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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Jagemann, ya'geh-man', (CHRISTIAN JOSEPH,) a Ger-
man littlratntr, born at Dingelstadt in 1735, spent many
years in Italy. He translated several Italian works into
German. Died in 1804.

JSger or Jaeger, ya'ger, (GusTAV,) a German histor-
ical painter, born at Leipsic in 1808, painted some frescos
in the royal palace of Munich, and various oil-paintings,
which are highly commended. Died April 29, 1871.

JSger or Jaeger, (JOHANN WOLFGANG,) a German
Lutheran divine and theological writer, born at Stuttgart
in 1647 ; died in 1720.

Jag'gar, (THOMAS AUGUSTUS,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in the city of New York, June 2, 1839. He
took orders in the Episcopal Church, held rectorships in
New York and Philadelphia, and in 1875 was consecrated
Bishop of Southern Ohio.

Jagic, ya'gitch, (VATROSLAV, also written in Latin
eminent Croatian philologist, born at Warasdin, July 6,
1838. He was educated at Agram and Vienna. In 1871
he was called to the University of Odessa as professor
of comparative philology. In 1874 he was made pro-
fessor of Slavic languages at Berlin, and in 1880 took a
similar position at Saint Petersburg. Among his works
are a " History of Croatian and Servian Literature,"
(vol. i., 1867,) "Critical and Palxographical Essays,"
(1884,) etc. He has edited many Old Croatian, Glago-
litic, and Old Slovenian writings.

Ja'go, (RICHARD,) an English clergyman and poet,
born in Warwickshire in 1715. Among his poems may
be mentioned an " Elegy on the Death of a Blackbird,"
"Edgehill," and "Labour and Genius." Died in 1781.

Jalian-Geer or Jahanguire. See JEHAN-GEER.

Jalin, ySn, (FERDINAND HENDRIK,) a Danish histo-
rian, born at Neumiinster in 1789. He wrote on Danish
history. Died in 1828.

Jalin, ySn, (FRIEDRICH,) a German medical writer,
born at Meiningen in 1766; died in 1813.

Jahn, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) a German writer, born
at Lanz in 1778, published several treatises on gym-
nastics, an essay "On German Nationality," (1810,) and
other works. Died in 1852.

Jahn, (JoHANN,) a German Orientalist and Roman
Catholic priest, born in Moravia in 1750. He was
professor of Oriental languages at Vienna from 1789 to
1806. He wrote, besides other works, an " Introduction
to the Old Testament," (1793,) and " Biblical Antiquities,"
(1805,) both of which were censured as unsound and put
in the " Index" by the court of Rome. Died in 1816.

Jahn, (OTTO,) a German archaeologist, born at Kiel
in 1813. He became professor of philology at Leipsic
in 1847, an d published a "Life of Mozart," (1856,) and
other works. Died September 9, 1869.

Jahns, yans, (FREDERICK WILHELM,) a Prussian
musician, writer, and composer, born at Berlin in 1809.
In 1871 he published an excellent "Catalogue of Weber's
Works." Died August 8, iSSS.

Jahr, y3R, (GEORG HEINRICH GOTTLIEB,) a distin-
guished homceopathist, born at Gotha, in Germany,
January 30, 1801. He studied under Hahnemann, grad-
uated as doctor of philosophy in Germany, and as doctor
of medicine in Paris, (1840,) in which city he thenceforth
lived. Most of his numerous books (in German and
French) have been translated into English. Died at
Brussels in July, 1875.

Jaillot, zhfyo', (CHARLES HUBERT,) a French geog-
rapher and engraver, published some accurate maps of
France. Died in 1712.

Jaillot, (JEAN BAPTISTE RENOU,) a French geogra
pher, published " Researches in the City of Paris," (5
vols., 1772.) Died in 1780.


Jaina and Jains. See JINA.

Jakob, von, fon yJ'kop, (LuowiG HEINRICH,) a
learned German writer, born at Wettin in 1759, became
professor of political economy at Halle in 1816. He
published a "Manual of National Economy," (1805,)
and other esteemed works. Died in 1827.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jal, zhil, (AUGUSTE,) a French littfrateur and archae-
ologist, was born at Lyons about 1795. He published,

besides criticisms on art, " De Paris i Naples ; Etudes
de Mceurs, de Marine et d'Art," (2 vols., 1835,) and
" Arche'ologie navale," (2 vols., 1839.) His chief work
is the valuable " Dictionnaire critique de Biographic,"
often reprinted. Died April 5, 1873.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jalabert.zhi'lS'baiR', (CHARLES FRANC.OIS,) a French
historical painter, born at Nimes about 1815, obtained a
iredal of the first class in 1855.

Jalal-ed-Deen, (or -eddin.) See JELAL-ED-DEEN.

Jaley, zhS'li', (JEAN Louis NICOLAS,) a skilful French
statuary, born in Paris in 1802. Among his works are
statues of " La Pudeur" and " La Priere." Died 1866.

Jallabert, zhS'U'baiR', (TIENNE,) a French natural
philosopher and writer, born in 1658 ; died in 1724,

Jallabert, (JEAN,) a son of the preceding, born in
Geneva in 1712, filled the office of syndic of the repub-
lic. He wrote " Experiments upon Electricity," (1748,)
and several other scientific works. Died in 1768.

See DESGENETTES, notice in the " Biographic Me"dicale ;" " Nou-
velle Biographic Ge"ne"raJe."

Jam'bll-ehus, a native of Syria, who was enslaved
by the Romans under Trajan, flourished in the second
century. He subsequently obtained his liberty, and
wrote a romance, in Greek, entitled "Babylonics, or
the Loves of Sinonis and Rhodanes."

Jamblichus or Jamblicus, a Platonic philosopher,
and native of Syria. He flourished under the reign of the
emperor Julian, who dedicated numerous epistles to him.

Jam'bll-ehus or I-amTjlI-chus -ehal-ci-de'nus,
[Gr. 'la^Xifof / Fr. JAMBLIQUE, zhoNTMek',] an eminent
heathen philosopher, born at Chalcis, in Syria, flourished
in the reign of Constantino the Great, (306-37 A.D.) He
was a pupil of Porphyry, and was attached to the Neo-
Platonic school. Many of the Neo-Platonists encouraged
a life of ascetic meditation and a belief in magic and
divination. Their system was built on the doctrine
of emanation, that the souls of all beings, after the
requisite purification, return to the Source from which
they emanated. Jamblichus wrote a " Life of Pythago-
ras," a treatise on the " Mysteries cf the Egyptians,"
and several other works. To his influence is ascribed
the prevalence of magic, sacrifices, and superstition in
the Neo- Platonic philosophy.

See EUNAPIUS, " Vitae Sophistarum ;" RITTER, " History of Phi-
losophy;" FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grseca;" HEBKNSTRHIT, " Dis-
sertatio de Jamblichi Doctrina," 1764.

Jamblicus. See JAMBLICHUS.

Jamblique. See JAMBLICHUS.

Jamee, JamJ, or Djami, ji'mee, (Moolla-Nooi
ed-Deen- (Nour-ed-Din-) Abd-er-Rahman, mool'l J
nooR-ed-deen' Jbd eR-raH'man,) written also Djamy
and Dschami, a celebrated Persian poet, born at Jam, (or
Djam,) in Khorassan, in 1414, lived at Herat, where he
enjoyed the bounty of the Sultan Aboo-Saeed, (Abou-
Said.) Among his principal works are "The Chain
of Gold," (Sil'silet-zah'ab or -zeh'eb,) a collection of
satires, and " The Loves of Joseph and Zuleika, and Mej-
noon and Leila." He also wrote " Beharistan," (" Abode
of Spring,") a treatise on morality, in prose and verse,
which is admired for its graceful style as well as for its
sentiments. Jamee has sometimes been called " the Per-
sian Petrarch." He was devoted to the doctrine of the
Soofees ; and many of his poems are characterized by
the spiritual or mystical ideas of that sect Died in 1492.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale," article " Djami ;" OUSRLEY,
" Biographical Notices of Persian Poets ;" " Eraser's Magazh.e" for
November, 1856.

Jameray-DuvaL See DUVAL.

James [Sp. JAIME, Hi'mi] I, King of Aragon, sur-
named THE CONQUEROR, succeeded to the throne in
1213. He quelled an insurrection formed against him
by his nobles, and checked the encroachments of papal
power. Died in 1276. He was succeeded by his son,
Pedro III.

See T. DE SOTO, " Vida del Rey Don Jaime I. de Aragon," i6sz.

James IX, King of Aragon, surnamed THE JUST,
son of Peter III., was born in 1261. He ascended the
throne in 1291. He annexed Catalonia and Valencia to
his territory, and carried on long wars against Navarre
and the Moors. He was a brave, magnanimous, and
benevolent prince. Died in 1327.

c as k; 9 as s; g harJ; g as/; G, H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (

ee Explanations, p. 23.)




James 1 of England and VI. of Scotland was born in
the Castle of Edinburgh in June, 1566. He was the only
child of Mary Queen of Scots and her husband Henry
Lord Darnley, (called, after his marriage, King Henry.)
Both Queen Mary and Lord Darnley were grandchildren
of Margaret Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. of England.
It was through this princess that James claimed the
throne of England. In 1567 Lord Darnley was mur-
dered, James was placed under the care of the Earl of
Mar, and Queen Mary married Bothwell, and was soon
after made prisoner by the insurgent lords. Mary was
forced to abdicate in favour of her son, who was crowned,
as James VI., on the 2gth of July, 1567. During his
minority Scotland was fearfully rent by contending
factions and the violent disputes of the Protestants and
Catholics. The regent Morton having rendered himself
odious by his tyrannical acts, a successful conspiracy
was formed against him by a majority of the Scottish
nobles. Morton, however, on account of his Protestant
proclivities, soon regained his former influence. James
from the commencement of his reign exhibited a weak
and frivolous passion for favourites. His cousin Esme
Stuart, Lord D'Aubigny, a native of France, obtained
the principal ascendency over his onthful mind. Cap-
tain James Stuart held the second place in the king's
esteem. Lord D'Aubigny was created Duke of Lennox,
and Captain Stuart Earl of Arran. Both eagerly plotted
the destruction of Morton, who was put to death in
1581. In 1582 a company of nobles seized King James,
confined him in the castle of Ruthven, in Perthshire, im-
prisoned Arran, and forced Lennox to retire to France.
This revolt is known in history as the Raid of Ruthven.
At the expiration of ten months, James recovered his
liberty and reinstated Arran in his former power. In
1585 a treaty was concluded between the English and
Scottish sovereigns. Elizabeth conferred upon James
an annual pension of five thousand pounds, and through
her influence deprived the Earl of Arran of all emolu-
ments. In 1586 James formed another treaty with Eng-
land, offensive and defensive, for the protection of the
Protestant religion. In 1587 Mary Queen of Scots was
executed. James at first appeared insulted and enraged ;
he threatened to invade the dominions of Elizabeth;
but, feeling more interested for the inheritance of the
crown of England than for his honour or for filial duty,
he was soon pacified. In 1589 he married Anne, daugh-
ter of the King of Denmark. In 1594 he quelled a
rebellion of the Catholic lords. Bothwell also, having
taken part in this revolt, was obliged to fly from the
country, to which he never returned. James was an
earnest advocate of Episcopacy, and made strenuous
efforts to establish it in his dominions, in opposition to
the wishes of the people. On this account a tumult
was raised in Edinburgh in 1596, from which his life
appeared to be in imminent danger. But James, ex-
hibiting for him an unusual share of spirit and energy,
dexterously turned this to his own advantage. In 1600
he was decoyed to the castle of the Earl of Cowrie,
where Ruthven, brother of the earl, made an attempt
on the king's life, on which occasion both the noblemen
were slain. The Gowrie Conspiracy has always been
veiled in mystery, no historian having yet unravelled it.
On the death of Elizabeth, in 1603, James became
King of England. He displeased his new subjects by
the prodigality of his gifts to his Scottish favourites. He
continued the foreign policy of Elizabeth by concluding
a treaty with Henry IV. of France for assisting Holland
against Spain. In 1605, chiefly through King James's
penetration, the Gunpowder Plot was discovered. (See
FAWKES, GUY.) The year 1612 was marked by the death
of Henry, Prince of Wales, who by his manly and noble
qualities had been far more successful than his father in
winning the affections of the English people. In 1613,
James's daughter, the princess Elizabeth, was married
to Frederick, the Elector-Palatine. Among the king's
favourites were successively Sir George Hume, Philip
Herbert, Earl of Montgomery, and Robert Carr or
Ker, a young Scotchman who by his handsome person
monopolized the royal favour. He was created Earl
of Somerset In 1615 Carr was ried and convicted on
a charge of poisoning his friend Sir Thomas Overbury.

This made room for a new favourite, named Villiers, who
was created Duke of Buckingham, and who retained
his influence over the king during the remainder of the
reign. In 1617 James visited Scotland, where he was
very zealous in introducing episcopal forms into the
Established Church. In 1618 Sir Walter Raleigh was
executed on the pretended charge of conspiracy, but in
act to conciliate the court of Spain. The public con-
empt which this excited against James was increased
>y his behaviour towards the Elector-Palatine, whom
the Bohemians had chosen as their king, and who was
attacked by the united forces of Austria and Spain,
[ames pusillanimously refused to give his son-in-law
any assistance or encouragement Frederick had been
he Protestant champion of Europe, and the people of
Britain hesitated not to express their grief and rage.
During a long period James had wished to form a Span-
sh alliance for Prince Charles ; and he now hastened
the negotiations. This alliance was, however, broken
off through the rashness and insolence of Buckingham.
Finally, in 1624, war was declared against Spain, and
an army was fitted out to assist the Elector. Owing to
jestilence and mismanagement, this army never entered
:he Palatinate, which remained in the possession of th
Duke of Bavaria. James died in March, 1625, after a
reign of nearly fifty-eight years, during twenty-two of
which he sat on the throne of England. He had seven
children by his queen, Anne of Denmark, of whom only
Prince Charles and the Princess Elizabeth survived him.
" No prince," says Hume, "so little enterprising and
so inoffensive, was ever so much exposed to the opposite
extremes of calumny and flattery, of satire and panegyric.
. . . Many virtues, it must be owned, he was possessed
of; but scarce any of them pure or free from the conta-
gion of the neighbouring vices. His generosity bordered
on profusion, his learning on pedantry, his pacific dis-
position on pusillanimity, his wisdom on cunning, hi*
friendship on light fancy and boyish fondness." (Hume's
" History of England," chapter xlix. Respecting the
character of James, see, also, Gardiner's " History,"
referred to below, vol. i. chap. ii. pp. 55-57.) James was
the author of numerous works, which displayed con-
siderable learning and no little pedantry ; but the most
important of his labours was the supervision of the
present translation of the Bible, which will remain as a
lasting monument of his industry and munificence. The
translation was not only made under his immediate
superintendence, but the excellent rules by which the
translators were governed were drawn up by James him-
self. Among his works we may cite "Basilicon Doron,
or his Majesties Instructions to his Dearest Son, Henry
the Prince," "The Essays of a Prentice in the Divine
Art of Poesy," " The True Law of Free Monarchies,"
" Daemonology," and "A Counterblast to Tobacco."

WKLDON, and Sin E. PEYTON, with notes by SIR WALTER SCOTT, a
vols.,iSn; GARDINER, " History of England from the Accession of
James I. to the Disgrace of Chief- Justice Coke," London, 1863.

James LL of England and VTL of Scotland, son of
Charles I., and younger brother of Charles II., was born
at Saint James s, London, in 1633, and soon after was
created Duke of York. He was taken prisoner by the
Parliamentarians in 1646. In 1648 he escaped to Hol-
land, and went to Paris, where he remained nearly four
years. Having received a commission in the French
army, he served under Marshal Turenne until the peace
concluded between Cromwell and the French obliged
him to leave the kingdom. At the restoration, in 1660,
James accompanied his brother to England, where he
received the appointments of lord high admiral and lord
warden of the Cinque Ports. The same year he married
Anne, daughter of*Chancellor Hyde. In 1664 the Duke
of York was an earnest advocate of the war with Hol-
land. He took command of the fleet, and in June, 1665,
gained an important victory over the Dutch. In 1671
the Duchess of York died, and James avowed himself a
Roman Catholic. In 1672 war was renewed against Hol-
land, and James, as lord admiral, assumed the command
of the navy. In 1673 the Test Act was passed against
Catholics and dissenters. By it the Duke of York was

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, lonr; i. e. A same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 8, u, y\ short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon;


compelled to resign the command of the navy, and all
other offices which he held under government. The same
year he married Maria Beatrice Eleonora, daughter of
the Duke of M6dena. In 1677, greatly to the satisfaction
of the English nation, Mary, daughter of the Duke of
York, was married to her cousin William, Prince of
Orange, who was a Protestant.

In 1679, during the commotions of the Gates Popish
Plot, James retired to the continent. In his absence
a bill for excluding him from the throne was brought
before the Parliament. It was passed by the Commons,
but was rejected by the Lords. Upon the death of King
Charles, in 1685, James ascended the throne unopposed,
and promised to maintain and defend the Established
Church. He summoned a Parliament, which voted him
all the revenues his brother had enjoyed. Having de-
clared his intention of continuing the alliance formed
by Charles with France, he received from Louis XIV.
500,000 livres. Strong suspicions were soon excited
against the king by his arbitrary measures. It became too
manifest that he only intended to keep his promises until
he could break them with safety. He sent an agent to
Rome to promote the restoration of Roman Catholicism
in England ; he publicly attended the illegal celebration
of the mass, and laboured earnestly for the repeal of
the Test Act. The blindness of his zeal was so apparent
that even the pope advised him to exercise more caution.
In June, 1685, England was invaded by the Duke of
Monmouth, a natural son of Charles II. Monmouth
was totally defeated at Sedgemoor on the 5th of July,
was captured two days after, and executed. James now
exhibited his true character. Colonel Kirke and the in-
famous Judge Jeffreys were sent to the western counties,
which had been the principal scene of Monmouth's insur-
rection, and, by the king's express authority, perpetrated
a series of butcheries. Men were shot and hung with-
out the form of trial, and women were burned at the
stake for sheltering fugitives. In opposition to law, he
admitted Catholics to the highest rank in the army and
the navy. Protestants holding high offices of state were
discharged, and a court resembling that of the high com-
mission under Charles I. was established. Episcopal
dioceses were given to professed Catholics, and the Prot-
estant clergy were driven from the colleges of Oxford and
Cambridge to make room for foreign priests. In June,
1688, the queen gave birth to a son, who was suspected
to be spurious. Previous to this period, Mary, Princess
of Orange, had been regarded as the heir-apparent to
the crown, and the English people had hoped that at
length they would again be governed by a Protestant
sovereign. These hopes being now blighted, they ap-
plied to the Prince of Orange for assistance in an effort
to depose the king. He was prepared to accept the in-
vitation which they sent him ; and in November, 1688,
he landed in Devonshire, with about fourteen thousand
men. The king, deserted by the nobility, the gentry,
the army, his friends, and his servants, quitted the island
in December, and fled to France, where he was kindly
received by Louis XIV. Soon after, the Prince and
Princess of Orange were crowned, as King William III.
and Queen Mary. In 1689 James landed in Ireland with
a small force given him by Louis. He besieged London-
derry, which he was unable to take. On the 1st of July,
1690, King William, who commanded in person, totally
defeated James's army at the battle of the Boyne, and
firmly established his own power. James soon returned
to France, and resided at Saint Germain's until his death,
which occurred in September, 1701. As a king, he was
brave, determined, energetic. He did much for the im-
provement of the British navy ; he was industrious, and
frugal of the public money. But he was implacable in
revenge, and his blind bigotry cost him three kingdoms.
James had by his first wife, Anne Hyde, eight children,
of whom only Queen Mary and the Princess Anne sur-
vived him. By his second wife, Mary of Modena, he
had six children, two of whom outlived him. He also
had four children by Arabella Churchill, a sister of the
Duke of Marlborough, and one by Catherine Sedley.

See DAVID JONBS, "Life of James II.," 1702; J. S. CLARKB,
"Life of James II., King of England," a vols., 1816; BURNET, "His-
tory of his Own Times;" MACAULAY, History of England;" C
J. Fox, " History of the Early Part of the Reign of James II.,' 1808


James I., King of Scotland, of the house of Stuart,
and son of Robert III., was born about 1394. In I4OJ
his father sent him to France, in order that he might
escape the intrigues of the Duke of Albany ; but he was
seized by a British fleet, carried as prisoner to Lon-
don, and thrown into the Tower, whence, after remaining
there more than two years, he was taken to Windsor.
In 141 7, when King Henry V. invaded France, James was
obliged to accompany him. In 1424, after a captivity of
nineteen years, he was released and restored to his king-
dom. While the young king was in England, Henry V.
had given him a good education ; and, upon his acces-
sion to power, James commenced with energy and firm-
ness to reform the laws and customs of Scotland. During
his captivity Scotland had been governed successively by
the two Dukes of Albany as regents, who had increased
their own power and that of the feudal lords, to the
detriment of the royal authority. On the recovery of his
kingdom he resolved to check with a strong hand the
arrogance and lawlessness of the nobles. He seized his
cousin Murdo, Duke of Albany, his sons, the Earls of
Douglas, Lennox, Angus, and many other peers and
barons. All were reconciled to the king except the Duke
of Albany, his sons, and the Earl of Lennox, who were
tried and executed. This blow struck terror into the order
of nobles. The king continued to conduct his reforms
with ability and prudence. One part of his policy was
to raise the ecclesiastical power in order to balance that
of the barons. James had married Joanna Beaufort, a
lady of the blood-royal of England. Although the earls
at first received the innovations of the king in a spirit
of submission, they at length, perceiving the rapid decline
of their authority, formed a conspiracy against him, and
assassinated him in 1437. James had the reputation of
being one of the most accomplished princes of his day.
He produced several poetical pieces and songs, which
were greatly admired, and in which much literary taste
was displayed. There yet remains his " Kings Quhair."
Robertson justly remarks that " it was the misfortune of
James that his maxims and manners were too refined for
the age in which he lived. Happy had he reigned in a
kingdom more civilized. His love of peace, of justice,
and of elegance would have rendered his schemes suc-
cessful ; and, instead of perishing because he attempted
too much, a grateful people would have applauded and
seconded his efforts to reform and improve them."

See BUCHANAN, " Rerum Scoticarum Historia;" BURTON, "His-
tory of Scotland," vol. iii. chap. xxviL ; ROBERTSON, " History of

James II, son and successor of the preceding, was
born in 1430. He had for his adviser an able man,
named Crichton, who during his minority obtained chief
control of the government Crichton impressed on the
mind of the young monarch the necessity of further hum-
bling the nobility. But what James I. had attempted
to do slowly and by legal means, his son and Crichton
pursued with an impetuosity as unscrupulous as it was

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 30 of 425)