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to follow a party divided, distracted, weak, imbecile ?''
an intimation as to the political condition that the next
ensuing election proved to be entirely without founda-

That historic impartiality which belongs to the biogra-
phy of public men forbids us wholly to pass over those
errors and foibles which disappointed so many of Mr.
Seward's friends ; but we gladly turn from the considera-
tion of such topics to the contemplation of his long life
of usefulness, and especially of his eminent services to
his country in her late hour of trial. After retiring from
political life, he made a tour around the world, (1870-71,)
and died at Auburn, October 10, 1872.

See "Memoir of W. H. Seward," prefixed to his works, by
GKORCK E. BAKER, 3 vols., 1853 ; BARTLETT, " Modem Agitators/'

Sew'el, (WILLIAM,) M.D., a historian and linguist,
of English extraction, born at Amsterdam in 1654, was
a member of the Society of Friends. He published a
"Dictionary of the Dutch and English Languages,"
(1690,) and a "History of the Origin and Progress of
the Society called Quakers," (1717,) which is highly
esteemed. Died about 1725.

Sew'ell, (ELIZABETH MISSING,) an English High-
Church novelist, a sister of the Rev. William Sewell,
noticed below, was born in the Isle of Wight in 1815.
Among her novels are "Amy Herbert," (1844,) "Ger-
trude," (1847,) "Katherine Ashton," (1854,) "Ursula,"
(1858,) etc. She wrote also, for the young, histories of
Rome, Greece, France, and of the early Church, as well
as some educational and devotional works.

Sew'ell, (GEORGE,) an English physician and miscel-

laneous writer, born at Windsor, was a pupil of Boer-
haave. He published a "Vindication of the English
Stage," "Sir Walter Raleigh," a tragedy, and trans-
lations from Lucan and other Latin poets. Died in

Sewell, (Rev. WILLIAM,) an English writer and
teacher, born in the Isle of Wight about 1805. He
was a tutor or professor at Oxford University. He
published, besides other works, "Christian Morals,"
(1840,) "Christian Politics," and a version of the Odes
of Horace. Died November 14, 1874.

Sex'tl-ua, (CAius,) was elected Roman consul in 124
B.C., and was afterwards proconsul in Southern Gaul,
where he gained a victory over the Arverni. Near the
warm springs, where one of his battles was fought, he
founded the city of Aqua; Sextia;, now Aix-la-Chapelle.

Sex'tl-us, Sez'tua, or Six'tus, (Quixrus,) a
Roman Stoic philosopher, who lived about 50 B.C. and
is highly praised by Seneca. He is supposed to have
been the author of a book of moral aphorisms, (" Sen-
tentii,") which Rufinus translated from Greek into

Sex'tns [Sefroc] OF HERON/'E'A, a Greek Stoic
philosopher of the second century, was a nephew of
Plutarch, and a preceptor of Marcus Aurelius.

Sex'tus Em-pIr'I-cus, [Scfroc A'E/OTpiof,] a cele-
brated Greek skeptical philosopher and physician, whose
birthplace is unknown, flourished about 200 A.D. He
belonged to the medical sect of Empirici. He wrote
two works which have come down to us, name!y,"Against
the Mathematicians or Dogmatists," (" Adversus Mathe-
maticos,") and " Pyrrhonistic Sketches," (" Pyrrhon.-e
Hypotyposes.") These works are highly prized as docu-
ments for the history of philosophy. They contain all the
arguments and maxims of the ancient skeptics, and tend
to involve in doubt all the doctrines of science, religion,
and philosophy. The former work has been described
as "a perfect store-house of doubts regarding
imaginable phasis of human knowledge." ("Encyclo-
paedia Britannica.")

See C. JOURDAIN, "Sexrus Empiricus et la Philosophic scnlas-
tique," 1858 : TENNEMANN, "Gescliiclite der Philosophic;" "Nou-
velle Biographic Ge^rale."

Seybert, sl'b?rt, (ADAM,) an American mineralogist
and physician, born in Philadelphia in 1773, studied
in Paris, Edinburgh, and Gottingen. lie was a member
of Congress from 1809 to 1815. He published "Statis-
tical Annals of the United States from 1789 to 1818."
Died in Paris in 1825.

Seydelmann, sT'del-man' or zi'del-man', (JAKOB
CRESCENZ,) a German artist, celebrated for his admira-
ble drawings in sepia, was born at Dresden in 1750.
Among his master-pieces is a copy of Correggio's
"Night," Died in 1829.

Seydelmarin, (KARL,) a celebrated German actor,
born at Glatz, in Silesia, in 1795 ; died in 1843.

Seydlitz, von, fon sid'lits or zid'lits, (FRIEDRICH
WILHELM,) a Prussian general, born near Cleves in
1721, served in the Seven Years' war. For his distin-
guished bravery at the battle of Rossbach, in 1757,
he received from his sovereign the order of the Black
Eagle, lie became general of cavalry in 1767. Died

i" '773-

See VARNHAGBN von EHSH, " Leben des Generals von Serdlitz,"
1834: COUNT VON BISMARK, " Der General F. von Seydlitz," 1837
BLA&KBNBURG, "Charakter des Generals von Seydlitz," 1797.

Seyffarth, sif'faRt or zifflRt, (GoSTAV,) a German
antiquary and professor of archaeology at Leipsic, was
born at Uebigau, in the duchy of Saxony, in 1796. He
was the author of " Rudimenta Ilieroglyphices," (1826,)
and of " Principles of Mythology," and wrote a continua-
tion of Spohn's treatise "On the Language and Letters
of the Ancient Egyptians." In 1855 he became professor
in the Lutheran College ol Saint Louis, in the United
States. Died November 17, 1885.

See ALLISONS, "Dictionary of Authors."

Seyfried, sT'fKet or zi'fRet, (IcNAZ,) a German com-
poser, born at Vienna in 1776 ; died in 1841.


Seymour, see'mur, (EDWARD,) an English Tory
politician, was a lineal descendant of the Duke of Sera-

as t; 9 as s; g lard; g as/; G, H, K,giittural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as t; th as in this. (^jf^See Explanations, p 23.;





erset. who was Protector in the reign of Edward VI.
He was one of the most skilful debaters in the' kingdom.
He joined the party of William, Prince of Orange, in
l6SS In 1692 he was appointed a commissioner of the
treasury and member of the cabinet. He was removed
in 1694. He was factious in politics and licentious in
morals. Died in 1707.

See MACAULAY, " History of England, vol i.
Seymour, see'mur, (GEORGE FRANKLIN,) S.T.D.,
LL.D., an American bishop, born in New York city,
January 5, 1829, graduated with highest honours at
Columbia College in 1850, held important rectorships in
the Episcopal Church, founded Saint Stephen's College,
Annandale, New York, and was its warden, 1854-61, was
professor in the General Theological Seminary, New
York, 1865-79, and was its dean, 1875-79. In 1878 he
was consecrated Bishop of Springfield, Illinois. Bishop
Seymour is recognized as the most prominent leader of
the " High-Church" party in the American Church.

Seymour, (Sir GEORGE HAMILTON,) an English di-
plomatist, born about 1797. He was sent to Saint
Petersburg in 1851 as envoy-extraordinary and minister-
plenipotentiary. In 1853 Nicholas I. made to him over-
tures on the subject of Turkey, offering, it is said, to
co-operate with England in the spoliation of "the sick
man." He died February 4, iSSo.

Seymour, see'mur, ( HORATIO,) an American poli-
tician, born in Onondaga county, New York, in iSio.
He studied law, which he practised for several years in
Utica. He was nominated for the office of Governor of
New York by the Democratic party in 1850, but was
defeated by Washington Hunt Having been nominated
again in 1852, he was elected Governor for two years
by a large majority. In 1854 he was an unsuccessful
candidate for the same office. In the crisis of 1861 he
opposed the coercion of the secessionists. According
to Mr. Greeley, he was understood to urge the adhesion
of New York to the Southern Confederacy. (" American
Conflict," vol. i. p. 438.) He was elected Governor of
New York in 1862. About the ist of August, 1863,
he urged President Lincoln to suspend the draft, anc
insisted that the enforcement of the draft should be
postponed till the courts decided the question of its
constitutionality. He was president of the Nationa
Democratic Convention which met at Chicago in August
1864, and was again presented as a candidate for the
office of Governor in November, 1864, but was defeated
He was president of the National Democratic Conventioi
which met in New York, July 4, 1868, and wasnominatec
as the candidate for the Presidency of the United States
He received only eighty electora, votes, and was defeatcc
by General Grant.. Died February 12, 1886.

Seymour, (JANE,) was a sister of Edward, Duke ol
Somerset, and the third wife of Henry VIII., to whom
she was married in 1536. She was the mother of Ed
ward VI. Died in 1537.

Seymour, (Sir MICHAEL,) an English vice-admira!
born in 1802. He became a rear-admiral in 1855, anc
commanded the naval force which operated agains
Canton in 1857. Died February 23. 1887.

Seymour, (THOMAS,) Lord Sudely, lord high ad
miral of England, was a brother of Edward, Duke o
Somerset. He married Catherine Parr, a widow o
Henry VIII., and, after her death, became a suitor o
the princess Elizabeth. He aspired to be governor of th
young king, and to supplant the Duke of Somerset as
regent or protector. Having been convicted of treason
he was beheaded in 1549.

See HUME, "History of England."
Seymour, (TRUMAN,) an American general, born a
Burlington, Vermont, about 1824, graduated at Wes
Point in 1846. He was a captain in Fort Sumter when '
was bombarded in April, 1861 ; was made a brigarfie
general, and served in the battles of Anlietam, (1862
and Olustee, Florida, (1864) ; was capiured in the Wi
derness, but was exchanged, and served before Peters
burg to the close of the war. Died October 30, 1891.
Seymour, (WILLIAM,) Duke of Somerset, was
great-erandson of Edward Seymour, Duke of Somerse
He offended James I. by his marriage with Arabel'

tuart, who was a cousin of the king. In the civil war
e fought for Charles I. Died in 1660. (See STUART,


SeysseL See SEISSEL.

Seze, de, deh s.\z, (RAYMOND,) COUNT, a French ad-
ocate and royalist, born at Bordeaux in 1748. He was
ne of the counsel selected by Louis XVI. to defend

im in his trial, and made an eloquent plea before the
.onvention. He became first president of the court of
assation in 1815, and a member of the French Acad-
my in 1816. Died in 1828.

See CHATEAUBRIAND. " du Comte de Seze," 1861 : MAR

ONTEL, "Memoires;" "Nouvelle Biographic Geoerale."

Sfondrati, sfon-dRi'tee, (CELESTINO,) an Italian
ardinal and writer, born at Milan in 1644; died is

Sfondrati, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian cardinal, born a:
.remona in 1493, was an influential adviser of Pope
>aul III. He wrote a Latin poem "On the Rape of
Helen," (" De Raptu Helenx," 1559.) Died in 1550.
Sforce. See SFORZA.
Sforza, sfoRt'si, [ Fr. SFORCE, sfoRss,] (FRANCESCO.)
on of Giacomuzzo, noticed below, was born in 1401,
nd was equally distinguished as a warrior. After he
ad for a time assisted the Florentines against Filippo
Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, the latter gave him in
marriage his daughter Bianca. On the death of Visconti
ie took possession of Milan, with the assistance of the
Venetians, and was proclaimed duke in 1456. He dis-
played great ability and moderation as a ruler, and,
among other valuable public works, constructed the
v'aviglio della Martesana, or canal between Milan and
he Adda. Died in 1465.

See HovER."Franz Sforza," 2 vols., 1846: "The Life and Times

Francesco Sforza," by W. P. URQUHART, 1852 ; G. SUKINETTA.

De Rebus geslis F. Sforzz," 1480; ROBERTSON, " History of

Charles V.," vol. ii. books iv.-vi. : SISMONDI. " Histoire des Repub-

iques lialiennes;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'iieVale."

Sforza, (FRANCESCO MARIA,) the last Duke of Milan,
a son of Ludovico "il Moro," was born in 1492. He
obtained the dukedom by the aid of the emperor Charles
V., about 1525, and died, without issue, in 1535.

Sforza, (GALEAZZO MARIA,) a son of Francesco, was
>orn in 1444. He became Duke of Milan in 1465.
Having made himself odious to the people by his tyranny
and licentiousness, he was assassinated in 1476.

Sforza, (GIACOMUZZO ATTENDOLO, ja-ko-moot'so
at-teVdo-lo,) an Italian soldier of fortune, born near
Faenza about 1370. At an early age he entered the
service of Alberico da Barbiano, one of the most noted
of the " condottieri," or party leaders of the time, who
were striving for the deliverance of Italy from foreign
mercenaries. By his distinguished bravery and energy
lie contributed to the success of Alberico's enterprises,
and received from him the surname of "Sforza," from
his great strength. He afterwards assisted the Floren-
tines against the republic of Pisa, and, having entered
the service of Joanna, Queen of Naples, attained the
rank of commancler-in-chief. Having marched against
Braccio da Montone, he was drowned while attempting
to ford the river Pescara, in 1424.

See RATTI, "Mcmorie della Famii;lia Sforo," 2 vols., 1795 ; SIS-
MONDI, " Histoire des R^publiques Iialiennes."

Milan, the son of Galeazzo Maria, noticed above, was
born in 1468. lie succeeded his father in 1476, his
mother acting as regent; but the power was usurped
about 1480 by his uncle Ludovico. Died in 1494.

Sforza, (Luoovico,) surnamed IL MORO, ("the
Moor,") brother of Galeazzo Maria, was born in 1451.
He imprisoned his nephew, the legitimate heir, and
usurped the government of Milan, about 1480. In ordei
to strengthen himself against Ferdinand, King of Naples,
who had espoused the cause of the young duke, he in-
vited Charles VIII. of France to attempt the conquest
of Naples, thus originating the devastating wars which
afflicted Italy in the sixteenth century. The French,
having taken Naples, soon roused the people to resist-
ance by their oppression, and were expelled from Italy
by the united efforts of Ludovico, the pope, and the
Venetians. On the invasion of Italy by the French

J, e, I. o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, J, short; a, e, i, 9, oheure; fir, fill, fit; nig t; ti6t, good; mouu




king, Louis XII., in 1499, Ludovico, after opposing him
with varying success, was taken prisoner, and died in
France in 1510.

Sforza, (MASSIMILIANO,) a son of the preceding,
enjoyed for a time the rank of Duke of Milan, but was
deposed by the French king, Francis I., after the battle
of Marignano, in 1515. Died in 1530. His brother
FRANCESCO was made Duke of Milan by the emperor
Charles V., to whom, on his dying without issue in
'535- ne bequeathed the dukedom.

Sgravesande. See GRAVESANDE.

Shad'well, (THOMAS,) an English dramatist, born in
Norfolk in 1640, was for a time a friend of Uryden, who
subsequently satirized him in his poem of "MacFleck-
noe." He succeeded Dryden as poet-laureate in l6SS,
through the influence of the Earl of Rochester. He
published, among other comedies, "The Humourist,"
"The Sullen Lovers," "The Lancashire Witches," and
"The Volunteers." Died in 1692.

See "Retrospective Review," voL ii, second series, (1828.)

Shafey, sha'fa' or sha'fi', [Lat SHAFEI'US,! written
also Shafay and Schafei, (sometimes called Aboo-
Abdallah- Mohammed -Ibn-Idrees, (or -Edris,)
a'boo ab-dil'lah mo-ham'med Ib'n e-drees',) a cele-
brated Mohammedan doctor, born at Gaza in 767 A.D.,
was the founder of one of the four orthodox sects of
Moslems, and one of the most learned men of his time.
He lived for many years at Mecca, and wrote treatises
on canon and civil law. Died about 820.

Shaf'ter, (WILLIAM RUFUS, ) an American gen-
eral, born at Galesburg, Michigan, in 1835. He be-
came a lieutenant in the Union army in 1861, and
was mustered out as brevet brigadier-general in 1865.
He entered the regular army as lieutenant-colonel in
1867, and was made brigadier-general in 1897, in
charge of the department of California. In 1898 he
commanded in the operations leading to the surrender
of Santiago de Cuba, subsequently returning to the
department of California.

Shaftesbury, shafs'ber-e, ( ANTHONY ASHLEY
COOPER,) Lord Ashley, and first EARL OF, an English
politician, famous for his talents, intrigues, and versa-
tility, was born at Wimborne Saint Giles, Dorsetshire,
on the 22d or 23d of July, 1621. He was a son of Sil
John Cooper, and a grandson of Sir Anthony Ashley,
from each of whom he inherited a large estate.

He was a member of the Short Parliament of 1640,
In the civil war he first supported the cause of the king,
but in 1643 he joined the popular party, and took Ware-
ham in 1644. He became a member of Parliament in
1653, after which he was appointed a member of Crom-
well's council of state. Between 1654 and 1660 he sat
in several Parliaments, was an opponent of Cromwell,
and very efficiently promoted the restoration. Charles
II. rewarded him in 1660 with the office of chancellor
of the exchequer, and raised him to 'the peerage, as
Baron Ashley, in 1661. Lord Ashley was a political
opponent of Lord Clarendon while the latter was prime
minister. He became in 1670 a member of the famous
and notorious Cabal ministry, whose domestic policy
was arbitrary, and whose foreign policy was basely sub-
servient to the will of Louis XIV. "Ashley, with a far
stronger head [than Buckingham], "says Macaulay, "and
with a far fiercer and more earnest ambition, had been
equally versatile; but Ashley's versatility was the effect
not of levity, but of selfishness. He had served and
betrayed a succession of governments ; but he had timed
all his treacheries so well that through all revolutions
his fortunes had been constantly rising." (" History
of England.") He was created Earl of Shaftesbury in
1672, and held the office of lord chancellor from No-
vember, 1672, till November, 1673. After the seals had
been taken from him, he went over to the opposition or
country party, and signalized his zeal against popery. A
majority of the Commons having opposed the measures
of the court, the king prorogued that House from time
to time. When it assembled in 1677, Shaftesbury as-
serted that it was dissolved. For this offence he was
confined in the Tower for more than a year This affair,
and his officious action in relation to the Popish Plot-

rendered him so popular that he was appointed president
of the new council formed in 1679. While he held this
high position, he procured the passage of the famous
Habeas Corpus act, of which he was the author. Having
been dismissed from the presidency of the council in
October, 1679, he presented the Duke of York to the
grand jury as a popish recusant. Suspected of conspir-
ing with the Duke of Monmouth, he was seized in July,
[68 1, and confined in the Tower on a charge of treason;
but the bill of indictment was ignored by the grand jury.
Dryden satirized him, under the name of " Achitophel,"
in his admirable poem of "Absalom and Achitophel."
It is said that Shaftesbury advised his party to revolt
openly against the court, but the other leaders refused
to follow this advice. He therefore left England in 1682,
and died at Amsterdam in June, 1683, leaving one son.

See LORD CAMPBELL, " Lives of the Lord Chancellors;'* " Lifa
of Lord Shaftesbury," by B. MARTIN and DR. KIPPIS, new edition,
by C. W. COOK, 1836: also "Memoirs, Letters, and Speeches,' 1
edited by W D. CHRISTIE.

Shaftesbury, (ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPFR,) seventh
EARL OF, an English philanthropist, the eldest son of
the sixth Earl, was born in 1801. He was styled LORD
ASHLEY in his youth. He graduated at Oxford, as first
class in classics, in 1822, and entered Parliament in 18:6.
He procured the passage of the " Ten Hours' Bill," which
requires that children in factories shall not work more
than ten hours in a day. He distinguished himself as
an advocate of the "Evangelical party" of the Anglican
Church, and as a promoter of benevolent enterprises.
At the death of his father, in 1851, he inherited the
earldom. Died October i, 1885.

Shafteabury, (ANTHONY COOPER,) third EARL 07,
a celebrated English writer, born in London in 1671,
was a grandson of the first Earl. He was educated by
John Locke, the philosopher, who was a friend of his
grandfather. According to a statement of the pupil
himself, Locke "had the absolute direction of his educa-
tion." In 1693 he entered Parliament, where he acted
with the Whigs. During a residence in Holland, to
which he went in 1698, he became acquainted with
Bayle and Leclerc. On the death of his father, in 1699,
he passed into the House of Lords. He was a political
friend of WilHam III., who consulted him in important
affairs. After the death of William (1705) he retired
from public service. He published a " Letter on Enthu-
siasm," (1708^ "Moralists, a Philosophical Rhapsody,"
(1709,) and "Sensus Communis, or Essay on Wit and
Humour," (1709.) His style as a writer was greatly ad-
mired, though it is wanting in ease and simplicity. He
died at Naples in February, 17:3, leaving one son, An-
thony. His collected works were published in 1713,
under the title of "Characteristics of Men, Manners,
Opinions, and Times." Leibnitz warmly applauded his
"Characteristics." " His fine genius and generous spirit,"
says Sir J. Mackintosh, "shine through his writings;
but their lustre is often dimmed by peculiarities, and, it
must be said, by affectations, which are peculiarly fatal to
the permanence of fame." Referring to his " Moralists,"
the same critic says, " Perhaps there is scarcely any
composition in our language more lofty in its moral and
religious sentiments and more exquisitely elegant and
musical in its diction. . . . 'The Inquiry concerning
Virtue' is nearly exempt from the faulty peculiarities of
the author; the method is perfect, the reasoning just,
the style precise and clear. . . . This production is un-
questionably entitled to a place in the first rank of
English tracts on moral philosophy. It contains more
intimations of an original and important nature on the
theory of ethics than perhaps any preceding work of
modern times. His demonstration of the utility of vir-
tue to the individual far surpasses all attempts of the
same nature, being founded not on a calculation of
outward advantages or inconveniences, alike uncer-
tain, precarious, and degrading, but on the unshaken
foundation of the delight which is of the very essence
of social affection and virtuous sentiment, ... on the
all-important truth that to love is to be happy and to
hate is to be miserable, that affection is its own reward
and ill will its own punishment. . . The relation of
religion to morality, as far as it can be discovered by
human reason, was never more justly or more beauti-

as k; c as j; g Hard; g as/; G, H, K.,gittlural; N, nasal; R, trillfd; s asz; tb as in this. (=See Explanations, p. 23.)




fully stated." (See " General View of the Progress of
Ethical Philosophy.")

SHAH, shih, a Persian word, signifying "king," and
forming part of the name or title of many Oriental sove-
reigns; as, SHAH ABBAS, i.e. "King Abbas," NADIR
SHAH, " wonderful king," etc.

Shah-Alam, shah 5'lam, ("King of the World,")
written also Schah-Alam (-Alem or -Alim) and
Shah-Alum, (or -Allum,) sometimes called Bahadur
Shah, ba-ha'door shah, (" Brave King,") a son of
Aurung-Zeb, Emperor of India, whom he succeeded in
1707. He died in 1712, while carrying on a war against
the Sikhs.

Shah-Alam (or Schah-Alem) IL ascended the
throne of India in 1759. In order to strengthen his
authority over his empire, he had recourse to the British,
to whom he gave a grant of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa,
in return for the city and district of Allahabad which
they assigned him. Died in 1806.

Shah-Jehan or Shahjehan, shlh je-hln', written
also Shah-Jahan and Schah- (or Chah-) Djehan,
("King of the World,") the fifth Mogul Emperor of
India, the son of Jehan-Geer, whom he succeeded in
1627. His reign was disturbed by the rebellion of his
sons, one of whom, the famous Aurung-Zeb, put to death
two of his brothers and deposed his father. He died in
1666 at Agra, where a large establishment had been
granted him. The court of Shah-Jehan was celebrated
for its splendour. The "peacock "throne," formed of
jewels valued at ,6,500,000, was constructed by him.
He also founded the city of Shah Jehanabad, or New
Delhi, and erected many magnificent public buildings,
among which the Taj-Mahal, a mausoleum, erected in
honour of his favourite wife, called Taj-Mahal, ("the
Crown of the Palace,") near Agra, is justly regarded
as one of the wonders of the world, and, in the opin-
ion of several competent judges, is the most elegant

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 302 of 425)