

Schroeckh. See SCHROCKH.

Schroeder. See SCHRODER.

Schroeder van der Kolk, sKroo'der vjn der kolk,
(JACOBUS LODEWIJK KOENRAAD,) an eminent Dutch
physiologist, born at Groningen in 1798. He was edu-
cated at Groningen, and was a professor at Utrecht,
where he died in 1862.

Schroter or Schroeter, shRo'ter, (CHRISTOPI
GOTTLIEB,) the inventor of the piano-forte, was born at
Hohenstein, in Saxony, in 1699. He became organist
at Minden, and afterwards at Nordhausen, where he died
in 1782.

Schroter or Schroeter, (JOHANN HIERONYMUS,)
a German astronomer, born at Erfurt in 1745. He con-
structed a telescope which Lalande declared one of the
best that had been made, and published several astro-
nomical works. Died in 1816.

Schryver, sKri'ver, [Lat. SCRIVE'RIUS,] (PETER,) a
Dutch writer, born at Haarlem in 1576, published a
number of poems and critical treatises, in Latin ; also
" Antiquitatum Batavicarum Tabularium," (1609.) Died
in 1660.

Schubart, shoo'baRt, (CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH DAN-
IEL,) a German litterateur and i poet, born in 1739, founded
in 1774 a literary and political journal, entitled the
" Deutsche Chronik." He was the author of a "Hymn
to Frederick the Great." Died in 1791.

See DAVID F. STRAUSS, "Schubart's Leben in seinen Briefen,"
1849; L. A. SCHUBART, "C. F. D. Schubart's Charakter," 1789.

Schubert, shoo'bSRt, (FRANZ,) an eminent German
composer, born at Vienna in 1797. He became at an
early age one of the singers of the court chapel, and
was subsequently instructed in music by Ruziczka and
Salieri. He exercised himself in almost every species
of musical composition ; but his reputation rests chiefly
on his songs and ballads, which are ranked among the
most exquisite productions of the kind. Died in 1828.

See " Franz Schubert : a Musical Biography," London, 1866.

Schubert, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German writei
on history and statistics, was born at Konigsberg in 1799 ;
died July 21, 1868.

Schubert, von, fon shoo'bSRt, (FRIEDRICH THEO-
DOR,) a German astronomer, born in 1758. He removed
to Saint Petersburg about 1785, and became in 1805
director of the observatory of the Academy of Sciences
in that capital. In 1816 he was appointed councillor
of state by the Czai of Russia. Among his works is a
"Treatise on Theoretical Astronomy," (in German, 3
vols., 1798.) Died in 1825.

Schubert, von, (GOTTHILF HEINRICH,) a German
naturalist and philosophical writer, born at Hohenstein,
in Saxony, in 1780. He studied at Leipsic and Jena,
and became professor of natural science at Erlangen.
He published "Views of the Night Side of Natural
Science," (1808,) "History of the Soul," (1830,) and
Manuals of Natural History, etc. Died in 1860.

Schu'bin, (Ossip,) the pen-name of Lola Kirsch-
ner, a German novelist, born in 1853. Among her
novels are "The Story of a Genius," " Between Our-
selves," and "Boris Lenzky."

Schucking or Schuecking, shiik'king, (CHRISTOPH

BERNHARD LEVEN,) a German littlrateur, born in 1814,

wrote poems, dramas, and romances. Died Sept. 2, 1883.

Schuerman. See SCHURMANN.

Schuetz. See SCHUTZ.

Schulenburg, von, fon shoo'len-bdoRG', or Schu-

lemberg, shoo'lem-bSRG', (ADOLF FRIEDRICH,) COUNT,

a Prussian general, born at Wolfenbiittel in 1685, was a

nephew of Johann Matthias, noticed below. He was

killed at the battle of Mollwitz, where he commanded

the cavalry, in April, 1741.



Schulenburg, Schulenburg, or Schulembourg,
von, (JOHANN MATTHIAS,) COUNT, a Prussian general,
born at Magdeburg in 1661, served in the Polish wars
under Sobieski, and subsequently became commander
in-chief of the Venetian army, and defended Corft
against the Turks. Died about 1745.

See "Eminent Soldiers of the Last Four Centuries," by J.
MITCHELL, 1865; " Fraser's Magazine" for August, 1840.

Schuler. See SABINUS, (GEORG.)

Schuler, shoo'ler, (CHARLES AUGUSTE,) an engraver,
born at Strasbourg in 1804; died in 1859.

Schulte, shdol'teh, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German
" Old Catholic" theologian and canonist, born at Win-
terberg, April 23, 1827. He graduated at Berlin in 1851,
and became a lawyer. In 1855 he was made professor
of canon law at Prague, and in 1872 was called to Bonn.
His works include a " System of Catholic Canon Law,"
" Manual of German Imperial and Legal History," etc.

Schultens, sKul'tens, (ALBERT,) an eminent Dutch
Orientalist and theologian, born at Groningen in 1686.
He was ordained a minister in 1708, and became pro-
fessor of Hebrew and other Oriental languages at Ley-
den about 1720. He rilled this chair until his death.
He published, besides other works, " Hebrew Roots,"
("Origines Hebrseae," 2 vols., 1724-38,) "Older Monu-
ments of Arabia," (" Monumenta vetustiora Arabiae,"
1740,) and a "Life of Saladin," in Arabic and Latin,
(1755.) Died in 1750.

Schultena, (HENDRIK ALBERT,) grandson of the
preceding, was born at Herborn in 1749. He studied
the classics and the Oriental tongues at Leyden, and
afterwards spent some time in England. He was ap-
pointed in 1778 professor of the Oriental languages at



vatmg . ,

Literis Arabicir Excolendis," 1779,) "Part of the Arabic
Proverbs of Meidan, with Notes," ("Meidanii Prover-
biurum Arabicorum Pars, Latine, cum Notis," 1795,)
and other works. Died in 1793.

See F. T. RINCK, " H. A. Schultens," 1795 ; KANTKLAAR, " Lof
rede op H. A. Schultens," 1794.

Schultens, (JAN JACOB,) an Orientalist, born at
Franeker in 1716, was a son of Albert, and the father
of the preceding. He succeeded his father as professor
at Leyden. Died in 1778.

Schulterblatt, the German name of SCAPULA, (q. v.)

Schultet, shool'tJt, [Lat. SCULTE'TUS,] (ABRAHAM,)
a German Protestant divine, born in Silesia in 1556 or
1566, became professor of theology at Heidelberg. Ha
was the author of several moral and theological works.
Died in 1625.

Schulting, sKuI'ting, (ANTONIUS,) a Dutch jurist and
legal writer, born at Nymwegen in 1659. In 1713 he was
associated with Noodt as professor of law at Leyden.
His greatest work is entitled "Jurisprudence before the
Time of Justinian," (" Jurisprudent Vetus ante-Justi-
nianea.") Died in 1734.

Schulting, (CORNELIUS,) a Dutch theologian, born
at Steenwyck about 1540. He published, besides other
works, " Bibliotheca Catholica contra Theologiam Cal-
vinianam," (2 vols., 1602.) Died in 1604.

Schultz, shoolts, [Lat. SCULTE'TUS,] (BARTHOLO-
MAUS,) a German astronomer, born at Gorlitz in 1540,
contributed to the reform of the calendar. Died in 1614,

Schultz, (DAVID,) a German Protestant theologian,
born near Freistadt in 1779. He published several
commentaries on the Scriptures. Died in 1854.

Schultz, (FRIEDRICH,) a German novelist and his-
torical writer, born at Magdeburg in 1762 ; died in 1798.

Schultz-Schultzenstein, shd61ts-sh661t'sen-stln',
(KARL HEINRICH,) a German physiologist, born at Alt
Ruppin in 1798. He studied at Berlin, where he became
professor of medicine in 1833. Among his principal
works are a treatise (in French) " On the Circulation and
Lactiferous Vessels in Plants," (1839,) and "Discovery
of the True Nourishment of Plants. He also published
the "Universal Doctrine of Disease," (1844,) and other
valuable medical treatises. Died March 22, 1871.

Schultze, shSolt'seh, (JOHANN ABRAHAM PETER,)
a German composer, born at Liineburg in 1747. Hii



e as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



anations, p. 23.'



SCHULTZE



2152



SCHUYLER



works include oratorios, hymns, and songs. His ballad
"Am Rhein" enjoys great popularity. Died in 1800.

Schultze, (MAX,) a German biologist, born about
1825. He became professor of anatomy at Bonn.
Among his writings are "On the Muscle-Corpuscles,"
("Ueber Muskelkbrperchen," 1860,) and "The Proto-
plasm of Rhizopods and of Plant-Cells," (" Das Proto-
plasma der Rhizopoden und der Pflanzenzellen," 1863.)
He brought forward the doctrine of protoplasm. Died
at Bonn, January 16, 1874.

Schulz, shoClts, (WiLHELM,) a German political
writer, born at Darmstadt in 1797; died Jan. 9, 1860.

Schulze or Schultze, shoolt'seh, (ERNST,) a Ger-
man poet, born at Celle in 1789. While a student at
Gottingen, he published his narrative poem of " Psyche,"
and subsequently " Cecilia, a Romantic Poem, in Twenty
Cantos." His " Enchanted Rose" (" Die bezauberte
Rose," 1818) is esteemed his master-piece, and has
taken its place among German classics. It was trans-
lated into English by Caroline von Crespigny. He died
in 1817. A collection of his works, with a biography
prefixed, was published in 1822 by his friend Bouterwet

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" "Foreign
Quarterly Review" for November, 1827.

Schulze, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a German novelist
and poet, born at Dresden in 1770, assumed the syno-
nym of FRIEDRICH LAUN. Died in 1849.

Schulze, (FRIEDRICH GOTTLOB,) a German econo-
mist, born near Meissen in 1795. He published several
works on political economy. Died in 1860.

Schulze, (GOTTLOB ERNST,) a German philosopher,
born at Heldrungen, in Thuringia, in 1761, published
several treatises against the systems of Kant and Rein-
hold. Died in 1833.

Schulze, (JoHANN,) a German scholar, and reformer
in education, born in 1786. He entered the Prussian
civil service, and became privy councillor. He directed
for many years, ending in 1840, the administration of
the Prussian colleges, universities, and public libraries,
and was the principal manager of great scientific enter-
prises and voyages of exploration. In these services
he displayed great wisdom and activity. Died in 1869.

Schulze, (JoHANN HEINRICH,) a German physician
and anatomist, born in the duchy of Magdeburg in 1687,
wrote " Historia Medicinje ad Annum Romae 535,"
(1728,) and other works. Died in 1745.

Schulze-Delitzsch, shoolt'seh da'litch, (HER-
MANN,) a German economist, born at Delitzsch, in Sax-
ony, August 29, 1801. He was educated at Leipsic and
Halle. He had large experience in the Prussian and
imperial legislatures, giving special attention to the
rights of labouring people. He published many valuable
works, including several treatises on co-operative socie-
ties. He did much to establish " people's banks" and
loan societies. His economic plans are for the most
part very sober and moderate, as compared with those
of Lassalle and Marx. Died in 1883.

Schumacher, shoo'maK'er, (CHRISTIAN ANDREAS,)
a Danish mathematician and natural philosopher, born
in Seeland in 1810, a nephew of Heinrich Christian,
noticed below. He translated Hutnboldt's " Cosmos"
into Danish.

Schumacher, (HEINRICH CHRISTIAN,) an able
astronomer, born at Bramstedt, Holstein, in 1780. He
became professor of astronomy at Copenhagen in 1815,
a few years after which date he was appointed director
of the Observatory of Altona. He edited for many
years a valuable periodical entitled " Astronomische
Nachrichten." Died in 1850.

Schumann, shoo'man, (ROBERT,) a German musician
and composer, born at Zwickau in 1810, became in 1850
chapel-master at Dusseldorf. Among his best works is
the oratorio of " Paradise and the Peri." He died in
1856. His wife, CLARA WIECK, (b. 1819 ; d. 1896,) was
one of the most distinguished female pianists of the
time.

Schunck, (HENRY EDWARD,) an English chemist,
born at Manchester in 1820. He made important ob-
servations and discoveries in the chemistry of organic
colouring substances.



Schuppen, van, vtn sKiip'pen, (PlETER,) a Flemish
designer and engraver, born at Antwerp about 1625, was
a pupil of Nanteuil. He worked in Paris, where he died
in 1702. His son JACQUES (1670-1751) was a portrait-
painter.

Schur'man, (JACOB GOULD,) an American edu-
cator, was born at Freetown, Prince Edward Island,
in 1854. He studied in various European institutions,
was professor in Nova Scotia colleges 1880-86, and
professor of philosophy in Cornell University 188692.
He became president" of Cornell in 1892, and was
appointed in 1899 president of the Philippine Com-
mission. He is the author of several works on ethics,
etc., and editor of the " Philosophical Review."

Schurz, shoorts, (CARL,) a German orator and gen-
eral, born near Cologne in 1829, was liberally educated.
He took part in the revolutionary movements of 1849,
and when they were defeated he went into exile. About
1852 he emigrated to the United States, and settled at
Madison, Wisconsin. In 1856 he advocated the election
of Fremont by public speeches in the German language.
He afterwards made political speeches in English, and
acquired a high reputation as an orator. In 1860 he
addressed the people of various States in favour of the
election of Lincoln. He was appointed minister to Spain
in 1861, and brigadier-general in 1862. He commanded
a division at Chancellorsville, May, 1863, and a corps at
Gettysburg, July 1-3 of that year. In 1864 he resigned
Tom the army, and in 1866 became editor of the Detroit
" Post." In 1868 he removed to Saint Louis, and in
1869 he was elected United States Senator from Mis-
Miuri. lie was secretary of the interior, under Presi-
dent Hayes, 1877-81. He wrote lives of Henry Clay,
1 1887,) and Abraham Lincoln, (1892,) edited the New
York " Evening Post" 1881-84, and was a contributor
to " Harper's Weekly" 1892-98.

Schut, sKut, (CORNELIUS,) a Flemish painter, born
at Antwerp about 1600, was a pupil of Rubens. He
had a brilliant imagination and great facility of execu-
tion. Died in 1649.

Schutz or Schuetz, shBts, (CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED,)
a German scholar, born at Duderstadt in 1747, was one
of the founders of the " Allgemeine Literaturzeitung"
at Jena, (1785.) He published editions of jEschylus
and Cicero. Died in 1832.

Schutz, [Lat, SAGITTA'RIUS,] (HEINRICH,) a German
composer and musician, born in Voigtland in 1585- He
studied at Venice, and became first chapel-master at
Dresden. His church music was highly esteemed by
his contemporaries, and he is said to have first intro-
duced the Italian Opera into Germany. Died in 1672.
Schntze or Schuetze, shBt'seh, (JOHANN STE-
PHAN,) a German littlrateur, born near Magdeburg in
1771, wrote tales, travels, and dramatic works. Died
in 1839.

Schuyler, ski'ler, (EUGENE,) LL.D., an American
historian and traveller, born in Ithaca, New York, Feb-
ruary 26, 1840. He graduated at Yale College in 1859,
and at the law-school of Columbia College, New York,
in 1863. In 1867 he became United States consul at
Moscow, and in 1869 consul at Reval, and the secretary
of the American legation to Russia. He travelled in Tur-
kistan in 1873, was secretary of legation and consul-gen-
eral at Constantinople, 1876-78, (during which time he
travelled in Bulgaria and made an important official
report on the Turkish atrocities in that region,) after-
wards held consulships at Birmingham, Rome, etc.,
and was still later American minister at Athens, and at
the same time was United States representative for
Roumania and Servia. Among his books are "Turkis-
tan," (1876,) "The Cossacks," (1876, from the Russian
of Tolstoi,) " Father and Sons," (1867, from the Russian
of Toorguenef,) and a " Life of Peter the Great," (3 vols.,
1884.) Died at Cairo, July 18, 1890.

Schuyler, ski'ler, (PHILIP,) an able American gen-
eral and Senator, born at Albany in November, 1733.
lie served in the war against the French and Indians in
1756. In June, 1775, he was appointed commander of
an army in New York, with the rank of major-general,
lie was about to move the army into Canada, but he



a e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y\ short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, ft; m?t; not; good; mo5n:



SCHWAB



SCHWARZENBERG



was taken sick, and the command devolved in Septem-
ber on General Montgomery. In August, 1777, he was
superseded by General Gates, in consequence of the un-
reasonable jealousy with which Congress regarded him.
His conduct was vindicated by a court of inquiry. He
afterwards rendered important services in military affairs,
although he declined to take command of an army. He
was a member of the General Congress from 1778 to
1781, and was elected a Senator of the United States by
the legislature of New York in 1789. He was again
elected a Senator, in place of Aaron Burr, in 1797. One
of his daughters was the wife of Alexander Hamilton.
Died at Albany in November, 1804.

Schwab, shwap, (GusTAV,) a distinguished German
litterateur, born at Stuttgart in 1792. He became in
1817 professor of ancient literature in his native city.
He published a number of popular songs and ballads,
also prose essays on various subjects, and an excellent
" Life of Schiller." He was for a time associated with
Chamisso as editor of the " Musenalmanach." Died in
1850.

Schwalber, shwal'ber, better known by his Graeco-
Latinized name of Chelidonius, kel-e-do'ne-fls, a Ger-
man Benedictine monk, surnamed MUSOPH'ILUS. He
was a friend of Albert Durer, and wrote in Latin verse
an "Apocalypse," a "Life of the Blessed Virgin," and
a " Passion of Christ," to accompany the three series of
Diirer's wood-cuts on those topics. He became abbot
of the Schotten Kloster, near Vienna, in 1515, and died
there in 1521.

Schwan, (THEODORE,) an American general, born
in Germany. He entered as private in the civil war,
was promoted major in 1867 for services during the
war, and brigadier-general of volunteers in 1898. He
served in the Philippines in 1899.



ot romances and other works. Among her stories are
" The Man of Family, and the Wife from the People,"
(1858,) "Work ennobles a Man," (1859,) "The Noble-
man's Daughter," (1860,) "The Organ-Grinder's Son,"
(1863,) "Gold and '
Time," (1873,) etc.



Name," (1863,) "A Child of the
Died at Stockholm, May 16, 1894.



Schwartz, (WILHELM,) a German author, born in
Berlin, September 4, 1821. He was educated at Berlin
and Leipsic. Besides some works on paedagogy, he
published a large number of books on mythology and
on popular superstitions. He was one of the founders
of the science of comparative mythology.

Schwartz, von, fon shwaRts, (MARIE ESPERANCE,) a
German writer, born at Southgate, England, of a German
family, November 8, 1821. Her second husband was one
Schwartz, a rich banker of Hamburg. Having left him,
she became a close associate of Garibaldi, sharing his
dangers and imprisonments. In 1865 she became a
resident of Kalepha, in Crete. Her pseudonym of
ELPIS MEL^NA is a Greek translation of her name.
Most of her numerous books are descriptions of her
travels and adventures.

Schwarz, shwiRts, (BERTHOLD,) called also CON-
STANTINE ANCKLITZEN, (ank'klit'sen,) a German chemist
and Franciscan monk, born at Freiburg, is said to have
invented gunpowder about 1330. A monument was
erected to him at Freiburg in 1853.

Schwarz or Schwartz, shwaRts, (CHRISTIAN FRIED-
RICH,) an eminent German missionary, born at Sonnen-
burg, Prussia, in 1726. He went to India in 1750, and
laboured many years about Tranquebar, Tanjore, and
Trichinopoly with great success. He gained the confi-
dence of Hyder Ali. His character was highly com-
mended by Bishop Heber. Died in India in 1798.

Schwarz, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLIEB,) a learned German
| writer and bibliographer, born in Misnia in 1675, was



Schwann, shwan, (THEODOR,) M.D., a German i professor of eloquence at Altorf. Died in 1751.
physiologist, born at Neuss, in the Rhine Province,
December 7, 1810. He studied with brilliant success at



the Universities of Bonn, Wiirzburg, and Berlin, taking
his degree of M.D. and passing the state examination in
1824. In 1839 he was appointed professor of anatomy
in the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium, where
he spent forty years in important work. One of his
earliest discoveries was that of pepsin in the gastric
juice. He made researches upon the nature and func-
tions of bile, and on the vivification of eggs, and demon-
strated the untenableness of the theory of the "sponta-
neous generation" of infusoria. Died at Cologne,
January n, 1882.

Schwanthaler, shwln'tj'ler, (LuDWic MICHAEL,)
an eminent German artist, born at Munich in 1802.
He studied for a short time at Rome, and on his return,
in 1826, executed two bas-relief friezes for the Glypto-
thek, and a statue of Shakspeare for the theatre. He
became in 1835 professor of sculpture at the Academy
of Munich. Among the numerous works which he
produced within about twelve years, we may name the
relievo frieze, over two hundred feet long, in the Barba-
rossa Hall, the twelve colossal statues of the ancestors
of the house of Wittelsbach, the "Myth of Aphrodite,"
and the fifteen statues of the " Battle of Arminius," ( Her-
manns-schlacht,) in the northern pediment of the Wal-
halla at Ratisbon. His colossal bronze statue of " Ba-
varia," in the Hall of Fame at Munich, esteemed one of
his master-pieces, is of greater magnitude than any other
group of modern sculpture, the main figure being fifty-
frur feet high. Schwanthaler also executed statues of
the emperor Rudolph, of Goethe, Mozart, and Jean Paul


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 293 of 425)