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tion, born near Hagerstown, Maryland, in 1750, became
Governor of Kentucky in 1792, and again in 1812. He
distinguished himself at the battle of King's Mountain,
1780. Died in 1826.

See the "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"

Shel'dpn, (DAVID NEWTON,) D.D., an American
divine, born at Suffield, Connecticut, in 1807, was origi-
nally a Baptist, but subsequently became a Unitarian.
He published a work entitled "Sin and Redemption."

Shel'don, (GILBERT,) an English prelate, born in
Staffordshire in 1598. He graduated at Trinity College,
Oxford, in 1620, and, having taken orders, rose through
various preferments to be chaplain -in -ordinary to
Charles I. On the accession of Charles II. he was made
Bishop of London, (1660,) and in 1663 succeeded Juxon
as Archbishop of Canterbury. Dr. Sheldon was distin-
guished for his liberality and his extensive charities, and
constructed, among other public works, the theatre at
Oxford called by his name. Died in 1677.

Shel'ley, (NlARY,) the second wife of P. B. Shelley,
the poet, was the only child cf William Godwin and
Mary Wollstonecraft, his wife. She was born in London,
August 30, 1797, and was well educated. In 1814 she
began to live with the poet Shelley, and after his first
wile's death, in 1816, she married him. Her principal
writings are " Frankenstein," (1818,) a strange romance,
" Valperga," (1823,) "The Last Man," " Lodore," (1835,)
"The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck,"" Falkner," (1837,)
and " Rambles in Germany and Italy," (1844.) Died in
London, February I, 1851.

Shel'ley, (PERCY Bysshe Hsh,) an eminent Eng-
lish poet, born at Field Place, near Horsham, in the
county of Sussex, August 4, 1792. He was the eldest
son of Sir Timothy Shelley, Bart At the age of thir-
teen he was sent to school at Eton, where his refusal to
fag exposed him to the anger and persecution of the
other boys. His painful experiences at this period con-
tributed much, no doubt, to the development of that
intense hatred of established wrong which afterwards
became the ruling passion of his life. Shelley was early
distinguished for his romantic and speculative turn of
mind, as well as for a remarkable facility in the acquisi-
tion of every kind of knowledge in which he took any
interest. When he was about sixteen, he composed two
romances, the one entitled " Zastrozzi," the other " Saint
Irvyne; or. The Rosicrucian." In 1810 he went to
Oxford, and was entered at University College. Here
he published a small pamphlet on the necessity of athe-
ism. The authorities, in consideration, it would seem,
of Shelley's youth and peculiar character, at first resolved
to take no notice of it. But this did not satisfy the
young enthusiast : " so he sent," says De Qnincey, " his
pamphlet, with five-and-twenty separate letters, addressed
to the five-and-twenty heads of colleges, courteously
inviting all and every of them to notify, at his earliest
convenience, his adhesion to the enclosed unanswerable
arguments for atheism." Thereupon he was summoned
before the master and some of the Fellows of the col-
lege, and, as he could not deny that he was the author
of the pamphlet, he was expelled. Shelley and some
of his friends have bitterly complained of his expulsion,
as an act of injustice and cruelty ; but it is difficult to see,
if De Quincey's account of the transaction be correct,
how he could with any propriety have been treated with
greater lenity than was shown him on that occasion. As
he refused to make any concessions, his father also
rejected him, and forbade his appearance at Field Place.
Shelley then went to London, where he composed
"Queen Mab," which, however, he did not publish, but
only distributed a few copies of it among his friends.
While in London, money is said to have been furnished
for his support by his sisters, who employed one of their
school-mates, Harriet Westbrook, (the daughter of a re-
tired hotel-keeper,) as the medium of communication with
their brother. After a very short acquaintance, Shelley
eloped with Miss Westbrook, and married her at Gretna
Green in August, 181 1. They soon discovered that they
were not suited to each other, and in 1813 they separated,
it is said, by mutual consent- The next year Shelley

visited the continent in company with Miss Mary God*
win, (a daughter of William Godwin and Mary Woll-
stonecraft,) who all considered marriage a useless or
tyrannical institution. In 1816 he learned that his wifa
had drowned herself. His sorrow, perhaps not unmin-
gled with remorse, is said to have rendered him for a
time almost insane. But the same year he was formally
married to Miss Godwin, and settled at or near Marlow,
in Buckinghamshire. His first wife had borne him two
children, of whom he now claimed the custody, but
their grandfather, Mr. Westbrook, refused to give them
up. This led to a suit in chancery; and in March,
1817, Lord Eldon gave his decision, that, on account ot
Shelley's demoralizing and atheistical opinions, he was
unfit to have charge of the children, who were, accord-
ingly, committed to the care of Mr. Westbrook.

While at Marlow, in 1817, Shelley wrote the "Revolt
of Islam," the longest of all his poems, and the one in
which he has most fully developed his political senti-
ments and his peculiar views respecting the regenera-
tion of society. It abounds in passages of surpassing
beauty, but, as a story, is deficient in connection, and,
we may add, in human interest. Amid the wilderness
of luxuriant imagery, and of subtle, vague, or visionary
though sometimes glorious thoughts, the reader often
finds it difficult to trace his way and retain the thread
of the narrative.

In iStS, fearing lest his son by Mary Godwin should
be taken from him, as his other children had been, he
left England, never to return. He went to Italy, where
he composed "The Cenci," (1819,) perhaps the most
successful of all his larger works, the " Witch of Atlas,"
(1819,) "Prometheus Unbound," (1820.) "Adonais," an
elegy on the death of John Keats, (1821,) and many
minor poems, some of which are of exquisite beauty.

In July, 1822, he set sail from Leghorn for Lerici.
The boat, having been overtaken by a sudden squall,
disappeared. Two weeks afterwards, Shelley's body was
washed ashore, with a copy jf Keats's poems in one of
his pockets. The Tuscan quarantine regulations at that
time required that whatever came ashore from the sea
should be burned. Shelley's body was accordingly
placed on a pile and reduced to ashes, in the presenoa
of Lord Byron, Leigh Hunt, and E. J. Trelawny. His
ashes were collected, and interred in the Protestant
burying-ground at Rome, near the grave of his friend

There is perhaps no writer (as De Quincey intimates)
of whom it is so difficult to speak with a proper regard
for the interests of society, and at the same time making
that charitable allowance for his eccentricities and errors
which his peculiar temperament and his amiable and
noble traits of character seem justly to claim, as Percy
Bysshe Shelley. We cannot, however, agree with De
Quincey in the opinion that " harsh treatment had no
concern in riveting his fanaticism." What is more prob-
able than that his bitter experience at Eton, where he
was exasperated almost to madness by the galling
"chain of Custom," acting on a mind so sensitive yet so
resolute and withal so speculative as his, should, at that
susceptible and most critical age, have led him first to
question, and then to deny and spurn, every custom
that would impose the slightest restraint upon his free-
dom or his pleasure ? It was but another step for him
to reject or adopt opinions or systems according as IK
conceived them to favour or oppose the power of tho
hated tyrant, which he also styles the " Anarch Cus-
tom." That he was influenced by such motives in tha
choice of his pursuits clearly appears from the follow-
ing lines :

"And from that hour did I with earnest thought
Heap knowledge from forbidden mines of lore ;
Yit nothing thai my tyrant* knfJv or taught
I cargd to &<irn."*

Ii> his poetry he repeatedly associates "Faith" and
"Custom," (or "Tyranny;") he evidently considered
the former the chief support of the latter, and cherished
towards them both an equal hatred. Whatever may
have been his early opinions, he would appear not to

See the lines addressed to his wife, prefixed to the " Revolt of

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; 1, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, ?, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon-




have been an atheist when he wrote the preface to his
" Revolt of Islam ;" for he there says, "The erroneous
and degrading idea which men have conceived of a Su-
preme Being is spoken against, not the Supreme Being
itself. . . , The belief which some persons entertain of
the Deity is widely different from my own."

Speaking of Shelley's poetry, Bulwer observes, " Each
line is a separate thought ; the effort glitters on the eye
till it aches with the glare ; it is the mirror broken into
a thousand pieces, and the representation it would give
is rendered confused and phantasmagoric by the mul-
tiplication of the images." " La Cenci," however, h
expressly excepted from the above criticism.

The intimacy that subsisted between Shelley and
Byron, and the supposed similarity of their principles,
have led to frequent comparisons between these eminent
poets. But they had in fact scarcely anything in com-
mon, except a vivid and intense feeling of poetic beauty.
The mind of Shelley was singularly speculative, and he
had a great facility in persuading himself of the truth of
whatever he wished to believe. Byron, on the other hand,
with an equally intense ideality, (i.e. feeling or sentiment
of beauty,) was by the constitution of his mind restricted
far more within the limits of the actual, or, it may be,
the conventional. It would seem to have been one of the
great efforts of his life to cast off the trammels imposed
upon him by his religious education ; but in this he was
never wholly successful. To this deep-rooted respect
for the actual, or the established, must be ascribed the
intense feeling of reality which pervades his poetry, as
well as the strong, practical common sense evinced in
his actions when not under the influence of passion. But
if we compare the moral attributes of the two men,
Shelley will be found to stand immeasurably higher than
Byron. Whatever may have been the errors of his head,
his heart appears, by the testimony of all who knew him,
to have been eminently kind, generous, and unselfish.
And if his conduct seems occasionally to contradict this
view, it was a rare exception to the general rule, while
with Byron the reverse was true, pride and selfishness
were the rule, disinterestedness the exception.

See THOMAS MEDWIN, "Life of P. B. Shelley," 2 vols., 1847:
CHARLES S. MIDDLETON, "Shelley and his Works," 1858; T J.
HOGG, "Life of P. B. Shelley," 1858; WILLIAM M. ROSSETTI,
"The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley," 2 vols., 1869: E. J. TRE-
LAWNY, "Recollections of the Las! Days of Shelley and Byron,"
1858 ; DE QUINCEY, " Essays on the Poets," Boston, 1853 ; " Quar-
terly Review" for October, 1861 ; article on Shelley in the "Atlantic
Monthly" for February, 1863, " by one who knew him," (i.e. THORN-
TON HUNT ;) " Edinburgh Review" for July, 1824, and July, 1839:
ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors:" " Memoir" prefixed to his
works by MRS. SHELLEY, 1839: "The Shelley Memorials, from
Authentic Sources," edited by LADY SHELLEY, 1859.

Shel'ton, (FREDERICK WILLIAM,) an American
writer and Episcopalian divine, born at Jamaica, Long
Island, about 1814. He has published " Salander and
the Dragon," a romance, " The Rector of Saint Bar-
dolph's, or Superannuated," (1853,) and other works.
Died in 1881.

Shem, | Heb. DW ; Gr. 2^ ; Fr. SEM, s^rh.l a pa
triarch, the eldest son of Noah, and one of the survivor:
of the deluge. lie was the ancestor of the Semitic (or
Shemitic) nations.

See Genesis v. 32, ix. 18-27, * T 2I t 31-

Shen'stone, (WiLLiAM,) an English pastoral poet,
born in Shropshire in 1714. He was the author of odes,
elegies, and pastorals, and a poem entitled " The School-
mistress," which, Dr. Johnson observes, " is the most
pleasing of Shenstone's performances." In the latter
part of his life he became involved in debt, owing to
expenses incurred in the embellishment of his grounds.
" He was always wishing," says Gray, *' for money, for
fame, and other distinctions, and his whole philosophy
consisted in living, against his will, in retirement, and in
a place which his taste had adorned, but which he only
enjoyed when people of note came to see and commend
it." Died in 1763.

See JOHNSON, "Lives of Uie Poets;" "Monthly Review" for
May and June, 1764.

Shep'ard, (CHARLES UPHAM,) M.D., LL.D., an

American naturalist, born at Little Compton, Rhode
Island, in 1804, graduated at Amherst College. He was
appointed professor of chemistry in the Charleston Medi

cal College in 1834, and professor of natural history in
Amherst College. He wrote a " Report on the Geo-
logical Survey of Connecticut," etc. Died May i, iSS6.

Shepard, (SAMUEL,) M.D., a physician and Baptist
divine, born at Salisbury, Massachusetts, in 1739, pub-
lished a number of controversial treatises. Died in 1815.

Shepard, (THOMAS,) an English Puritan divine, born
in 1605, emigrated to New England, and was one of the
founders of Harvard College. Died in 1649.

Shep'herd, (WILLIAM,) a general, born in Massachu-
setts in 1737, fought in twenty-two battles, lie was a
member of Congress from 1797 to 1803. Died in 1817

Shep'herd Kings, called by the Egyptians Hyk'sos,
| from hyk, "king," and JOT, a "shepherd,"] a race of kings,
probably of Tartar origin, supposed to have ruled over
Egypt from about 2200 to 1550 B.C. The only account
we have of them is given in a fragment of Manethoi
preserved by Josephus.

Shep'pard, (ELIZABETH SARA,) an English novelist,
born at Blackheath about 1830. She wrote, besides other
works, "The Double Coronet," a novel, (2 vols., 1856,)
and " Rumour," a novel, (3 vols., 1858.) Died in 1862.

Sher'ard, (ROBERT HARBOROUGH,) an English
author, born at London in 1861. After 1884 he be-
came a travelling newspaper correspondent. He
published poems, novels, biographies, etc., including
"The White Slaves of England" and "The Iron
Cross," (1897.)

SheVard, (WILLIAM,) an English botanist and ama-
teur, born in Leicestershire in 1659. Having visited
various parts of Europe, he was appointed in 1702 Brit-
ish consul at Smyrna, where he made collections for hia
valuable " Herbarium." While travelling on the con-
tinent, he had acquired the friendship of Tournefort and
Dillenius, and on his invitation the latter came to Eng-
land, where he subsequently filled the chair of botany
at Oxford, endowed by Mr. Sherard. Sherard died in
1728, leaving his Herbarium of more than 12,000 species
to the University of Oxford.

Sherbrooke, VISCOUNT. See LOWE, (ROBERT.)

Sher'burne, (Sir EDWARD,) an English scholar and
writer, born in London in 1618, was clerk of the ord-
nance under Charles I. He translated several works
from the Latin, among which we may name Seneca's
"Troades" and "Medea." Died in no2.

Shere Alee, shair 4'lee, or Sher All Khan, shair
a'lee kin, an Ameer of Afghanistan, born in 1825. In
1863 he succeeded his father, Dost Mohammed. Ha
passed through many vicissitudes during his reign. In
1867 he held only Balkh and Herat, but in 1869, through
British influence, he gained complete sway throughout
Afghanistan and Southern Turkestan. In 1878 difficulties
with the British led to a severe contest, during which
bhere Alee fled northward to Russian Turkestan, where
he died, February 21, 1879.

Shereef-ed-Deen-Alee or Scherif-Eddin-AU,
sheh-reef ed-deen' S'lee, a Persian author, whose style
is compared to pearls and diamonds of the first water,
was a native of Yezd. He composed, about 1425, a
" History of Tamerlane."

Sher'I-dan, (FRANCES,) wife of Thomas Sheridan,
(the second of the name,) born in Ireland in 1724,
was the author of an Oriental romance entitled "Nour-
jahad," " Sidney Biddulph," a novel, highly commended
by Dr. Johnson, and the comedies of "The Dupe" and
"The Discovery," the latter of which Garrick pro-
nounced "one of the best he ever read." Died in 1766.
See MRS. ELWOOD, " Memoirs of the Literary Ladies of England
from the Commencement of the Last Century," vol. i. ; "Monthly
Review" for April, 1761.

ShSr'I-dau, (PHILIP HENRY,) an eminent American
general, of Irish parentage, was born in Albany, New
York, March 6, 1831^ He entered the Military Acad-
emy at West Point in 1848, graduated in 1853, and
was commissioned second lieutenant of infantry. lie
served for several years in Oregon, became captain in
1861, and returned to the East. Early in 1862 he be-
came chief quartermaster under General Halleck, and
in May of that year he was appoinled colonel of the
Second Michigan cavalry. He obtained command of a

e as It; j as i g hard; g asy'; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as 2; th as in this. (i^jf=See Explanations, p. 23.)




cavalry brigade in June, 1862. Having defeated a troop
superior in number to his own, at Booneville, Mississippi,
he was raised to the rank of brigadier-general in July.
He took command of a division of the army of the Ohio
in September, and distinguished himself at the battle of
Perryville, October 8, 1862. For his gallant conduct at
the great battle of Stone River, which ended on the 2d
of January, 1863, he was rewarded with the rank of
major-general of volunteers. lie commanded a division
at Chickamauga, September 19 and 20, and at the battle
of Chattanooga or Missionary Ridge, November 25, 1863.

In April, 1864, he was appointed commander of all
the cavalry of the army of the Potomac, which crossed
the Rapidan and began operations against Lee's army
on the 4th of May. On the gth Sheridan started on a
raid against the enemy's lines of communication with
Richmond. lie destroyed the depots, etc. at Beaver
Dam and Ashland, advanced to the outer defences of
Richmond, defeated the rebel cavalry under General
Stuart, and rejoined the army of General Grant on the
25th of May. On the 7th of June he led an expedition
against the Virginia Central Railroad, from which he
returned to the White House on the igth, after he had
routed the enemy's cavalry at Trevilian Station and
destroyed part of the railroad. About the 7th of August
he was assigned to the command of the " Middle Mili-
tary Division," which was then constituted in order to
oppose the incursions of the rebels from the Shenandoah
Valley into Maryland and Pennsylvania.

His operations during the month of August and the
first part of September were of both an offensive and
defensive character, resulting in many severe skirmishes
with the army of General Early. On the I5th of Septem-
ber General Grant left City Point to visit Sheridan and
confer with him. "I saw," says Grant, "there were but
two words of instruction necessary Go in 1" Sheridan
attacked Early on the igth near Winchester, defeated
him, and took several thousand prisoners. He gained
another victory at Fisher's Hill on the 20th, and pur-
sued the enemy with great energy through Harrisonburg
and Staunton. Soon after this battle he was appointed
a brigadier-general in the regular army. During a brief
absence of Sheridan, who was called to Washington,
General Early, having been reinforced, attacked suddenly
the Union army near Cedar Creek and Strasburg on the
igth of October, and at first was victorious. After the
Federals had retreated about three miles with much
loss, Sheridan, riding at full speed, arrived on the field,
rallied his men with words of magical power, and con-
\-erted the disaster of the morning into a complete vic-
tory. General Early lost here the most of his artillery
and trains, besides 1500 prisoners. In a letter dated
October 20, General Grant wrote thus: "Turning what
bid fair to be a disaster into a glorious victory, stamps
Sheridan, what 1 have always thought him, one of the
ablest of generals." He was appointed a major-general
of the regular army in place of McClellan, resigned,
November, 1864.

Sheridan moved from Winchester on the 271)1 of
February, 1865, took Staunton on the 2d of March, and
defeated Early near Waynesborough. Having inflicted
much damage on several railroads and the James River
Canal, he reached his base at the White House about
the igth of March. On the 27th he joined the main
army of General Grant near Petersburg, and on the
29th commenced, with nine thousand cavalry, a move-
ment for the destruction of the Danville and South Side
Railroads, the only remaining avenues of supply to
Lee's army. He was supported by a corps of infantry.
He encountered near Five Forks a superior force on
the 3ist of March, and was driven back towards Din-
widdie Court-IIouse. "Here," says General Grant,
41 General Sheridan displayed great generalship. In-
stead of retreating with his whole command on the main
army to tell the story of superior forces encountered, he
deployed his cavalry on foot, leaving only mounted men
enough to take charge of the horses." On the 1st of
April, Sheridan, having been reinforced, drove the enemy
back on Five Forks, assaulted and carried his strongly
fortified position, and captured over five thousand pris-
oners. He pursued Lee's army retreating from Rich-

mond and Petersburg, attacked it near Sailor's Creek
on the 6th of April, and took about six thousand pris -
oners. A few days after this action the war was virtu-
ally ended by the surrender of General Lee. In 1867
Sheridan was appointed commander of the Fifth Mili-
tary District, comprising the States of Louisiana and
Texas ; but, incurring the displeasure of President John-
son, he was removed and ordered to take command of
the Department of the Missouri. During the Franco-
German war in 1870-71 he visited Europe, and was en-
tertained with distinguished consideration at the head-
quarters of the German army and witnessed some of the
most important events of that campaign. In March, 1869,
he was raised to the rank of lieutenant-general, in iS8j
succeeded General Sherman as commander-in-chief, and
on June I, 1888, while suffering from a fatal illness, was
confirmed general of the army. Died August 5, 18SS.

See "Personal Memoirs of P. H. Sheridan, General United
Stiles Army," 2 vols., iS38.

Sheridan, (RICHARD BRINSLEY BUTLER,) a celebrated
Irish orator and dramatist, born at Dublin in 1751. He
studied in his native city, and at Harrow, where he was
chiefly noted for his indolence ; and he left school with
the reputation of an " impenetrable dunce." lie mar-
ried Miss Linley in 1772. His first important publica-
tion was the comedy of "The Rivals," (1775,) which,
though at first coldly received, soon acquired great popu-
larity. It was followed in the same year by the opera
of " The Duenna," which also met with brilliant success,
being acted seventy-five times during the season. His
"School for Scandal," published in 1777, established his
reputation as a dramatic genius of the highest order.
He soon after purchased a share in the Drury Lane
Theatre. His farce of "The Critic" came out in 1779.
In 1780 he represented Stafford in Parliament, where he
soon became conspicuous as an orator, and supported
the measures of Fox and the opposition party. He also
filled for a time the post of under-secretary of state. On
the impeachment of Warren Hastings, in 1787, he de-
livered his celebrated Begum speech, which made an
extraordinary sensation at the time, and is still regarded
as one of the most splendid displays of eloquence in
ancient or modern times. The Whigs having come into
power on the death of Pitt, (1806,) Sheridan was ap-
pointed treasurer of the navy and a privy councillor.
lie was returned to Parliament for Westminster in 1806.
His style of living was so extravagant that he was much
embarrassed by debts in the latter part of his life. Died
in July, 1816.

" Mr. Sheridan," says Hazlitt, " has been justly called
a dramatic star of the first magnitude; and, indeed,
among the comic writers of the last century he shines
like Hesperus among the lesser lights. The ' School for
Scandal' is, if not the most original, perhaps the most
finished and faultless comedy which we have." It must
be confessed, however, that the moral tone of this drama
(reflecting, as it doubtless does, the morals of the upper

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 305 of 425)