Joseph Thomas.

Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

. (page 294 of 425)
Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 294 of 425)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Richter, as well as numerous subjects from Grecian
mythology. He died in 1848. Among his most distin-
guished pupils are Brugger, Widmann, and Kriesmeyer.

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations- Lexikon."

Schwartz, shwaRts, (CHRISTOPH,) a German painter,
born at Ingolstadt about 1550, worked at Munich. Died
in 1594.

Schwartz, shwaRts, (MARIE SOPHIE,) a Swedish
novelist, born at Boris, July 4, 1819. Her father was a
German, named Birath. In 1840 she married, and be-
came a widow in 1858. She published a vast number



Schwarz, (FRIEDRICH HEINRICH CHRISTIAN,) pro-
fessor of theology at Heidelberg, was born at Giessen
in 1766. He married a daughter of Jung-Stilling, and
published several educational works. Died in 1837.

Schwarz, (KARL HEINRICH WILHELM,) a German
rationalistic theologian, was born at V/iek, in Riigen,
November 19, 1812. He was educated at Halle, Bonn,
Berlin, and Greifswalde, and, after figuring as a moder-
ate radical in politics, became in 1856 court preacher
at Gotha. His writings include "The Essence of Re-
ligion," "Lessing as a Theologian," "History of the
New Theology," and several volumes of "Sermons of
the Present Times." Died at Gotha, March 25, 1885.

Schwarzenberg, shwaRt'sen-be'RG', (FELIX LUDWIG
JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) an Austrian statesman and mili-
tary commander, born at Krumau, in Bohemia, in 1800.
He was made lieutenant-field-marshal in 1848, and sub-
sequently became prime minister. Died in 1852.

Schwarzenberg, von, fonshwart'sen-beRG', (FRIED-
RICH JOHANN JOSEPH,) PRINCE, an Austrian prelate,
born in 1809. He became Archbishop of Salzburg in
1836, cardinal in 1842, and Archbishop of Prague in
1850. He was a member of the Council of Rome in
1869-70. Died March 27, 1885.

Schwarzenberg, von, (KARL PHILIPP,) PRINCE,
an Austrian field-marshal, born at Vienna in 1771. He
served against the French in the campaigns of 1794 and
1799, and was present at the battle of Hohenlinden,
where he succeeded in saving his own corps. In 1808
he was sent as ambassador to Saint Petersburg, and in
1810 became general of the Austrian cavalry. After the
peace of Vienna he was appointed to negotiate the
marriage of Napoleon with Maria Louisa. On the alli-
ance of Austria with France, he was placed by Napoleon
at the head of the Austrian forces in the Russian cam-
paign of 1812, and obtained for his services the rank
of field-marshal. In 1813 he was made commander-
in-chief of the allied armies, and, having defeated the
French at Leipsic, advanced to Paris. After the battle
of Waterloo he was appointed president of the imperial
council of war, and obtained many other distinctions.
Died in 1820.

See PROKESCH VON OSTEN, " Leben des Feldmarschalls Karl zt.
Schwarzenberg," 1822; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"nerale."



as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/,- G, K, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as ; th as in this.



*e Explanations, p. 23. )



SCHWA TKA



2154



SCIPIO



Schwatka, shwot'ka, (FREDERICK,) an American
explorer, born at Galena, Illinois, September 29, 1849.
He graduated at West Point in 1871, served agams
Indians in Arizona, studied law, and was admitted t
practice in Nebraska in 1875, studied medicine and
graduated at Bellevue Hospital Medical College, in New
York, in 1876, rejoined his regiment, and participated in
various engagements with the Indians, and then obtained
leave of absence to command the Franklin search expe-
dition in the Arctic Ocean, (1878-1880,) which discov-
ered and buried many of the skeletons of Sir John
Franklin's lost party, and explored the course of the
Yukon River, in Alaska. He resigned his commission
in 1884. He published "Along Alaska's Great River,
(1881;) "Nimrod in the North," (1885,) "The Children
of the Cold," (1886.) Died at Portland, Oregon, No-
vember 2, I92.

Schwegler, shwSc'ler, (ALBRECHT,) a German theo-
logian and disciple of Baur, born at Michelbach, in
Wurtemberg, in 1819. He published a "History of
Philosophy," and "Roman History," (1853,) also Ger-
man translations of Aristotle's "Metaphysics" and the
"Church History" of Eusebius. Died in 1857.

Schweidel, shwT'del, (GEORG JAKOB,) a German
bibliographer, born at Nuremberg about 1690, published
"Thesaurus Bibliothecalis," (4 vols., 1739.) Died in



Schweigaard, shwI'gaRd, (ANTONY MARTIN,) a
Norwegian jurist, born at Krageroe in 1808, was ap-
pointed professor of political economy and statistics at
the University of Christiania. He published several works
on law, finance, and statistics. Died February 2, 1870.
Schweiger-Lerchenfeld, von, fon shwl'ger leV-
Ken-flt / , (AMAND,) a popular Austrian author, born in
Vienna, May 17, 1846. He became an army-officer, and
after 1871 travelled extensively, for the most part in the
Balkan peninsula. Among his works (in German) are
"Under the Crescent," (1876,) "Armenia," (1878,)
"Bosnia," (1878,) "Between Pontus and Adria," (1879,)
"Seraglio and Sublime Porte," (1879,) "The Life of
Women in Various Lands," (1880,) etc.

Schweighauser, shwic'hoi'zer, (JEAN GEOFFROI,)
an antiquary, a son of the following, was born at Stras-
burg in 1776; died in 1844.

Schweighauser or Schweighaeuser, shwiG'hoi -
zer, (JoHANN,) a German scholar, born at Strasburg in
1742, became in 1778 professor of Greek and Oriental
languages in his native city. He published editions of
Appianus, Polybius, Herodotus, and other classics. Died
in 1830.

See CUVIBR, " filoge de Schweighaeuser," 1830; STIKVKNART,
"filoge de J. Schweighaeuser," 1830.

Schweinfurth, shwin'fooRt, (GEORG AUGUST,) a
German- Russian traveller, born at Riga, September 29,
1836. Educated at Munich, Heidelberg, and Berlin, he
engaged in botanical expeditions in Africa, chiefly in
the Upper Nile regions. Besides several volumes con-
taining the results of his botanical labours, he published
"Im Herzen von Afrika," (1874.) His botanical and
geographical discoveries were highly important.

Schweinitz, de, de shwi'nits, (EDMUND ALEX-
ANDER,) D.D., an American bishop, born at Bethlehem,
Pennsylvania, March 20, 1825, was educated at Nazareth,
Bethlehem, and the University of Berlin. In 1867 he
became president of the Moravian Theological School
at Bethlehem. In 1870 he was consecrated a bishop of
the Moravian Church, and in 1878 was made its pre-
liding bishop for the United States. His principal
works are "The Moravian Manual," "Life of Zeisber-
ger," "The Moravian Episcopate," "The Missionary
Manual," and " History of the Unitas Fratrum." Died
December 18, 1887.

Schweinitz, von, fon shwi'nits, l[LEWis DAVID,) an
American botanist and Moravian minister, was born at
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1780. He discovered more
than a thousand new species of plants, and wrote several
treatises on Fungi. Died in 1834.

Schweizer, shftit'ser, (ALEXANDER,) a German the-
ologian of the Reformed Church, was born at Murter,
in 1808. Died July 3, 1888.



Schwenkfeld, shwSnk'felt, (KASPAR,) founder of a
sect called by his name, was born at Ossig, in Silesia, in
1490. He embraced with zeal the cause of the Refor
mation, but differed from the other Protestants in his
views of the eucharist, (he deified the body of Christ,)
and in other points of Christian doctrine. He died about
1560. A number of his followers took refuge in North
America in 1733.

Schwerin, von, fon shwSh-reen', (KURT CHRIS-
TOPH,) COUNT, a distinguished commander, born in
Swedish Pomerania in 1684. He served under Eugene
and Marlborough, and subsequently in the army of
Frederick the Great of Prussia, who raised him to the
rank of field-marshal and made him a count. He gained
a signal victory over the Austrians at Mollwitz, in 1741.
He was killed at the battle of Prague, in 1757.

See VARNHAGEN VON ENSE, " Leben des Grafeo von Schwerin,"
1841 ; KOENIG, " Lebensbeschreibung des Grafen von Schwerin,"
1790; PAULI, "Leben grosser Helden ;" "Nouvelle Biographic
Gen^rale."

Schwetschke, shwStsh'keh, (KARL GUSTAV,) a Ger-
man author, born at Halle, April 5, 1804. He was
educated at Heidelberg, and became a journalist and
Dolitician, opposing in 1848 both republicans and reac-
iionists. His writings, often satirical, include a " His-
tory of Printing at Halle," (1840,) " Nova: Epistolae Ob-
scurorum Virorum," (1849,) " Novse Epistolae Clarorum
Virorum," (1855,) "Poems of a Protestant Friend," a
Bismarckiad," a " Varziniad," and some comic political
songs. His chief fame, however, is that of a bibliog-
rapher. Died at Halle, October 4, 1881.

Schwilgue, shvel'ga', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French
mechanician, born at Strasburg in 1776. He invented
several useful instruments, and reconstructed the ad-
mirable mechanism of the clock of the Strasburg Cathe-
dral. Died in 1856.
Schyrle. See RHEITA, VON.

Scialoia, sha-lo'yl or she-1-lo'yl, (ANTONIO,) an
Italian jurist, born near Naples in 1817, published "Prin-
ciples of Social Economy," etc. Died in 1877.
Sciarpelloni. See CREDI, DI.
Scid'more, (ELIZA RUHAMAH,) an American
author, born at Madison, Wisconsin, in 1856. She
published "Alaska," " Jinriksha Days in Japan,"
" Java, the Garden of the East," etc.

Scina, she-na', (DoMENlco,) an eminent Italian
mathematician and scientific writer, born at Palermo in
1765, became professor of physics in his native city. He
was the author of a " Report on the Fossils of Mar-
dolce," etc., " Introduction to Experimental Physics,"
(1803,) "Memoirs of the Life and Philosophy of Em-
pedocles," (1813,) "Topography of Palermo and its
Environs," (1818,) "View of the Literary History of
Italy in the Eighteenth Century," (3 vols., 1827,) "Ex-
periments and Discoveries in Electro-Magnetism," and
other works, which are highly esteemed. Died in 1837.

D. Scini," 1846 :
LA, " Eseqme alia
.

Scioppius, stse-op'pe-fis, [Ger. SCHOPP, shop,] (CAS-
PAR,) a celebrated classical scholar, born at Neumark,
in the Palatinate, in 1576. Having visited Rome, he
was patronized by the pope and renounced the Prot-
estant religion. He was afterwards created a count
palatine by the Emperor of Austria. Amongjiis numer-



See S. COSTANZO, " Vida publics y privada de D. Scini," 1
MALVICA, " Elogio di D. Son V 1838 ; D. AVELL
Memoria di D. Scini," 1838.



Grammatica Philosophica," or Institutes of Latin Gram-
mar. He also wrote a number of controversial works
against the Protestants and their leaders, particularly
Henry IV. of France and James I. of England. Sciop-
pius was one of the most learned men of his time ; but
he was equally conspicuous for his intolerance and
quarrelsome propensities. Died in 1649.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical DLrionary ;" NlciRoN,
" Me"moires :" C. NISARD, " Les Gladiateurs de la Ri<pubfique del
Lettres;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"neVale."

Scipio, slp'e-o, [Gr. Z/HTTK., ; Fr. SciPION, se'pe'AN' ;
It. SCIPIONK, she-pe-o'na,] the name of an illustrious
Roman family of the patrician gens Cornelia. The word



i, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, j?, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nftt; good; moon;



SCIPIO



2155



SCIPIO



Scipie signifies a "staff" or "stick." The first member
of this family that appears in history was PUBLIUS
CORNELIUS SCIPIO, who was appointed master of the
horse by the dictator Furius Camillus in 396 B.C. He
was consular or military tribune in 394, and interrex in
389 B.C. A PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO, probably a
son of the preceding, was one of the curule asdiles
appointed in 366 B.C. Lucius CORNELIUS SCIPIO was
consul in 350 B.C. PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO BAR-
BATUS was chosen dictator in 306 and pontifex maximus
in 305 B.C. Lucius CORNELIUS SCIPIO BARBATUS was
consul in 298 B.C., and defeated the Etruscans. He
was the father of CNEIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO ASINA
(see separate article) and of Lucius CORNELIUS, who
was consul in 259 B.C. and defeated the Carthaginians
in Sardinia and Corsica.

Scipio, [Fr. SCIPION, se'pe'oN',] (PUBLIUS CORNE-
LIUS,) a Roman commander, father of the great Scipio,
(surnamed " Africanus,") was consul in the first year of
the second Punic war, 218 B.C. He commanded the
army of Northern Italy when Hannibal crossed the Alps
on his way to Rome. Scipio met the enemy near the
Ticino, where he was defeated and severely wounded.
Soon after this event the other consul, Sempronius, took
command of the army, which was again defeated, with

treat loss, on the Trebia, 218 B.C. Scipio was sent to
pain in 217, and fought many battles against the Car-
thaginians in that peninsula. He was defeated and
killed in 211 B.C.

See LIVY, " History of Rome."

Scipio, or, more fully, Scipl-o Af-rl-ca'nus
Ma'jor, [Fr. SCIPION L'AFRICAIN, se'pe'iN' If'fRe'-
kaN',] (PUBLIUS CORNELIUS,) an illustrious Roman com-
mander, a son of the preceding, was born in 235 or 234
B.C. After he had assumed the toga virilis, he was accus-
tomed to pass several hours each morning in the Capi-
tol in solitary devotion or meditation. He gained in his
youth the confidence of the people, who were persuaded
that he was a special favourite of the gods. It is also
stated that he professed to seek and receive divine coun-
sel, by which his public conduct was directed. He fought
at the battle of the Ticino, and rescued his wounded father
there, in 218 B.C. In 216, as military tribune, he took
part in the battle of Cannae. Scipio and Appius Claudius
were appointed commanders of the troops which escaped
from that battle. He was elected aedile in 212 B. c., and
appointed commander-in-chief of the army in Spain in
2io. He took New Carthage (Cartagena) in the first
campaign, and his personal influence or liberal policy
induced many native chiefs to become allies of Rome.
In 209 he gained a great victory over Hasdrubal in the
south of Spain. Another decisive victory at Silpia,
Canno, or EHnga, in 207, rendered him master of nearly
all Spain. Soon after this event he crossed over to
Africa with a few attendants, and attempted to gain the
alliance of Syphax. Having completed the conquest of
Spain, in 206 B.C. he returned to Rome, and was elected
consul for 205, although he was under the legal age. He
at once resolved to carry the war into Africa, although
Hannibal still remained in Italy. This plan was opposed
by Fabius Maximus and other senators. Scipio obtained
Sicily as his province, with permission to cross into
Africa ; but the senate refused to grant him an army for
that purpose. He thereupon raised an army of volun-
teers, invaded Africa in 204, and was joined by King
Massinissa. He defeated Hasdrubal (son of Gisco) and
Syphax in several battles, after which the Carthaginians
recalled Hannibal for the defence of their capital. The
question of peace was discussed by Scipio and Hanni-
bal in a personal interview ; but they failed to agree on
the terms. In October, 202, Scipio defeated Hannibal
In the memorable battle of Zama, which decided the
fert of Carthage. On his return to Rome, in 201, he
was received with great enthusiasm, and obtained the
surname of AFRICANUS. The people proposed to make
him dictator for life ; but he declined the honour. H
was chosen censor in 199, and consul in 194 B.C.

* Chaucer calls him simply AFFRIKAN, obviously a corruption of
Africanus. (See " Assembly of Foules.")



In the year 190 he volunteered to serve as legate of
his brother, Lucius Scipio, who was then consul, and
who commanded in the war against Antiochus of Syria.
The two Scipios defeated Antiochus, and ended the war
by a treaty of peace. About 187 B.C. Africanus and his
brother were publicly accused of receiving bribes from
Antiochus. Lucius was first tried, and condemned to
pay a large fine. Africanus, in defiance of the law, res-
cued his brother from the officer who was dragging him
to prison. He was afterwards prosecuted, and made a
speech in his defence, which was partially successful, as
his enemies and judges abandoned the case. Deeply
affected by the ingratitude of the people, he left Rome,
never to return, and died at Liternum in 183 B.C., in the
same year as Hannibal. He had married /Emilia, a
daughter of L. j*Emilius Paulus, and left two sons and
two daughters, one of whom was the famous Cornelia.
With the exception of Julius Caesar, (and perhaps ot
Sertorius,) Scipio was probably the greatest military
genius that Rome ever produced. He cultivated the
Greek language and literature. He had a high repu-
tation for generosity and clemency, but is censured by
some for his disregard of the forms of law.

See POLVBIUS, " History," books x.-xxiv. ; Liyv, " History of
Rome," books xxi.-3coux. ; SERAN DH LA TOUR, " Histoire de Scipioo
rAfricain." 1738: "Nouvelle Biographic GeneVale;" "Memoirs of
the Life of the Elder Scipio Africanus," by RHV. EDWABD BER-
WICK.

Scip'io.aimilia'nuB Africa'nusMi'nor,(PuBLius
CORNELIUS,) a famous Roman general, born about 185
B.C., was a son of ^Emilius Paulus, and an adopted son
of Publius Cornelius Scipio, whose father was the great
Scipio. He was liberally educated, and was well versed
in Greek literature and philosophy. In 168 B.C. he fought
at the battle of Pydna, where his father commanded.
He formed an intimate friendship with the historian
Polybius, who became the companion of his studies and
military expeditions. As military tribune, he went to
Spain in 151 B.C., and signalized his courage in a single
combat with a gigantic Spanish chief, whom he killed.
In the third Punic war, which began about 149, he dis-
played great military ability in Africa. Having returned
to Rome in 148, he was elected consul for 147, and ob-
tained Africa as his province. He finished the Punic war
by the capture and destruction of the city of Carthage in
146 B.C., and was granted a splendid triumph at Rome for
this victory. In the year 142 he became censor with L.
Mummius. He endeavoured to restrain the growing
love of luxury of the Romans and to maintain the simple
habits and austere virtues of their ancestors ; but in this
he was not successful. Having been elected consul, 134
B.C., he obtained the chief command in Spain, and took
Numantia, after along and obstinate defence, in 133. He
was an inflexible supporter of the aristocratic party, and
approved the execution of Tiberius Gracchus, although
his wife Sempronia was a sister of that tribune. He lost
his popularity by his course in this affair. He was found
dead in his bed in 129 B.C. The public suspected that
he was murdered ; but no person was convicted of the
crime. Scipio was eminent for his learning, and was
one of the most eloquent Roman orators of his time.
Cicero expresses a high opinion of him in his book
"De Republica." A report prevailed among the an-
cients that he assisted Terence in the composition of
his plays.

See POLYBIUS, books inocii.-xxxix. : CARLO Sicomo, " De Vita ei
Rebus gestis P. Scipionis," 1569: F. D. GBRUICH, "Tod des P.
C. Scipio jEmilianus." 1839; L. NORMANN, " Scipio Africanus M'-
nor," Upsala, i6S3 ; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Scipl-o A-si-atl-cus or A-si-ag'e-nes, [Fr. So
PION L'ASIATIQUE, se'pe'oN' IS'ze'i'tek',] (Lucius COR-
NELIUS,) was a brother of Africanus Major. He was
chosen praetor in 193 B.C., and consul in 190, when he
obtained the province of Greece. With the aid of his
brother, he defeated Antiochus at Mount Sipylus in 190,
i. few years after which he was fined for taking a bribe
from that king.

Scipio Asiaticus, (Lucius CORNELIUS,) was a par
tisan of Marius in the civil war, and became consul with
C. Norbanus in 83 B.C. He marched against Sulla in
that year, but was deserted by his troops, and went into
exile in 82 B.C.



; $ass;gAar<t; gas/; G, H, K.,guttural; K,nasal;ti,tri!ltJ; sasi; thasinM.



Explanations, p. 23.;



SCIPIO



2156



SCOTT



Scip'io Aal-na, (CNEIUS CORNELIUS,) a Roman
commander, was consul with C. Duilius in 260 B.C. He
obtained command of a fleet, and was taken prisoner by
the Carthaginians. He became consul again in 254 B.C.
His son PUBLIUS CORNELIUS was consul in 221 B.C., and
interrex in 217.

Scip'io Cal'vus, (CNEIUS CORNELIUS,) a Roman
general, became consul with M. Claudius Marcellus in
222 B.C. He went to Spain in 217 B.C. as legate of his
brother, Publius Cornelius Scipio, with whom he served
about eight years against the Carthaginians in the second
Punic war. He was killed in Spain in 211 B.C.

Scip'io His-pal'lus, (CNEIUS CORNELIUS,) a nephew
of the preceding, was consul in 171 B.C. He had a son
of the same name, who was praetor in 139 B.C.

Scip'io Na-sl'ca, (PUBLIUS CORNELIUS,) a Roman
consul and jurist, was a son of Cn. C. Scipio Calvus, who
was killed in Spain in 211 B.C. He was praetor in 194,
and served with distinction in Spain in 193. Having
been chosen consul for 191 B.C., he gained a victory over
the Boii. He died after 171 B.C.

Scip'io Nasi'ca Cor'cu-lum, (Pusnus CORNE-
LIUS,) a son of the preceding, was an able jurist. He
married a daughter of Scipio Africanus Major. He was
censor in 159 B.C., and consul in 155. During his con-
sulship he procured the demolition of a new theatre, as
injurious to the public morals. He became pontifex
maximus in 1508.0.

Scip'io Nasi'ca Se-ra'pl-o, (PUBLIUS CORNELIUS,)
a son of the preceding, was a violent partisan of the
aristocracy. He became consul in 138 B.C. with D.
Junius Brutus, and was the leader of the party which
assassinated Tiberius Gracchus in 133.

His son, PUBLIUS CORNELIUS SCIPIO NASICA, was
consul in III B.C. He was greatly distinguished for wit
and humour. He left a son of the same name, who was
praetor in 94 B.C. This last was the father of Q. Metellus
Pius Scipio, the father-in-law of Pompey the Great. (See
METELLUS.)

Scipion, the French for SCIPIO, which see.

Scla'ter, (PHILIP L.,) F.R.S., an English naturalist,
born in 1829. He published several treatises on birds,
and edited " The Natural History Review."

Sclo'pis, (Count FEDERIGO,) an Italian senator and
lawyer, born in Turin in 1798. He became a senator
in 1849, and president of the senate in 1857. He pub-
lished, besides other works, a " History of Italian Legis-
lation," (3 vols., 1840-57.) Died March 8, 1878.

Scolari, sko-la'ree, (FlLlPPO,) Count of Ozora, called
PIPPO SPANO, (pep'po spa'no,) an Italian general, born
at Florence in 1369. He rendered important services
to the emperor Sigismund. Died in 1426.

Scol'lard, (CLINTON,) an American author, born
at Clinton, New York, in 1860. He was professor of
literature in Hamilton College 1888-96. He pub-
lished several volumes of poems, also " Under Sum-
mer Skies," "A Man at Arms," etc.

Scoorel. See SCHOREEL.

Sco'pas, [2mra-af,] an eminent Grecian sculptor and
architect, born in the island of Paros, is supposed to
have flourished after 400 B.C. Among his master-pieces
in sculpture Pliny mentions a number of figures, repre-
senting Neptune, Thetis, the Nereids, etc., mounted on
dolphins, and statues of Venus, Vesta, and Apollo. He
also assisted in executing the celebrated monument to
Mausolus about 350 B.C. The temple of Minerva Alea
at Tegea was constructed by Scopas.

See PLINY, "Natural History ;"Sl'.LTG, " Catalogus Artificum;"
NAGLBR, "Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon ;" " Nouvelle Biographic
GeneVale."

Scopoli, skop'o-lee, (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) a cele-
brated naturalist, was born at Cavalese, in the Tyrol, in
1723. He became professor of mineralogy at Schemnitz
in 1766, and in 1777 filled the chair of natural history at
Pavia. He was the author of " Entomologia Carniolica,"
"Flora Carniolica," (1769,) " Crystallographia Hunga-
rica," (1776,) and other scientific works. He was a friend
of Linnaeus, who named a plant in his honour. Died
in 1788.

See MAIRONI DA PONTE, " Elogio del Dottore G. A. Scopoli,"
1811 ; TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiam illustri."



ScoreS'bjf, (WILLIAM,) a celebrated English navl-
gator, born in Yorkshire in 1760. Having engaged in
the Greenland whale-fishery, he made his first voyage
in 1791. His voyages, amounting to thirty in all, were
eminently successful, he having returned from one of
them with thirty-six whales. He made a number of
improvements in the apparatus for whale-fishing, and
invented the cylindrical observatory attached to the main-
top-mast, called the "round top-gallant crow's-nest*
Died in 1829.

Scoresby, (WILLIAM,) D.D., F.R.S., an Arctic navi-
gator, a son of the preceding, was born in 1789. In
1806 he served as chief mate to his father in a voyage
which extended to latitude 81 12', a point nearer the
north pole than any other navigator had reached. He
published in 1820 a valuable "Account of the Arctic
Regions, with a History of the Northern Whale-Fish-
ery." He ceased to follow the sea, studied at Cam-
bridge, graduated in 1834, and was ordained a priest. He


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 294 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425

Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 294 of 425)