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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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of compromise ; all he asked for was time. He was
resolved to devote the remainder of his life, if necessary,
to the payment of his debts, even to the uttermost far-
thing. His heroic purpose was at last crowned with
success ; but it cost him his life. To be brief, from this
time forward he applied himself to his literary labours
with an assiduity arid zeal such as even he had never
exhibited before. Neither the attacks of severe indis-
position nor the overwhelming grief caused by the death
of his wife, (which occurred in May, 1826,) in the midst
of the other misfortunes, were allowed to interpose more



than a temporary interruption to the arduous task which
he had undertaken. In consequence of these unre-
mitting and unparalleled exertions, he had a severe
paralytic attack on the 151)1 of February, 1830; but he
recovered in a few weeks so far as to be able to resume his
labours. He had, however, another attack in Novem-
ber, 1830, and one still more severe in April, 1831. As
his health continued to fail, it was at length resolved, in
the autumn of 1831, that he should pass the winter in
Italy. He arrived in Naples in December, and re-
mained there till the middle of April, 1832. In one of
his letters, written while at Naples, he says, " My plan
of paying my debts has been thank God completely
successful ; and, what I think worth telling, I have paid
very near one hundred and twenty thousand pounds, with-
out owing any one a halfpenny, at least, I am sure this
will be the case by midsummer." After spending a short
time in Rome, he manifested a great anxiety to return
to his native country. He reached London on the 13th of
June. Four weeks later he arrived at Abbotsford, where
he died on the 3ist of September, 1832.

Scott has the rare distinction of uniting with his famo
as an eminently successful author a character as a man
remarkable not only for modesty, manliness, and com-
mon sense, but for a genuine kindliness towards all with
whom he came in contact

" As to Scott," says Washington Irving, " I cannot
express my delight at his character and manners. He
is a sterling, golden-hearted old worthy, full of the
joyousness of youth, with an imagination continually
furnishing forth pictures, and a charming simplicity of
manner that puts you at ease with him in a moment. It
has been a constant source of pleasure to me to remark
his deportment towards his family, his neighbours, his
domestics, his very dogs and cats ; everything that
comes within his influence seems to catch a beam of
that sunshine which plays round his heart," (" Life and
Letters," vol. i. pp. 381-2.)

Referring to a conversation about Goethe, which
Scott had with Mr. Cheney in Rome in the spring of
1832, the latter remarks, " He did not seem, however, to
be a great admirer of some of Goethe's works ; . . .
much of his popularity, he observed, was owing to
pieces which in his latter moments he might have
wished recalled. He spoke with much feeling. I
answered, he must derive great consolation in the re-
flection that his own popularity was owing to no sucb
cause. . . . He added, ' It is a comfort to me to think
that I have tried to unsettle no man's faith, to corrupt
no man's principles, and that I have written nothing
which on my death-bed I should wish blotted.' "

The following is a list of Scott's novels, with the dates
of their publication: "Waverley," July, 1814; "Guy
Mannering," February, 1815; "The Antiquary," May
1816 ; " The Black Dwarf and " Old Mortality," (forming
the first series of the "Tales of my Landlord,") Decem-
ber, 1816; "Rob Roy," December, 1817; "The Heart
of Midlothian," (" Tales of my Landlord," second series,)
June, 1818; "The Bride of Lammermoor" and "Legend
of Montrose," (third series of " Tales of my Landlord,")
June, 1819; "Ivanhoe," December, 1819; "The Mon-
astery," March, 1820; "The Abbot," September, 1820;
" Kenilworth," January, 1821 ; "The Pirate," December,
1821 ; "The Fortunes of Nigel," May, 1822; " Peveril
of the Peak," January, 1823; "Quentin Durward,"
June, 1823; "Saint Ronan's Well," December, 1823;
"The Red Gauntlet," June, 1824; "The Talisman" and
" The Betrothed," (" Tales of the Crusaders,") June, 1825 ;
" Woodstock," June, 1826 ; " Chronicles of Canongate,"
(containing the " Highland Widow," and other tales,)
November, 1827; "Fair Maid of Perth," April, 1828;
"Anne of Geierstein," May, 1829; "Count Robert of
Paris" and " Castle Dangerous," (fourth series of " Tales
of my Landlord,") November, 1831. Scott had written
in the department of history "The Life of Buonaparte,"
of which two editions yielded to the author's creditor!
the enormous sum of .18,000. Of the "Tales of a
Grandfather," a popularized history of Scotland, (dedi-
cated to his little grandson, John Hugh Lockhart,) the
first series appeared in December, 1827, the second was
completed in December, 1828, and the third in Decem-



e as *; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (JlSP'See Explanations, p. 23.)



SCOTT



2160



SCOTT



ber, 1829. A "History of France," constituting a fourth
series of the "Tales of a Grandfather," was published
in 1830. In addition to his poems, novels, and histories,
Scott wrote many books of less importance, among
which the following are the principal : a " Life of Dry



folk, written from the Continent after the Battle of
Waterloo," January, 1816; "Letters of Malachi Me-
Growther," March, 1820; "Letters on Demonology and
Witchcraft," December, 1830; miscellaneous writings,
including critical notices of various authors, etc.

Among those writers, of whatever age or country,
who have successfully attempted the delineation of char-
acter, Scott may justly claim to stand in the foremost
rank. Shakspeare, it must be confessed, surpassed him
in versatility as well as in depth and power ; Goethe was
undoubtedly his superior in that exquisite art which
seems to be only another name for nature herself; Field-
ing may perhaps be allowed to have excelled him in
the occasional representation of some individual char-
acter; Victor Hugo, Bulwer, and many others may
sometimes rise above him in that sort of interest which
is due to an artfully-devised plot or to the eloquent ex-
pression of intense passion. But if we take into account
ALL those qualifications which properly belong to this
kind of writing, such as the power of vivid description,
a just appreciation of the nice shades of character, an
easy and exquisite humour, a sustained interest, not
dependent so much on marvellous or startling occur-
rences, or on unheard-of and harrowing complications of
calamity, as upon the power and vividness of the repre-
sentation and the depth of genuine feeling evinced by the
author, if to such qualifications be added a healthy,
pure, and elevated moral sentiment, as far removed from
narrowness and bigoted austerity on the one hand, as
from affectation and extravagance on the other, we
cannot deny that, although many writers may have ex-
celled Scott in some one or two points, yet, "take him
for all in all," few have equalled and scarcely any have
surpassed him.

"Sir Walter Scott," says a writer in "Blackwood,"
" did for literature what Shakspeare did for the drama,
provided a long and gorgeous gallery of great, noble,
and sublime characters, that live in all memories, and
become, though they are fictitious, as real as if we all
of us had actually seen and conversed with them." (See
article on Charles Kean in "Blackwood's Magazine"
for April, 1868.)

Scott has often been called, on account of his marvel-
lous power of creating illusions, " the Great Enchanter."
" Great and good enchanter," says Miss Edgeworth ; " for
in his magic there is no dealing with unlawful means.
... In his writings there is no private scandal, no per-
sonal satire, no bribe to human frailty, no libel upon
human nature. . . . His morality is not in purple patches
ostentatiously obtrusive, but woven in through the very
texture of the stuff." (See Miss Edgeworth 's " Helen,"
vol. i. chap, xii.) It has often been urged as a reproach
to Scott that he had, on the one hand, such a high re-
spect for royalty and aristocracy, and, on the other,
such an aversion to everything like democracy. This
peculiarity or weakness, as some may call it was due
in part to an innate reverence for antiquity, which seemed
indeed to be an essential element of his mental consti-
tution, and in part to the influence of the French Revo-
lution, which occurred at that period of his youth when
the character is peculiarly susceptible of being moulded
by external circumstances. Indeed, not a few persons who
could boast of a cooler temperament, if not of stronger
intellect, were powerfully influenced by that strange and
terrible phenomenon, and some who otherwise would, in
all probability, have been ardent republicans, appear to
have lost by that event all confidence in the power of
the common people to govern themselves.

Walter Scott had two sons and two daughters ; his
tldest daughter, Sophia, was married in 1820 to Mr.
Lockhart, afterwards editor of the "Quarterly Review."
Their daughter was married a few years since to Mr.
Robert Hope, who, by act of Parliament, took the name



of Scott, and whose daughter, Miss Hope Scott, is the
possessor of Abbotsford, and the only surviving descend-
ant of Sir Walter. The eldest son, Walter, bom in 1799,
entered the army, and on the death of his father inherited
his title. He died on his return from India in 1847, anc >
with him the title became extinct. His younger
brother, Charles, born in 1805, had died previously.

See LOCKHART, " Life of Sir Walter Scott," 3 vols., 1835 : GEOKGB
ALLAN, " Life of Sir W. Scott :" JAMES HOGG, " Familiar Anecdotes
of Sir W. Scott," 1834: AMBDBB PICHOT, " Notice sur la Vie de W.



i bir w. Scott, 1034; AMBDKK ncHOT, i\ once sur la v ic oe w.
cott," 1821 : C. G. JACOB, "W. Scott; biographisch-literarischer
r ersuch," 1820: NAVLER, "Memoirs of the Life of W. Scott,"



Miscellanies:" " tdmburetl Review" tor April, iSoS. February,
1815, and March, 1817, (by JEFFREY:) "Quarterly Review" for




Scott, (WILLIAM.) See STOWELL, LORD.

Scott, (WILLIAM ANDERSON,) D.D., LL.D., an
American clergyman, born in Bedford county, Tennes-
see, January 30, 1813. When seventeen years old he
became a licensed preacher of the Cumberland Presby-
terian Church. He graduated at Cumberland College
in 1832, and studied divinity in Princeton Seminary, New
Jersey. In 1835 he was ordained to the Presbyterian
ministry, and served with great distinction as a pastor and
educator, chiefly in Tennessee, in Louisiana, and in San
Francisco, where he became president and professor of
theology in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary.
His books include "Trade and Letters," (1855,) "The
Wedge of Gold," (1856,) " The Bible and Politics," (1859,)
"The Pentateuch, an answer to Colenso," (1862,) "The
Christ of the Apostles' Creed," (1867,) " The Centurions
of the Gospel," (1867,) etc. Died January 14, 1885.

Scott, (WILLIAM BELL,) a Scottish poet and artist,
a brother of David Scott, the artist, was born at Saint
Leonard's, near Edinburgh, September 12, 1811. He
won some distinction as a historical painter. He removed
to London in 1838, and afterwards founded the Art
School of Newcastle-on-Tyne. Among his books of
verse are "Hades," (1838,) "The Year of the World,"
" Poems by a Painter," (1864,) etc. He wrote in prose
"Antiquarian Gleanings," "Half-Hour Lectures on
Art," " Life of David Scott," (1850,) a " Life of Diirer,"
(1869,) etc. Died November 22, 1890.

Scott, (WlNFlELD,) one of the most distinguished
of American generals, was born near Petersburg, Vir-
ginia, on the I3th of June, 1786. His paternal grand-
father, a native of Scotland, took part in the rebellion
of 1745, and, after the disastrous battle of Culloden, in
which his elder brother was slain, emigrated to Vir-
ginia, where he married, and engaged in the profession
of law. His son William married Ann Mason, a lady
of one of the most respectable families in the State. Of
the two sons of William Scott, who died in 1791, Win-
field, the subject of the present article, was the younger.
He studied law at William and Mary College, and was
admitted to the bar in 1806. In 1807 he became a
volunteer in a troop of horse, called out under the pro-
clamation which President Jefferson issued after the at-
tack on the Chesapeake, forbidding English war-vessels
to enter the harbours of the United States. During the
next session of Congress (1807-08) a bill was passed for
increasing the army ; and Scott was soon after appointed
a captain of artillery. In 1809 he was ordered to New
Orleans, to join the army under General Wilkinson.
Having indiscreetly censured the conduct of his gene-
ral, and even intimated his complicity with the treason
of Burr, Scott was tried by a court-martial, and sen-
tenced to be suspended for one year. What was de-
signed as a punishment proved, it would seem, a real
advantage to him. He spent the term of his suspension
in the diligent prosecution of studies connected with his
profession, and laid the foundation of that thorough
acquaintance with military science for which he became
afterwards so distinguished. On the breaking out of
the war of 1812 he was made a lieutenant-colonel and
ordered to the Canada frontier. In October, Genera'



a, 6,1, 6, u, y, long, a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat: mSl; nfit; good; moon



SCOTT



2161



SCOTT



Van RensseUer planned an attack on the British for:es
then occupying Queenstown Heights. Some time after
the action had commenced, Scott crossed over from
Lewiston, and arrived on the field. Colonel Van Rens-
selaer, who had the chief command of the American
troops on the Canada side, having been severely
wounded, Scott succeeded to the command. His ex-
hortations, supported by his heroic example, so in-
spirited his men that they drove back the enemy with
great loss ; and even after the British had been largely
reinforced by the arrival of General Sheaffe, they still
for a time bravely maintained the fight, though out-
numbered by more than three to one. Unhappily, at
this critical juncture, the main body of the American
army, which had not yet crossed the river, was seized
with a panic, and could not by any considerations be
prevailed upon to enter the boats. All hope of succour
being thus cut off, Scott was compelled to surrender his
entire force ; which he did with the honours of war.
Having been exchanged in the early part of 1813, he
soon after joined, with the rank of colonel, the army
under General Dearborn, in the capacity of adjutant-
general. He especially distinguished himself at the
capture of Fort George, Upper Canada, in May, 1813.
After braving incredible perils, he carried the place,
which he was the first to enter, and with his own hands
took down the flag that was waving over it. We cannot
here forbear to relate an incident which, while it shows
the magnanimity of Scott's character, may serve to re-
lieve for a moment the harsh and repulsive features of
" grim-visaged war." After Scott had been taken pris-
oner at Queenstown, a British officer asked him if he
had ever seen the neighbouring Falls. Scott answered,
" Yes ; from the American side." The other remarked,
"You must have a successful fight before you can see
them in all their grandeur," (the finest view being from
the Canada shore.) Scott rejoined, " Sir, if it be your
intention to insult me, honour should have prompted
you first to return me my sword." The officer was re-
buked by General Sheaffe, and the subject was dropped
for the time. At the capture of Fort George, this
same officer was taken prisoner in turn. Scott treated
him with every mark of attention and kindness, and at
last obtained permission for him to return to England
on parole. Overcome by this generosity, he said, with
feeling, " I have long owed you an apology, sir. You
have overwhelmed me with kindnesses. You can now
at your leisure view the Falls in all their glory."

In March, 1814, Scott was made a brigadier-general.
Soon afterwards, the troops of three brigades were
placed in a camp of instruction at Buffalo, under his
immediate supervision, and for three months were
thoroughly drilled in the modern French system of
tactics. The discipline thus acquired was of the greatest
importance in the operations of the ensuing campaign.
On the 3d of July, the American army, consisting of
Scott's and Ripley's brigades and Hindman's artillery,
crossed the Niagara River and captured Fort Erie. On
the 5th, the battle of Chippewa was fought, and the
British army under General Rial! was driven beyond the
Chippewa River. The 25th of July witnessed the hard-
fought battle of Lundy's Lane, (otherwise called " the
battle of Niagara,") on which occasion General Scott
had two horses killed under him, and was twice wounded,
the second time severely, by a musket-ball passing
through the left shoulder. It was after eleven o'clock
P.M. when the, fighting ceased, the Americans remaining
for the night in possession of the field of battle, al-
though, unhappily, for the want of water, they were
compelled to abandon it early the next morning. Several
months elapsed before Scott had recovered from his
wounds. For his eminent services he was raised to
the rank of major-general, and, not long after, Congress
passed a vote of thanks, (November 3, 1814,) at the
same time requesting the Presidenj to bestow upon him
a gold medal " for his distinguished services" and for
his " uniform gallantry and good conduct in sustaining
the reputation of the arms of the United States." The
medal was afterwards presented to him by President
Monroe. The treaty of peace having been ratified by
the Senate in February, 1815, Scott was offered a seat



in the cabinet as secretary of war, which position, how-
ever, he declined. In the summer of 1815 he visited
Europe in a diplomatic as well as military capacity ;
and he afterwards received a letter of thanks from the
President, through the secretary of state, for the success
with which he had fulfilled his mission. He returned
to the United States in 1816 ; and the following year he
was married to the daughter of John Mayo, Esq., of
Richmond, Virginia.

In 1832 a war broke out between the Sac Indians,
under their chief Black Hawk, and the whites on the
northwestern frontier. Scott was ordered by the war
department to proceed to the scene of action ; but
Black Hawk was taken prisoner and the war virtually
brought to a close before he reached the place of his
destination. During the passage the cholera broke out
among his troops with a fearful fatality. On this oc-
casion General Scott exhibited traits of character more
rare, and certainly not less glorious, than those which
had won for him so brilliant a reputation on the battle-
field. Not satisfied with merely making such general
arrangements as were required for the proper attendance
of the sick, and such as were deemed necessary to pre-
vent the spread of infection, he visited and comforted
the suffering, and by his courageous example sought
to inspire the well with hope and confidence, which
was the more difficult because at that time the cholera
was almost universally regarded as contagious. When,
towards the end of 1832, the nullification difficulties
began in South Carolina, General Scott was sent by
President Jackson on a confidential mission to Charles-
ton, that he might take the proper measures to prevent,
or, if need be, to quell, the threatened insurrection. In
this difficult enterprise he displayed great tact as well as
prudence and firmness, and was completely successful.
On the death of General Macomb, in June, 1841, Scott
succeeded to the position of commander-in-chief of the
army of the United States.

After the commencement of the war with Mexico, in
the spring of 1846, the first campaign was made, and
the battles of Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and
Buena Vista were fought, under the conduct of General
Taylor. In 1847 vigorous preparations were made for
prosecuting the war on a more extensive scale, and
General Scott was directed to take the chief command
of the army in Mexico. A particular account of the
operations which followed belongs rather to history than
to a biography. Suffice it to say that if Scott had ac-
quired on the fields of Chippewa and Niagara the most
brilliant reputation as a gallant and skilful soldier, in the
Mexican war he gave proof of strategic talents of the
highest order, and won for himself a place in the front rank
of the most distinguished generals of the age. He began
the campaign in March, 1847, by investing the city of
Vera Cruz, which, with the Castle of San Juan d'Ulloa,
capitulated on the 26th of that month, the garrison,
which consisted of about five thousand men, surren-
dering on parole. The army of the besiegers amounted
to about twelve thousand men. On the i8th of April
Scott attacked and took Cerro Gordo, a mountain-
fastness of great strength, defended by fifteen thousand
Mexicans under the command of Santa Anna himself.
Subsequently were fought the battles of Churubusco,
(August 20,) Molino del Rey, (September 8,) and Cha-
pultepec, (September 13,) all in the immediate vicinity
of the city of Mexico. Early in the morning of Sep-
tember 14 the army of General Scott entered the city
in triumph ; and at seven A.M. the American flag floated
over the National Palace. The treaty of Guadalupe
Hidalgo was signed February 2, 1848, and the Mexican
capital was soon after evacuated by the American forces.

In 1852, Scott was nominated by the Whig party as
their candidate for the Presidency ; but, in the subse-
quent election, General Pierce, the Democratic nominee,
was chosen President, Scott receiving the electoral vote
of but four States. In 1855 the honorary rank of lieu-
tenant-general was conferred upon Scott, with the pro-
vision that the title should cease at his death.

He worthily closed his long and illustrious public
career, by casting his powerful influence into the trem-
bling scale of his country's fortunes, at a time when not



as k; 9 as s; g hard: g as/; G, H, is.,guttural; N, nara/; R, trilled; s as z; th as in Mw.

136



Explanations. D.



SCOTT



2162



SCULTZ



only his native State, but a large number of his former
friends and comrades, in whom the nation once trusted
with unwavering confidence, were doing everything in
their power to strengthen the cause of rebellion. In
November, 1861, Scott resigned his active duties at
Washington, and retired to private life, though he re-
tained his full pay, according to a special provision
passed by Congress in the summer session. Having
sailed to Europe for his health, a few days after he
landed, the news of Mason and Slidell's capture arrived
in England. The danger of a war between Great
Britain and the United States appearing imminent, that
his country might not be deprived of his counsels or
services at so critical a moment, regardless of all merely
personal considerations, he at once returned to his
native shores. He soon after retired to his residence
in New York. He died at West Point in May, 1866.

See " Memoirs of Lieutenant-General Scott, written by Himself;"
jvols 1864; MANSFIELD, " Life of General Scott," 1846; HEADLEY,
" Life of Scott," 1852 ; "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished
Americans," vol. iv. ; MANSFIELD, " Mexican War," 1848.

Scott-Siddons, (MARY FRANCES,) an English reader
and actress, born in 1848. Her maiden name was Sid-
dons, and she was a great-grand-daughter of the cele-
brated actress Mrs. Siddons. In 1864 she married Mr.
Scott, a naval officer. She afterwards won great suc-
cess as an actress, and especially as a public reader, in
America, as well as in Great Britain. Died in 1896.

Scotti, skot'tee, (Giuuo CLEMENTE,) an Italian
writer, born at Piacenza in 1602. He joined the order
of Jesuits, but afterwards became their enemy. Among
his works is " Monarchia Solipsorum," (1645,) directed
against the Jesuits. Died in 1669.

Scotti, (MARCELLO,) a political writer, born at Naples
in 1742 ; died in 1800.

Scotus. See SCOTT and DUNS SCOTUS.

Scotua, (DUNS.) See DUNS SCOTUS.

Scotus, (JOHN.) See ERIGENA.

Scougal, skoo'gal, (HENRY,) a Scottish divine and
professor of philosophy at Aberdeen, was born in East
Lothian in 1650. His principal work is entitled "The
Life of God in the Soul of Man," etc. Died in 1678.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."


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