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unwise. William, sixth Earl of Douglas, having defied
the royal authority, was decoyed by Crichton to an in-
terview in the Castle of Edinburgh, where both he and
his brother were murdered. James stabbed with his
own hand William, eighth Earl of Douglas. This led
to a revolt, and the house of Stuart appeared to be in
imminent peril. The Earl of Douglas commanded the
greater number and more warlike followers ; but, owing
to his want of energy, nearly all his retainers deserted
him before a battle was fought, and he was obliged to
fly to England. James would in all probability have
succeeded in his plans, had he not been killed in 1460
by the bursting of a cannon.

See BURTON, "History of Scotland," vol. iii. chap. xxviiL
ROBERTSON, " History of Scotland."

James HL, the son and successor of James II., was
born in 1453. During his minority the kingdom was
governed successively by Bishop Kennedy and Lord
Boyd. James married Margaret of Denmark about
1470. He had respectable abilities, and was a lover of
the fine arts and literature. The nobles were offended
because he neglected them and chose for his associates
artists, musicians, and other persons of inferior rank.
The king's brothers, the Duke of Albany, and the Earl

as k; 5 as s; % hard; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (2^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




of Mar, conspired with the malcontent nobles against
James, who was defeated by them in battle near Ban-
nockburn in 1488, and was murdered as he fled from
the field.

James IV., King of Scotland, succeeded his father,
James III., in 1488, at the age of fifteen. He was gen-
erous and brave, loved magnificence, delighted in war,
and was eager to obtain fame. During his reign the
ancient and hereditary enmity between the king and the
nobles appears almost entirely to have ceased. During
the revolt which had cost James III. his life, his son
had been compelled or persuaded to set himself at the
head of it, and was openly declared king. He was sub-
sequently troubled by remorse for this deed, and, not
being free from superstition, he received from the pope,
as penance, an iron belt to be worn without cessation for
the remainder of his life. He also performed several pil-
grimages on foot. James founded (1497) the University
of Aberdeen, and he also created the order of Knights
of the Thistle, (or of Saint Andrew.) In 1513, in oppo-
sition to the advice of his sagest counsellors, he rashly
invaded England with one of the most loyal and gallant
armies that ever a Scottish king had commanded, and
was defeated at the famous battle of Flodden, where
the flower of the Scottish chivalry perished. The king,
with twelve earls, thirteen lords, and a great number of
barons, died upon the field, in September, 1513.

James V., a son of James IV., was born in 1512, and
succeeded his father in 1513. The regency was conferred
upon his cousin, the Duke of Albany, a man of enter-
prise and ability, who was desirous to extend the royal
authority; but, in spite of all his exertions, the aris-
tocracy retained their power, and the duke resigned his
authority about 1525. The king was then in his thir-
teenth year, and the nobles agreed that he should assume
the government. The Earl of Angus, however, by hii
intrigues, obtained the chief control of affairs, and kept
the young king as a prisoner in his own palace. James,
after suffering this for some time, escaped, and Angus was
obliged to fly from the country. Firmly seated upon the
throne, James continued the policy of his predecessors |
in humbling the nobility. Commencing very cautiously,
he found loyal supporters among the clergy, the prin-
cipal of whom was Cardinal Beaton. The nobles had
received too severe a blow at Flodden to resist, and
James pushed forward his plans in an unscrupulous
and arbitrary manner. He married Mary of Guise in
1538. Henry VIII. of England declared war against
turn in 1542, and he was obliged to seek the assistance
of those nobles whom he had oppressed. They took
up arms at his command, were led by him against the
English, and were at first successful ; but, owing to the
lateness of the season, and to other causes of discontent,
they refused to follow up their good fortune. A second
expedition across the border was still less successful :
nearly ten thousand Scots were taken prisoners, or, as
some say, went deliberately over to the English. This
proved too great a blow to the proud and ambitious
monarch, who died of a broken heart in December,
1542, in the thirty-first year of his age, leaving the
crown to his only legitimate child, the unfortunate Mary
Queen of Scots. He had several natural children, one
of whom was the famous Regent Murray.



James, [Gr. 'laxuSof ; Lat. JACO'BUS ; Ger. JAKOB,
yl'kob; Fr. JACQUES, zhtk; Sp. SANTIAGO, sin-te-d'go;
It GIACOMO, ja'ko-mo,] one of the twelve apostles,
commonly called SAINT JAMES, son of Zebeclee, and
brother of Saint John. He was one of the three apostles
who appeared to be the most intimately associated with
our Saviour. He suffered martyrdom about 44 A. D., by
the order of Herod Agrippa.

James, called THE LESS, was one of the twelve apos-
tles, and is generally supposed to have been the brother
jf our Saviour, and the author of the Epistle bearing
that name. Josephus states that he was put to death
by the high-priest Ananias about 62 or 63 A.D.

James, (CHARLES T. C.,) an English novelist and
dramatist, born at London in 1858. He wrote "The
New Faith," (1890,) "One Virtue," (1893,)
"Where Thames is Wide," (1896,) etc.

James, (CONSTANTIN,) a French medical writer,
born at Bayeux in 1813. He edited Magendie's
" Lectures on Physiology," (1837-39.) Died in 1888.

James, (EDWIN JANES,) an American educator,
born at Jacksonville, Illinois, in 1855. He was edu-
cated at Harvard, held professorships in the University
of Pennsylvania 1883-95, and became connected with
the University of Chicago in 1895. He became presi-
dent of the American Academy of Political and
Social Science in 1889, and was president of the
University Extension Society 1891-96. He published
several works and numerous papers on economics.

James, (FLORENCE,) pen-name of Florence War-
den, a British novelist, born at Hanworth in 1857.
She was a governess 1875-80, and an actress 1880-85.
Her novels are numerous, some of the later being
"A Lady in Black," (1897,) "Joan, the Curate,"
(1898,) etc.

James, (GEORGE PAYNE RAINSFORD,) a very volu-
minous novelist and historian, born in London in 1801.
Before attaining the age of seventeen he had written a
series of Eastern tales, entitled "The String of Pearls."
In 1825 he published "Richelieu," which had previously
received the commendation of Sir Walter Scott and
Washington Irving. This is thought to be his best pro-
duction. In 1852 Mr. James was chosen British consul
at Norfolk, in Virginia, and in 1858 received the same
appointment for Venice. His very numerous works
are mainly novels, but include biographies and poems.
Died in 1860.

James, (Sir HENRY,) an English general, born near
Saint Agnes, Cornwall, in 1803. He was educated at
Woolwich, and in 1825 entered the royal engineers. He
invented photozincography, and executed valuable fac-
simile plates by that process. He published accounts
of the ordnance surveys of the three kingdoms, besides
other works of permanent value. Died June 14, 1877.

James, (HENRY,) an able and original writer on the-
ology, born at Albany in 1811. About 1843 he became
acquainted with the writings of Swedenborg, whose
leading doctrines he appears to have fully embraced,
without, however, joining himself to the ecclesiastical
organization of Swedenborgians. He published, be-
sides other works, "Moralism and Christianity," (1852,)
"Christianity the Logic of Creation," (1857,) " Substance
and Shadow, etc.," (1863,) and "The Secret of Sweden-
borg, being an Elucidation of his Doctrine of the Divine
Natural Humanity," (1869.) Died December 18, 1882.

James, (HENRY,) LORD, an English lawyer, bom
at Hereford, October 30, 1828. He studied at Chel-
tenham College and at the Middle Temple, was called
to the bar in 1852, was made a Queen's counsel in
1869, and a bencher in 1870. He entered Parliament
in 1869, became solicitor-general in 1873, and attor-
ney-general in the same year. In 1895 [he became
chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, and was raised
to the peerage as Lord James of Hereford.

James, (HENRY,) an American novelist and critic,
ason of Henry James, (1811-1882,) was born at New
York city, April 15, 1843. He was educated in Paris,
Geneva, and Bonn, and early became known as a
contributor to American journals. Among his works
are "Roderick Hudson," (1875,) "The Portrrr
a Lady," (iSSi,) "Tales of Three Cities," (iS>
"The Tragic Muse," (1890,) " The Other House,"
(1896,) etc., with works of travel, criticism, etc.

James, (JOHN ANGEI.L,) an eloquent English
dissenting minister and popular writer, born at
Blandford, Dorset, in 1785. He was for many years
an Independent minister of Birmingham, and acquired
great influence by his oral ministry and his numerous
writings, which have had an immense circulation.
Died in 1859.

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; ndt; good; moon;




James, (JOHN THOMAS,) Bishop of Calcutta, born at
Rugby in 1786. Upon the death of Bishop Heber he
was appointed to the diocese of Calcutta, and sailed for
India in 1827. He was the author of a "Tour through
Germany, Sweden, Russia, and Poland," (1816,) " Treat-
ise on the Italian, French, Dutch, and German Schools
of Painting," (1822,) and "The Semi-Sceptic, or the
Common Sense of Religion considered." Died in 1828.

James, (PAUL MOON,) an English poet, born in 1780.
His short lyric " The Beacon," often attributed to Moore,
is all that rescues him from oblivion. He was a banker
in Birmingham, where he died in 1854.

James, (RICHARD,) an English divine, linguist, and
traveller, and nephew of Thomas James, (1571-1629,)
was born at Newport, in the Isle of Wight, in 1592.
Among his works are manuscripts upon Russia, and a
" Poem upon the Death of Sir Robert Cotton." Died
in 1638.

James, (ROBERT,) an English physician, born in Staf-
fordshire in 1703. He was the inventor of a celebrated
fever-powder which bore his name, and the author of a
"Medicinal Dictionary," (1743-45,) (in which he was
assisted by Dr. Samuel Johnson,) treatises on the "Prac-
tice of Physic" and " On Canine Madness," and a "Dis-
sertation on Fevers," (1778.) Died in 1776.

James, (THOMAS,) a learned divine, born at Newport,
in the Isle of Wight, in 1571. He was distinguished as
an able and industrious writer against the Catholics.
Among the most important of his works are " A Treat-
ise of the Corruptions of the Scriptures, Councils, and
Fathers by the Church of Rome," (1612,) and "The
Jesuits' Downfall." Died in 1629.

See WOOD. "Athenae Oxonienses."

James, (THOMAS,) an English navigator, who sailed
in 1631 in search of a northwest passage. He made
some discoveries on the shores of Hudson's Bay, and to
the country lying west of it he gave the name of New
Wales. On his return to England he published "The
Strange and Dangerous Voyage of Captain Thomas
James for the Discovery of a Northwest Passage tc the
South Sea."

James, (THOMAS C.,) M.D., an American physician
and scholar, born in Philadelphia in 1766. He graduated
at the University of Pennsylvania in 1788, and followed
his profession with eminent success in his native city.
In :8li he was appointed professor of midwifery in the
above institution. Died in Philadelphia in 1835. He
is said to have been versed in the Greek, Latin, French,
and German languages, and to have possessed some
acquaintance with the Hebrew. He contributed several
short but beautiful poems to Dennie's "Portfolio."

James, (THOMAS LEMUEL,) LL.D., an American
statesman, born in Utica, New York, March 29, 1831.
He learned the trade of a printer, was engaged in jour-
nalism, 1851-60, held positions in the New York custom-
house, 1860-73, was postmaster of New York, 1873-81,
postmaster-general of the United States, 1881-82, and
afterwards was a bank-president in New York city.

James, (WILLIAM,) an English land-agent and sur-
veyor, born in Warwickshire in 1771. He was the first
to project the Manchester and Liverpool Railway, and is
generally regarded as "the father" of the railway-system
in England. Died in 1837.

James, (WILLIAM,) an Englishman, known as the
author of "The Naval History of Great Britain from
the Declaration of War by France in 1793 to the Ac-
cession of George IV. in 1820," (5 vols., 1822,) a work
evincing great research. Died in 1827.

James, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English naval officer of
high rank, born at Milford Haven about 1721. He dis-
tinguished himself in the East India service and in the
American war. Died in 1785.

James, (WILLIAM,) an American psychologist,
bora at New York in 1842. He was educated at
Lawrence Scientific School, and became professor of
philosophy at Harvard in 1872. He has published
"Principles of Psychology," "The Will to Believe,
and Other Essays," etc. Was appointed Gifford
lecturer on natural religion, University of Edinburgh,

James (or Jacques, zhtk) de Vitri, (deh ve'tRe',) a
distinguished cardinal and historical writer, born at Vitri,
near Paris, in the twelfth century. He preached against
the Albigenses, and about 1218 joined the crusade against
the Saracens. He wrote, besides other works, a " His-
tory of the East and West." Died in 1240.

James (or Giacomo, ji'ko-mo) de Voragine, (dl
vo-ra'je-ni,) a Romish prelate, born at Voraggio, near
Genoa, about 1230. In 1292 he was ordained Archbishop
of Genoa. Died in 1298. He wrote various ecclesias-
tical works, and a famous collection of the lives of the
saints, entitled the " Golden Legend."

James Francis Ed-ward, called the first Pretender,
and Chevalier de Saint George, born in 1688, was the
son and heir of James II. of England. He was educated
in France, and was a Roman Catholic. At the death
of his father he was recognized as King of England by
Louis XIV. He entered the French army, and charged
at the head of the cavalry at Malplaquet in 1709. Lord
Bolingbroke formed a design to secure for him the suc-
cession to the throne, but was defeated by the death of
Queen Anne. In 1715 the Scottish Jacobites took arms
to assert the title of the Pretender, and, under the com-
mand of the Earl of Mar, were defeated at Sheriffmuir.
Another army of his partisans surrendered at Preston.
James Francis Edward landed in Scotland in December,
1715; but, finding his cause in a desperate state, ho
returned to France the next month. Died in 1 758 or 1 765.

See JESSE, "Memoirs of the Pretenders and their Adherents,"

Ja'me-spn, (ANNA,) a celebrated writer, born in
Dublin in 1797, was the daughter of Mr. Murphy, a
painter. She married in 1824 a barrister named Jame-
son, with whom she went to live in Canada ; but, various
circumstances causing a separation, Mrs. Jameson re-
turned to England, to employ herself in literature and
the fine arts. She was an earnest labourer for the fuller
development of the usefulness and mental culture of the
women of England. Her productions evince great dis-
crimination, learning, and refinement. Among the most
important of these we may mention "The Diary of an
Ennuyee," (1826,) " Memoirs of Celebrated Female
Sovereigns," (2 vols., 1831,) "The Beauties of the
Court of Charles II.," " Lives of the Early Italian
Painters," (2 vols., 1845,) and " The Poetry of Sacred
and Legendary Art," (2 vols., 1848.) Died in 1860.

Ja'me-son, (LEANDER STARR,) a British colonist,
was born at Edinburgh in 1853. He studied medi-
cine, went to Cape Colony, and became a physician at
Kimberley in 1878. He became connected there with
Cecil Rhodes, was made in 1891 administrator of the
South Africa Company at Fort Salisbury, and in 1895
set out with five hundred troops to aid the Uitlanders
in their contemplated revolt against the Boer govern-
ment. He and his force were defeated and obliged to
surrender January 2, 1896. He was handed over to
the British authorities, tried in London, and con-
demned to fifteen months' imprisonment, but was
released after a few months on account of illness.

Ja'me-son, (ROBERT,) an eminent Scottish naturalist,
born at Leith in 1774 or 1773. He published " Mineral-
ogy of the Scottish Isles," (2 vols., 1800,) " A System of
Mineralogy," (3 vols., 1804-08,) and other works. He
was professor of natural history in the University of
Edinburgh from 1804 until 1854. In 1819 Professor
Jameson and Sir David Brewster founded the "Edin-
burgh Philosophical Journal," which the former edited
many years. He also contributed to the " Encyclopaedia
Britannica." He had a high reputation as a professor
Died in 1854.

See "Edinburgh Review" for October, 1804, and April, 1805;
" Annual Register" for 1854.

Ja'me-sone, (GEORGE,) an eminent painter, called
" the Van Dyck of Scotland," was born at Aberdeen in
1586. About 1616 he went to Antwerp, where, with Van
Dyck, he studied under Rubens. " His excellence," says
Walpole, "consisted in delicacy and softness, with a
clear and beautiful colouring." It is said that, in 1633,
when Charles I. visited Edinburgh, the magistrates of

eas/i; easj; %kard; gas/;o, U.K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasmtAis. (JEjp"See Explanations, p. 23.)



that city employed Jamesone to paint the portraits of
some of the Scottish monarchs. Charles was so much
pleased with the result that he sat for his own portrait,
and presented the artist vrith a diamond ring from his
finger. Jameson was also a painter of historical and
landscape scenes. Died in 1644.

See ALLAN CUNNINGHAM, *' Lives of the Most Eminent British
Painters," etc. ; WALPOLE, "Anecdotes of Painting :" CHAMBERS,
" Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Jamet, zhS'ml', (PIERRE CHARLES,) a French writer,
born near Sens in 1701. Among his works are "Meta-
physical Essays," (1732,) "Letters on Taste and the Doc-
trine of Bayle," (1740,) and "The Mongol Philosopher
Dane-Che-Men-Kan," (1740.) Died about 1770.

Jami. See JAMEE.

Ja'mie-son, (JOHN,) D.D., a learned divine, born in
Glasgow in 1759, became in 1797 pastor of a church in
Edinburgh, where he remained until his death. The
degree of doctor of divinity was conferred upon him by
the College of New Jersey. He published, besides other
works, "Socinianism Unmasked," (1788,) "The Sorrows
of Slavery," a poem, " The Use of Sacred History," (2
vols., 1802,) an " Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish
Language," (2 vols., 1809,) which is highly esteemed,
and " An Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees of
lona," (1811.) Died in 1838.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;"
"Edinburgh Review" for April, 1809, and May, 1828: "Monthly
Review" for September, 1810.

Jamieson, (ROBERT,) a Scottish scholar, born in
Morayshire in 1780. For many years he was in the civil
service in Edinburgh. Among his works are " Popular
Ballads and Songs," (1806,) partly original. Died in
London, September 2>, 1844.

Jamin, zht'maN', (JEAN BAPTISTE, ) VICOMTE, a
French general, born in 1772; died in 1848.

Jamin, (JULES CELESTIN,) a French natural philoso-
pher, born in 1818. He became professor of physics in
the Polytechnic School at Paris. He commenced in 1858
the publication of an important work, entitled " Cours
de Physique." Died in 1886.

Jamin de Bermuy, zht'maN' deh beVmii-e', (JEAN
BAPTISTE AUGUSTE MARIE,) one of the best French
cavalry officers of his time, was born in Bretagne in
1773. He became colonel of the royal guards of light
cavalry about 1807, and went to Spain, where he dis-
tinguished himself at the battle of Ocana in 1809. As
general of brigade, he won additional honours at the
battle of Vitoria, in 1813. For his various services he
was created baron of the empire and Marquis de Ber-
muy. He fell at the battle of Waterloo, 1815.

Jamsheed. See JEMSHEED.

Jamshid. See JEMSHEED.

Jamyn, zhS'maN', (AMADIS,) a French poet, born
in Champagne about 1540. His productions attracted
the attention of Ronsard, who became a warm friend and
liberal patron of Jamyn and procured for him the situa-
tion of secretary and reader to Charles IX. He wrote
poems on various subjects, and made translations of the
last three books of the " Iliad" and the first three of the
"Odyssey." Died in 1585.

Janachen, yln-a'ken, (i.e. Jan (or John) Achen.)

Jauauachek, ya'now-sheV, (FRANCESCA MADELINA
ROMANCE, called FANNY,) a tragic actress of rare talents,
born in Prague, Bohemia, July 20, 1830. She appears
in both English and German plays, but her principal
successes have been won in Germany.

Jane, (FREDERICK T.,) a British artist and author,
born at Honiton, Devon, in 1865. He served as artist
on several illustrated papers, and wrote " Blake of the
Rattlesnake," (1895,) "To Venus in Five Seconds,"
(1897,) "All the World's Fighting Ships," (1899,)

Janet, zhS'ni', or Janet-Lange, zhi"n&' loNzh,
(ANGE Louis,) a French painter, born in Paris, Novem
ber 19, 1818. A pupil of Ingres, Collin, and Vernet, he
became noted for his military pieces, and not less so for

those on religious subjects. Died at Paris, November
25, 1872.

Janet, (PAUL,) an eminent French philosopher, born
at Paris, April 30, 1823. He held professorships of
philosophy at Bourges and Strasburg, and later at the
Sorbonne. His position is that of an acceptor of science
who at the same time rejects materialism and defends
the old philosophy. Among his numerous works are
" Elements de Morale," (1869,) " La Philosophie fran-
caise contemporaine," (1879,) " Lamennais," (1890,)
"Fenelon," (1892,) etc.

Jane'way, (JAMES,) an English nonconformist divine,
born in Hertfordshire in 1636. He was a preacher of
great power, and was very actively employed at the time
of the plague both in the pulpit and in visiting the sick.
He wrote a " Life of John Janeway," his brother, and
"The Saint's Encouragement to Diligence," (1675.)
Died in 1674.

Jani, ya'nee, (CHRISTIAN DAVID,) a German phi-
lologist, born near Halle in 1743. He published a good
edition of Horace,- (2 vols., 1778-82,) and other works.
Died in 1790.

Jani?on, zhi'ne'siN', (FRANC.OIS MICHEL,) a noted
journalist, born in Paris in 1674. Being an avowed
Protestant, he went to receive his education in Holland,
which became his adopted country. In early life he
entered the army, but finally devoted himself to litera-
ture. Among his works are " Present State of the
Republic of the United Provinces and their Dependen-
cies," (1729,) a production of great merit, and "Serious
and Satirical Letters upon the Works of the Savants,"
(12 vols., 1740 et sef.) Died in 1730.

See MORERI, " Dictionnaire Historique ;" NICBRON, " M^moires."

Jauin, zhfnaN', (JULES GABRIEL^ a celebrated French
critic and litterateur, born at Saint-Etienne in 1804. He
contributed successively to the " Figaro" and the " Quo-
tidienne," and about 1830 became one of the editors
of the "Journal des Debats," for which he furnished a
number of brilliant and original articles on politics and
literature. He was for a long time the dramatic critic
of that journal. He also wrote for the " Revue des Deux
Mondes," etc. Among his other productions are the
romances of" Barnave, (1831,) "New Literary Tales,"
"Journey in Italy," (1839,) and " The Nun of Toulouse,"
(1850.) He also wrote an abridgment of " Clarissa Har-
lowe," and a "History of Dramatic Literature," (4
vols., 1851-56.) His critiques consist mostly of literary
gossip, written in a sparkling and polished style. He
was admitted to the French Academy in 1870. Died
June 20, 1874.

Janitius, ya-nlt'se-us, or Janicki, ya-n!t'skee, (CLE-
MENT,) a learned Polish writer, born in 1516. At fifteen
he wrote elegant Latin poetry. Among his works is
" Lives of the Kings of Poland." Died in 1543.

Jannabee or Jannabt, Al, al-jan-na'bee, [Lat. AL-
JANNA'BIUS, or simply JANNA'BIUS,] (Aboo-Moham-
med-Mustafa moos'ta-fa,) written also Djaunaby
and Dschannabi, an Arabian historian, of whose life
scarcely anything is known. He wrote an abridgment
of universal history, entitled "Bahar-al-Zokkar," from
the creation of the world down to his own time. Died
in 1581.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 31 of 425)