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became vicar of Bradford, Yorkshire. Among his works
are " Memorials of the Sea," and "My Father: being
Records of the Adventurous Life of William Scoresby,
(1851.) He wrote several papers on magnetism and the
influence of iron ships on the mariner's compass. Died
in 1857.

Scorza, skoRd'za, (SlNlBALDO,) an Italian painter,
born at Voltaggio in 1589. He painted landscapes with
animals; also mythological subjects. Died in 1631.

Scot, (ALEXANDER, or SANDERS,) "the Scottish
Anacreon," a poet, born about 1502. He was a Protes-
tant, but addressed " Ane New Yere Gift" to Mary,
Queen of Scots, in 1562. He is one of the most finished
and pleasing writers of his time. Many good examplei
of his verse are extant

Scot, (REGINALD,) a learned English writer and Re-
former, published a work entitled " The Discoverie of
Witchcraft," in which he boldly condemns the super-
stitions of the time. It was against this book, and that
of Wierus, that James I. of England wrote his " Demon-
ologie," in which he says that Scot " is not ashamed in
public print to deny that there can be such a thing as
witchcraft." Died in 1599.

Scott, (AUSTIN,) an American educator, was born
at Maumee, Ohio, in 1848, and graduated at Yale in
1869. He was private secretary to George Bancroft,
the historian, 1872-73, and aided Mr. Bancroft in
arranging material for his " History of the Constitu-
tion of the United States" 1875-82. He was professor
of history at Rutgers College 1883-90, and became
president of that college in 1890.

Scott, (CLEMENT WILLIAM,) an English author,
born at London in 1841. He published several vol-
umes of poems and works of holiday travel in Eng-
land, also "Cheery Ceylon," (1893,) and "Pictures
of the World," (1894.)

Scott, (DAVID,) a Scottish writer of East Lothian,
(b. 1675, d. 1742,) was author of a " History of Scotland."

Scott, (DAVID,) a Scottish painter, born at Edin-
burgh in 1806. He resided for a time at Rome, where
lie produced several large pictures. Among his best
works may be named " Vasco da Gama encountered by
the Spirit of the Storm in passing the Cape," "The
Genius of Discord," and " Orestes pursued by Furies."
He published " Essays on the Characteristics of the
Great Masters," and other works on art. Died in 1849.

Scott, (GEORGE GILBERT,) an eminent English archi-
tect, born near Buckingham about 1810. Among his
most admired edifices are the Gothic church of Saint
Nicholas at Hamburg, in Germany, and the cathedral
of Saint John, in Newfoundland. He furnished the
design for the Hotel de Ville at Hamburg, which may be
considered one of the finest Gothic structures of recent
times. Mr. Scott was elected an associate of the Royal
Academy in 1855. He published " A Plea for the Faith-
ful Restoration of our Ancient Cathedrals," (1850,) and
"Some Remarks on Secular and Domestic Architecture,
Present and Future," (1857.) He died at London, March
27, 1878.

Scott, (GEORGE LEWIS,) a mathematician, born at
Hanover, was appointed one of the preceptors of George

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III. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society. Died in

Scott, (HELENUS,) a Scottish physician and writer,
who resided for some time in India, was the author of
a romance entitled " The Adventures of a Rupee." Died
in 1821.

Scott, JAMES,) an English divine, born at Leeds in
3733, became rector of Simonburn, in Northumberland.
He was distinguished as a pulpit orator, and was the
author of political essays published under the signature
of " Anti-Sejanus" and "Old Slyboots." Died in 1814.

Scott, JOHN.) See ELDON, LORD.

Scott, (JOHN,) an English divine, born in Wiltshire
in 1638, became prebendary of Saint Paul's, London.
He published a work entitled "The Christian Life."
Died in 1694.

Scott OF AMWELL, (JOHN,) an English poet, born at
Bermondsey, near London, about 1736, was a member of
the Society of Friends. He wrote, besides other works,
"Amwell, a Descriptive Poem," (1776.) Died in 1783.

Scott, (JOHN,) an English journalist, and first editor of
the "London Magazine," was killed, in 1821, in a duel
resulting from a dispute with the editor of " Blackwood's
Magazine." He published " A Visit to Paris in 1814."

Scott, (JULIAN,) an American artist, born at Johnson,
Vermont, February 14, 1846. In 1861 he entered the
United States volunteer army, and while in the service
made sketches which won much attention. His principal
pictures are battle-scenes, "Cedar Creek," (1870,) in
the Vermont State-house, " White-Oak Swamp," "Gold-
en's Farm," "Antietam," etc. He was appointed in
1890 special government agent to report on the condi-
tion of several tribes of Western Indians.

Scott, (LEVi,) a Methodist bishop, born near Odessa,
Delaware, October n, 1802. In 1825 he became a
preacher, and in 1852 he was made a bishop of the
Methodist Episcopal Church. Died July 13, 1882.

Scott, [Lat. SCO'TUS,] (Sir MICHAEL,) a Scottish
writer, celebrated for his learning, is supposed to have
been a native of Fifeshire. He passed several years
In France, and at the court of the German emperor
Frederick II. Among the principal works attributed
to him are the "Philosopher's Banquet," ("Mensa Phi-
losophica,") " Questio curiosa de Natura Solis et Luna,"
a treatise on the transmutation of silver and gold, and
a " History of Animals," (in Latin.) His uncommon
attainments in science caused him to be regarded as a
magician by his contemporaries ; and Sir Walter Scott
has introduced the legends concerning him, with great
effect, into his " Lay of the Last Minstrel." He is also
alluded to in Dante's " Inferno." Died about I2QO.

Scott, (ROBERT,) D.D., an English scholar, born in
Devonshire in 1811. He graduated in 1833 at Christ
Church, Oxford, became a Fellow of Balliol, and in 1854
master of that college. In 1861 he was made professor
of exegesis at Oxford, and in 1870 Dean of Rochester.
He is well known as one of the authors of " Liddell and
Scott's Greek Lexicon." Died December 3, 1887.

Scott, (SAMUEL,) a skilful English painter of land-
scapes and marine views. Died in 1772.

Scott, (THOMAS,) an English dissenting divine and
resident of Ipswich, published a poetical version of the
book of Job, (1774.)

Scott or Scot, (THOMAS,) an English prelate. (See


Scott, (THOMAS,) an English Calvinistic divine and
commentator, born in Lincolnshire in 1747. He became
curate of Olney in 1781, and rector of Aston-Sandford in
1801. He associated with Cowper and Newton at Olney.
He published, besides other religious works, a " Com-
mentary on the Bible," (1796,) which had an extensive
circulation, and a defence of Calvinism, (2 vols., 1811.)
Died in 1821.

See " Life of T. Scott," (partly autobiographical,) by his son,
JOHN SCOTT, 1822; ALLIBOME, "tDictionary of Authors."

Scott, (THOMAS FIELDING,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in Iredell county, North Carolina, March
12, 1807. He graduated at Franklin College, Athens,
Georgia, in 1829. He took orders in the Episcopal
Church, (1844,) and in 1854 was consecrated Bishop of
Oregon. Died in New York city, July 14, 1867.

Scott, (Sir WALTER,) a celebrated novelist and poel,
was born in Edinburgh, August 15, 1771. He was de.
scended from Walter Scott, the famous freebooter, known
in border story as " Auld Wat." His father, named also
Walter Scott, was a writer to the signet ; his mother.
Anne Rutherford, was the daughter of Dr. John Ruther-
ford, medical professor in the University of Edinburgh.
Walter was the seventh child in a family of twelve.
When he was about eighteen months old, he was attacked
with a fever, which left him, after a few days, with a
lameness that proved incurable. In 1779 he was sent to
the Edinburgh High School. In addition to the instruc-
tion received at school, he had a tutor at home, by whom
he was taught writing, arithmetic, and French, and from
whom he may be said to have also taken lessons in the
art of disputation. The pupil was a Tory and Cavalier,
the tutor a Whig and Roundhead, so that they never were
at a loss for subjects about which to argue. " I took up
my politics at that period," says Scott, " as King Charles
II. did his religion, from an idea that the Cavalier creed
was the more gentlemanlike persuasion of the two." He
studied Latin under the celebrated Dr. Adam, then rec-
tor of the High School ; and, though he seems to have
had but little relish for the details of syntax or prosody,
he was not, even at that age, without an appreciation of
the beauties of the Roman classics. " This was really,"
he observes in his autobiography, "gathering grapes
from thistles ; nor shall I soon forget the swelling of my
little pride when the rector pronounced that, though
many of my school-fellows understood Latin better,
GuaJterus Scott was behind few in following and enjoying
the author's meaning." "In the intervals of my school-
hours," says he, " I had always perused with avidity such
books of history or poetry, or voyages and travels, as
chance presented to me, not forgetting the usual, or
rather ten times the usual, quantity of fairy-tales, East-
ern stories, romances, etc." He left the High School, he
says, " with a great quantity of general information, ill
arranged, indeed, and collected without system, yet
deeply impressed upon my mind, and gilded, if I may
be permitted to say so, by a vivid and active imagina-
tion." About this time he read Hoole's translation of
Tasso's " Jerusalem Delivered ;" he likewise became
acquainted with Richardson's novels, and other works
of imagination. Having spent some months at the
house of a relative living at Kelso, the beauties of that
romantic spot, with the neighbouring ruins, appear to
have awakened in his mind that passionate love for the
beautiful and picturesque in nature, for which he was
afterwards so distinguished.

In 1783 he entered the university, and commenced
Greek under the learned and accomplished Professor
Dalzell. But, having no previous acquaintance with that
tongue, he found himself far behind the rest of the class.
" I could," he says, " hit upon no better mode of vindi-
cating my equality than by professing my contempt for
the language, and my resolution not to learn it." He
afterwards excited the utmost indignation of the pro-
fessor by writing a composition in which he endeavoured
to show that Ariosto was superior to Homer. In some
of his other collegiate studies he appears to have been
more successful. In moral philosophy he had the good
fortune to be instructed by Dugald Stewart, "whose
striking and impressive eloquence riveted the attention
even of the most volatile student."*

In 1786 he was indentured as an apprentice to his
father, and "entered upon the dry and barren wilderness
of forms and conveyances." He did not, however, dis-
continue the perusal of works of imagination. He even
studied Italian, and added an acquaintance with several
eminent authors in that tongue, as Dante, Boiardo, Pulci,
etc., to his previous stores of romantic and historic lore.

The following testimony from Scott's autobiography, in favour of
a solid and thorough education, is too important to be omitted. "If,

lected in my youth : that through every part of my literary career I
have felt pinched and hampered by my own ignorance ; and that I
would at this moment give half the reputation I have had the good
fortune to acquire, if by doing so I could rest the remaining part upon
a sound foundation of learning and science."

ras *; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (t^=See Explanations, p. 23.)


About the second year of his apprenticeship, in conse-
quence of an attack of hemorrhage, he was for several
weeks confined to his chamber ; during this time he
amused himself by representing the battles and sieges of
which he had read, by means of shells, pebbles, or other
objects. His recovery, though interrupted by one or two
relapses, was at length complete ; and from that time
until near his death he enjoyed the most robust health.

In 1792 Scott began the study of German, in which he
afterwards made such proficiency that (in 1796) he pub-
lished poetical translations of Burger's " Lenore" and
' Wild Huntsman." This was his first appearance be-
fore the public as an author.

In December, 1797, he married Charlotte Margaret
Carpenter, daughter of Jean Charpentier, of Lyons, a
devoted French royalist. She had been educated in the
Protestant religion, and when her father died, at the be-
ginning of the French Revolution, she and her mothet
fled to England, where they found a friend and protector
in the Marquis of Downshire, who had previously be-
come acquainted with the family during his travels on
the continent In 1798 Scott became acquainted with
M. G. Lewis, by whom he was prevailed on to furnish
several contributions to the " Tales of Wonder," a mis-
rellany gotten up under the auspices of Lewis. Scott's
translation of Goethe's famous historical drama, " Goetz
von Berlichingen of the Iron Hand," appeared in 1799.
The first two volumes of the " Minstrelsy of the Scot-
tish Border," a collection of ancient ballads that had
occupied his attention for many years, were published
in 1802. In the following year appeared the third vol-
ume of the " Border Minstrelsy," consisting of original
ballads by Scott and others. He contributed during
the years 1803-04 several articles to the " Edinburgh
Review." His poem " Sir Tristrem" was given to the
public in 1804. The " Lay of the Last Minstrel," which
had been commenced several years before, made its ap-
pearance in January, 1805, and at once gave its author
a place among the most distinguished poets of the age.
Its popularity was so great that more than forty thousand
copies were sold in Great Britain before 1830. "In the
history of British poetry," says Lockhart, (writing about
1833,) "nothing has ever equalled the demand for the
'Lay of the Last Minstrel.'" In November, 1806, he
began " Marmion ;" it was finished and ready for publi-
cation by the middle of February, 1808. "Constable,"
says Lockhart, " offered a thousand guineas for the poem
shortly after it was begun, and without having seen one
line of it; and Scott, without hesitation, accepted this
proposal." Two other booksellers, however, Miller and
Murray, were admitted to the honour of sharing in the
publication of the new poem.

Scott was zealously engaged, in the latter part of 1808,
in starting a new review, which, while espousing different
political views from those of the " Edinburgh," should, if
possible, rival that journal in literary ability and surpass
it in moderation and impartiality. The result of these
efforts was the " London Quarterly," the first number
of which appeared in January, 1809. The " Lady of
the Lake," the last of Scott's three great poems, was
published in May, 1810. In a critical notice of it in
the " Edinburgh Review," Mr. Jeffrey says, " Upon the
whole, we are inclined to think more highly of the ' Lady
of the Lake' than of either of its author's former publi-
cations. . . . There is nothing so fine, perhaps, as the
battle in ' Marmion,' or so picturesque as some of the
scattered sketches of the ' Lay,' but there is a richness
and a spirit in the whole piece which does not pervade
either of those poems, a profusion of incident and a
shifting brilliancy of colouring that reminds us of the
witchery of Ariosto." According to Lockhart, " the
' Lay' is generally considered as the most natural and
original, ' Marmion' as the most powerful and splendid,
and the ' Lady of the Lake' as the most interesting, ro-
mantic, picturesque, and graceful, of his great poems."
"The Lady of the Lake," says Prescott, "was welcomed
with an enthusiasm surpassing that which attended any
other of his poems. It seemed like the sweet breathings
of his native pibroch stealing over glen and mountain
and calling up all the delicious associations of rural soli-
tude, which beautifully contrasted with the din of battle


and the shrill cry of the war-trumpet that stirred tha
soul in every page of his ' Marmion.' " Twenty thou-
sand copies of the " Lady of the Lake" were disposed
of within a year after its publication, and not less than
fifty thousand were sold in Great Britain before the mid-
dle of 1836. In 1811, encouraged by the extraordinary
success of the "Lady of the Lake," Scott resolved, in-
stead of remaining a " tenant at will under a heavy rent,"
to purchase a freehold estate for himself. After some
deliberation, he fixed upon Abbotsford, (in the county
of Roxburgh, about twenty-eight miles southeast from
Edinburgh,) a beautiful site, commanding a view of the
Tweed, and of Melrose Abbey, the most graceful and
picturesque of all the monastic ruins in Scotland. The
great expense which he was tempted to incur in order
to improve and beautify this place became afterwards the
chief source of his pecuniary difficulties. The "Vision
of Don Roderick," a poem in the Spenserian measure,
came out in 1811. "Rokeby" appeared towards the
close of 1812 ; it was followed within two months by an-
other smaller poem, entitled the " Bridal of Triermain."
The latter, having been composed pan passv with
" Rokeby," was published anonymously. Coming out as
it did so soon after the other, many persons were led
to believe it must be the production of a different author.
Some eminent critics, indeed, regarded it as a very suc-
cessful imitation of Scott's style of composition, and.
while it was admitted that, as a whole, it fell below the
best works of the great master, it was pronounced to be
in some respects fully equal, if not superior, to them.
The popularity enjoyed by " Rokeby" was far from equal-
ling that of Scott's earlier poems. This was probably
due in part to the public having become, in consequence
of the great number of wretched imitations which had
appeared, surfeited with that kind of poetry, and per-
haps still more as Scott himself believed to the rising
influence of Byron's bolder and more impassioned genius.
The position of poet-laureate was offered to Scott on
the part of the prince regent in August, 1813, but-was
respectfully declined. In July, 1814, was published
" Waverley, or Tis Sixty Years Since," the first of that
marvellous series of novels which were destined to form
a new era in the history of romance, and to place the
name of Scott on the highest pinnacle of literary fame.

Contrasting " Waverley" with the coarse prosaic or
gossiping character of some of the previous popular
novels, Prescott observes, " But a work now appeared in
which the author swept over the whole range of charac-
ter with entire freedom as well as fidelity, ennobling the
whole by high historic associations, and in a style varying
with his theme, but whose pure and classic flow was tinc-
tured with just so much of poetic colouring as suited the
purposes of romance. It was Shakspeare in prose."

" Waverley" had been commenced nine years before,
but, discouraged by the criticism of one of his friends, Scott
had laid the work aside. He appears, however, not to
have wholly lost sight of it; for in 1810 he sent a por-
tion of it to his friend James Ballantyne the publisher,
desiring his opinion. Ballantyne, although severely
criticising some parts, warmly praised the humour and
spirit of the work ; and in reply to the question, " Should
the author go on ?" said, " Certainly : I have no doubt
of success, though it is impossible to guess how much.-"

In a letter to a friend, Scott says, " I had written a
great part of the first volume, and sketched other pas-
sages, when I mislaid the manuscript, and only found it
by the merest accident as I was rummaging the drawers
of an old cabinet ; and I took the fancy of finishing it,
which I did so fast that the last two volumes were written
in three weeks."

The work was published anonymously. Five editions
of it (in all, 6000 copies) were called for within less than
seven months. " ' Guy Mannering,' by the author of
'Waverley,'" followed in February, 1815. The name
" Waverley Novels" was afterwards applied to the en-
tire series of those wonderful fictions ; and their anony-
mous author was popularly styled "the Great Unknown."
The "Lord of the Isles," which Scott had had for some
time in preparation, was published a month before " Guy
Mannering." This is one of the most delightful of his
minor poems. If in its general tone it is not equal to

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" Marmion" or the " Lady of the Lake," it has occasional
passages which are scarcely if at all inferior to the finest
in those poems. "The Field of Waterloo," generally
considered as among the least successful of Scott's
poetical works, made its appearance in October, 1815.
" Harold the Dauntless," another poem, published in
1817, maybe regarded as the last of his efforts in this
line. He appears afterwards to have directed all his
energies towards working the new and richer mine of
prose fiction, which his genius had so lately opened.
Next to his ail-but unrivalled skill in the delineation of
character, and the graphic power and wonderful vivid-
ness of his pictures, whether of the scenes of tranquil
nature, or of the intense excitement and wild tumult of
battle, what most amazes us is the marvellous fertility
of his genius. There is in the whole history of literature
no other example of such rapid and inexhaustible pro-
ductiveness, if we take into consideration the character
as well as the number and extent of his writings, Lope
de Vega alone excepted. " Guy Mannering" was followed
by "The Antiquary," in May, 1816, "The Black Dwarf"
and " Old Mortality" appeared in December of the same
year, "Rob Roy" was published in 1817; and thus for
more than ten years he continued to pour forth, appa-
rently without effort, those brilliant and fascinating
fictions which quickly spread his fame not merely
wherever the English language was spoken, but to the
utmost limits of the civilized world. A list of his novels
and other prose writings will be given in another place.
In 1820, without any solicitation on his part or that
of his friends, the rank of a baronet was conferred on
Scott by the king. Up to his fifty-fifth year Scott ap-
pears to have experienced a degree of prosperity rarely
vouchsafed to mortals. His success as a writer had
been without example in the history of literature. He
had enjoyed in the largest measure not merely the ap-
plause of the multitude and the friendship of the great,
but what was far more, the universal esteem of those
whose esteem was most to be valued. His good sense,
his manly modesty, his unaffected kindness of heart,
and his nobleness of spirit, commanded the respect
and admiration of those who, from religious or party
prejudice, were the most opposed to him, for personal
enemies he had none. Perhaps the only considerable
weakness in his character was his ambition to found a
new family, which should constitute a distinct branch
of the famous house or clan from which he boasted his
descent. To accomplish this grand aim was the goal
of all his aspirations, the object of all his plans and
labours. By his friendship for the Ballantynes, whom he
had known from boyhood, he was induced not only to
intrust to them the publication of his works, but to be-
come a secret partner in their firm. He was thus com-
plicated in commercial speculations which were destined
to involve him in irretrievable disaster. He appears
to have reposed unlimited confidence in the prudence
and mercantile ability of the Ballantynes, as well as in
that of Constable, with whom they were commercially
connected. But Constable, though an able man, was
sometimes rash ; and James Ballantyne appears to have
been wanting in thorough business habits. The final
catastrophe was hastened by the commercial excitement
of 1825. After some months of painful suspense, the
storm at length burst, in all its fury, in January of 1826.
On examining into the state of their affairs, it was found
that Constable & Co. were able to pay only two shillings
and ninepence on the pound. The firm of Ballantyne
& Co., by allowing itself to be declared bankrupt, might
readily have come to a settlement with its creditors, had
not Scott been a partner. He would listen to no terms

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 295 of 425)