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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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aphie GeneValc;" BUHLS, "Dissertatio de Simplicii Vita," etc.,

Simplicius, sim-plish'e-js, an Italian prelate, born at
Pivoli, (Tibur,) became Bishop of Rome in 467 A.D. Died
1483. '

Simp'spn, (CHRISTOPHER,) an English composer,
lorn about 1610 ; died about 1668.

Simpson, (EDWARD,) an English writer on chro-
nology and theology, born at Tottenham in 1578. He
became rector of Eastling, Kent. Among his works is
'Universal Chronology," ("Chronicon Catholicum,"
1652.) Died in 1651.

Simpson, (Sir JAMES,) a British general, born at
Edinburgh in 1792. He served against the French in
the campaigns of 1812 and 1815, and subsequently
under Sir Charles Napier in India. In 1855 he suc-
ceeded Lord Raglan as commander of the British forces
n the Crimea. He received from Napoleon III. the
;rand cross of the legion of honour. Died in 1868.

Simp'uon, (Sir JAMES YOUNG,) a Scottish physician,
born in Linlithgowshire in 1811, graduated at Edin-
burgh in 1832. He became professor of midwifery in
the university of that city in 1840, and was the first who
employed anzsthetics in obstetric practice, (1847.) In
1856 he received from the French Academy of Sciences
the Monthyon prize of two thousand francs. He was
elected president of the Royal College of Physicians.
Edinburgh, and a foreign associate of the French Acad-
emy of Medicine and of other similar institutions. He
was author of "Contributions to Obstetric Pathology,'
"Essays on Anesthesia," and other medical works.
Died in 1870.

Simpson, (JANE CROSS,) a Scottish poet, a sister o!
Henry Glassford Bell, was born in Glasgow in 1811.
She married in 1837. Among her books are " Piety of
Daily Life," (1836,) "April Hours," (1838,) "Woman's
History," (1848,) and "Linda," (1859.) She also wrote
some favourite hymns.

Simpson, (JOHN PALGRAVE,) an English author,
born in Norfolk about 1805. He was educated at Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge. Among his works ^are
many plays and novels, including "Second Love," (a
tale and a drama, 1846,) "Gisella," (1847,) and "The
Lily of Paris," (1848.) He also published "Letters
from the Danube," (1847.) a "Life of Karl Maria von
Weber," (1865,) and other works. Died in 18^7.

Simp'spn, (MATTHEW,) a bishop of the Methodist
Episcopal Church, was born at Cadiz, Ohio, June 21,
1810. While he was still an infant, his father died, and
the care of his education devolved upon his mother.
In addition to the ordinary English branches, he began
the study of German when he was eight years of age
and the following year read the Bible through in the
German language. He afterwards studied Latin, Greek,

a, e, I, o, u, y,long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit; met; nit; good; moon-




and Hebrew. He graduated as a physician in 1833.
He had joined the Church in 1829, and in 1839 he was
elected president of the Indiana Asbury University,
(Methodist,) and did much to promote the usefulness
and success of that institution. In 1848 he was ap-
pointed editor of "The Western Christian Advocate."
lie was elected bishop in 1852. He took a deep in-
terest in the national cause during the war of the rebel-
lion, and by his zeal and eloquence contributed much to
strengthen the confidence of the people and to uphold
the hands of the government during that great crisis in
our country's history. Bishop Simpson was an intimate
friend of President Lincoln. Died June 18, 1884.

Simpson, (THOMAS,) an able English mathematician,
born at Market-Bosworth in 1710. He learned the trade
of a weaver, and practised astrology or fortune-telling
in his early life. About 1736 he removed to London,
where he became a teacher of mathematics. He pub-
lished a " New Treatise on Fluxions," (1737.) and seve-
ral works on mathematics. In 1743 he was appointed
professor of mathematics in the Military Academy at
Woolwich. Died in 1761.

See HUTTON, "Mathematical Dictionary;" "Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Generate."

Simpson, (WILLIAM,) a British artist, born at
Glasgow in 1823. He was special artist of the Lon-
don " Illustrated News" after 1860, and as such was
present at many wars, coronations, and other important
events. He published several illustrated and archae-
ological works.

Simrock, sim'rok or zin/rok, (KARL,) a distinguished
German poet and translator, born at Bonn in 1802. He
published in 1827 a translation of the "Nibelungenlied,"
and in 1831 a work entitled "Sources of Sh.ikspeare's
Plots in Novels, Tales, and Legends," in which he was
assisted by Echtermeyer and Henschel. He also trans-
lated "Twenty Songs of the Nibelungen," (1840,) pro-
nounced genuine by Lachmann, and several other Ger-
man poems of the middle ages. Among his principal
original works are his poem of " Wieland the Smith,"
"Legends of the Rhine, from the Mouths of the People
and the German Poets," (1850,) and "Manual of Ger-
man Mythology." He became professor of the German
language and literature at Bonn in 1850. Died in 1876.

Sims, (CHARLES N.,) D.D., LL.D., an American cler-
gyman and educator, born in Union county, Indiana,
May l8,~i835. He graduated at Indiana Asbury Uni-
versity in 1859, and entered the Methodist ministry. In
lS8l he was appointed chancellor of Syracuse University,
(New York.) He published a "Life of T. M. Eddy,"

Sims, (GEORGE RonERT,)~an English humourist, born
in London, September 2, 1847. He was educated at
Bonn, and became a journalist. He published " Dagonet
Ballads," and many plays, including "The Lights o'
London," (1882,) "Romany Rye," "The Merry Duch
ess," a comic opera, etc., and several novels.

Sims, (JAMES MARION,) a distinguished American
surgeon, born in South Carolina in 1813. He removed
in 1853 to New York, where he was instrumental in
founding a hospital for the treatment of the diseases of
women. Died November 13, 1883.

Simson, sim'son or zim'son, (MARTIN EDUARD,) a
German jurist and statesman, born at Kbnigsberg in 1810.
He studied at Bonn undsr Niebuhr, and in 1836 became
professor of law at Konigsberg. In 1848 he was elected
president of the National Assembly. Died in 1899.

Sim'son, (ROBERT,) an eminent Scottish mathe-
matician, born at Kirton Hall, Ayrshire, in 1687. He
became professor of mathematics in the University of

discoveries in relation to the porisms of the ancients
Died in 1768.

See WILLIAM TRAIL, " Account of the Life and Writings of R
Simson," i8ia: CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminem

Sinn, Ibn. See AVICENNA.

Sinan, se-nan', (SciPlONE ClCALE,) an Italian rene-

^e, born about IJIJ. He became a Turkish general
and grand vizier. Died in 1595.

Sin'clair, (CATHERINE,) a daughter of Sir John Sin-
clair, noticed below, was born in 1800. She published
numerous tales and novels, which have had an extensive
circulation: among these we may name "Modern Soci-
ety," "Beatrice," "Business of Life," and "James Ecu-
verie." She also wrote several books for children, the
'Kaleidoscope of Anecdotes and Aphorisms," "Shet-
and and the Shetlanders," etc. Died in 1864.

Sinclair, sin'klair, ? (CHARLES GIDEON,) BARON, a
Swedish general and military. writer, born about 1730.
He served with distinction in many campaigns in France,
Prussia, and Saxony. Died in 1803.

Sinclair, (Sir JOHN,) a Scottish statesman and phi-
lanthropist, born in the county of Caithness in 1754.
lie studied at Edinburgh and Oxford, and in 1780 rep-
resented his native county in Parliament, being several
times re-elected. He was conspicuous for his efforts to
promote internal improvements in his country, originated
the board of agriculture, of which he became first presi-
dent, and founded a society for the improvement of wool.
Among his numerous and valuable treatises, which em-
brace a great variety of subjects, may be named his
" History of the Revenue of Great Britain," " Considera-
tions on Militias and Standing Armies," " Essays on
Agriculture," and "Statistical Account of Scotland."
The last-named is esteemed a standard work. Died
in 1835.

See CHAMBERS, *' BioEfaphical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;"
" Memoir of Sir John Sinclair," by his son, 1837 ; " Edinburgh Re-
view'* for April, 1803; " Blaclcwood's Magazine" for July, 1837:

Monthly Review" for June, iSoS, and September, 1814.

Sin'clare or Sinclair, (GEORGE,) a Scottish mathe-
matician and philosopher, was professor of philosophy
at Glasgow, lie published several scientific treatises,
and a work entitled " Satan's Invisible World dis-
Qovercd." Died in 1696.

Siii'dl-a or S9in'di-ah, (DSw'lut R8w,) a Mah
ratta chief, born about 1780, was a grand-nephew of
Madajee, noticed below, whom he succeeded in 1794.
lie was involved in war against the British, who, under
Sir A. Wellesley, gained a decisive victory over him at
Assaye in 1803. His army was defeated in several
battles in the same year, and he was forced to cede a
large part of his territories. Died in 1827.

Siu'dl-a, or Sind'hj-a, the family name of a line
of Mahratta princes, of which the head is the Maharajah
Sindia, the chief of the Gwalior state, now feudatory to
British India. The founder of the family was Ranojee
Sindia, a Mahratta of a low Soodra caste, who was a
menial servant (keeper of the slippers) to the Peishwa,
a native ruler. Sindia became a court favourite, and rose
to command the army. In 1743 he was made hereditary
ruler of extensive territories. In 1782 his soji^Madajee
was recognized as a sovereign ruler and maharajah. In
recent years the Sindia family has been conspicuous for
its loyalty to British interests.

Sindia, (Madajee or Madhajee, ma-di'jee,) a cele-
brated Mahratta chief, born in Hindostan about 1741.
He was a warlike and energetic prince, made extensive
conquests, and became master of Delhi. His dominions
extended from the Ganges to the Nerbudda. Died in

Singh, (Runjeet) See RUNJEET SINGH.

Sin'gle-ton, (HENRY,) an English painter, born in
London in 1766. He produced both historical pictures
and portraits ; among his master-pieces are a series of
illustrations from Shakspeare, "Christ Healing the
Blind," " Coriolanus and his Mother," and " The Storm-
ing of Seringapatam." Died in 1839.

Singlin, siN'glaN', (ANTOINE,) a French theologian,
born Ui Paris, was confessor to the nuns of Port-Royal.
He preached with much unction. It is stated that Pascal
had so high an opinion of the solidity of his judgment
that he read all his works to Singlin before he published
them. Died in 1664.

See GOUJET, "Vie de Singlin," prefixed to Singlin's "InstruQ
lions chre'tiennes," 12 vols., 1736.

Sinnamus. See CINNAMUS.

as k; 9 as*; g hard; g as>; c, H, K.,pittuntl; N, nasal R trilled- i as z th as in this. (^=See Explanations, p. 33. )




Sinner, sin'ner or zin'ner, [Fr. pron. se'naiR',] (Jo-
MANN l\UDOLF.)'a Swiss philologist, born at Eerne in
1730; died in 1787., deh se'naiR', (R. G. Louis,) a Swiss Hel-
lenist, born in the Canton of Berne in 1801. He published
good editions of Aristophanes, Plato, Euripides, Sopho-
cles, and Xenophon, (1829-47.) Died April 16, 1860.

Si'non, |Gr. tivuv,\ a semi-fabulous or fictitious per-
son, who, according to Homer and Virgil, acted an in-
sidious part in the siege of Troy. They relate that he
presented himself to the Trojans as a deserter from the
Greek army, affirming that the Greeks had abandoned
the siege, and that he ran away because they were about
to offer him as a sacrifice. By his artful tale and well-
feigned passion he imposed on the credulous Trojans,
and persuaded them to introduce the wooden horse into

Sintenis, sin'teh-nis or zin'teh-nis, (CHRISTIAN
FRIEDRICH,) a German theologian and miscellaneous
writer, born at Zerbst in 1750. His voluminous works
comprise sermons, educational treatises, and moral and
religious romances. Died in 1820.

jurist, grandson of the preceding, was born at Zerbst
in 1804. Died at Dessau, August 2, 1868.

Siofn, se-6fn', written also Se-o'na, [etymology
doubtful,] a goddess in the Norse mythology, whose
office it is to inspire the passion of love. She may be
said to be a sort of female Cupid. From her name a
lover is called Siafni.

See THORPE, " Northern Mycology." vol. L ; MALLET, " North-
ern Antiquities," vol. ii. Fable XVIII.

Sionita, (GABRIEL.) See GABRIEL.

Sirani, se-ra'nee, (ELISABETTA,) an Italian historical
painter, born at Bologna in 1638, was a daughter of
Giovanni Andrea, noticed below. She imitated the
second manner of Guido with success, and acquired a
high reputation. Died in 1665.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy;" C. BONAFEDB,
"Elisabetta Sirani Azione storico-drammalica," 1856.

Sirani, (GIOVANNI ANDREA,) an Italian painter, born
at Bologna in 1610, was a successful imitator of the style
of Guido. Died in 1670.

Si'rens, singular Si'ren, [Gr. SnpTi'tr, (singular
Scipi/v,-) Lat. SIRE'NES or SEIRE'NES; Fr. SIRENES,
se'r^n',] mythical beings, who were supposed to have
the power of enchanting all who heard them sing. Ac-
cording to Homer and other poets, they lived in an
island near the coast of Italy, where they sat in a meadow
near the shore and allured those who were sailing past
the island ; and whoever listened to their song forgot
his home and remained with the Sirens until he perished
or became brutalized.

Siret, se'r^', (ADOLPHE,) a Belgian !ift<!ratfur,born
at Beaumont, in Hainault, about 1805. He published,
besides several poems and dramas, a " Historical Dic-
tionary of Painters of all Schools," (1848.) Died in iSS8.

Siret, (Louis PIERRE,) a French grammarian, botn
at Evreux in 1745, published good works on English
and Italian grammar for French students. Died in


Siret, (PIERRE HUBERT,) a French preacher, born at
Rheims in 1754 ; died in 1834.

Sirey, se'ri', (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French jurist, botn
at Sarlat (Perigord) in 1762, published several legal
works. Died in 1845.

Siri, see'ree, (ViTi'ORlo,) an Italian monk and his-
torian, born at Parma about 1615, was patronized by
Louis XIV. of France, who made him his almoner and
historiographer. He conducted for many years a jour-
nal entitled " Mercuric Politico," (15 vols.,) which treats
of events that occurred from 1635 to 1655. He also
published " Secret Memoirs," (" Memorie recondite,")
a journal in 8 vols. Died in 1685.

Siricius, se-rish'e-u,s, [Fr. Si RICE, se'ress',1 born at
Rome about 324 A.D., was elected Pope or Bishop of
Rome in 384. He issued decrees against the Mani-
cheans, Donatists, and other heretics. Died in 398.

Siries, see're-eV, (ViOLANTE BEATRICE,) an Italian
portrait-painter, born in 1710; died about 1760.

Sirleto, seR-la'to, [Lat SIRLE'TUS; Fr. SIRLET, sea'-
4',] (GUGLIELMO,) a learned Italian cardinal, born in
Calabria in 1514. He became keeper of the library of
.he Vatican in 1549. He acted as intermediary between
:he pope and the Council of Trent about 1560. Died
n 1585.

Sirletus. See SIRLETO.

Sirmond, seR'mAN', [Lat SIRMOND'US,] (JACQUES,)
a learned French Jesuit and antiquary, born at Riom in
1559, was for a time professor of rhetoric in Paris. He
subsequently examined the archives of the convents,
where he obtained many valuable manuscripts. Among
these he published editions of Apollinaris Sidonius, the
'Chronicles" of Idatius and Marcellinus, the "Opus-
cules" of Geoflroi, Abbe de Vendome, and other writers
of the middle ages. Sirmond was appointed in 1637
confessor to Louis XIII. He wrote several valuable
antiquarian treatises. Died in 1651.

See BRIET, " Eulogium J. Sirmondi," 1653: COLOMISS, "Vie do
Pere Sirmond," 1671 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Sirmond, (JEAN,) a writer, born at Riom about 1589,
was a nephew of the preceding. He was a member of
the French Academy, and received a pension from Riche-
"ieu. Died in 1649.

See MORERI, " Dictionnajre Hislorique."

Sis'e-but [Lat. SISEBU'TUS] was elected King of the
Visigoths in Spain in 612 A.D. He was a zealous pro-
essor of the Christian religion, and was an able ruler.
Died in 620 A.D.

Sl-sen'na, (Lucius CORNELIUS,) a Roman annalist,
2orn about 118 B.C. He was praetor about 78 B.C. He
wrote a work on Roman history, entitled " Historic,"
which was praised by Cicero, (" Brutus" and "De Legi


See KARL L. ROTH, " L. C Sisennz Vita," 1834.

Siaifo. See SISYPHUS.

Sl-sin'nI-us, a native of Syria, became pope at the
death of John VII., in 708. He died in the next month.

Sismondi, sis-mon'dee, [It. pron. ses-mon'dee,] de,
[Fr. pron.,deh ses'mdN'de',] (JEAN CHARLES LEONARD
SIMONDE,) an eminent Swiss historian and publicist, of
Tuscan extraction, was born at Geneva on the gth of
May, 1773. lie was educated in the College of Geneva,
and became a clerk in the counting-house of a merchant
or banker in Lyons. In consequence of the civil war, he
left this position in 1792 and visited England, the lan-
guage and institutions of which he appears to have
studied with much attention. In 1795 ne removed with
his father to Val Chiusa, Tuscany, where he wasemployed
as a farmer for five years. He returned to Geneva in
iSoo, and published a work "On Commercial Riches,"
(2 vols., 1803,) in which he advocated the doctrines of
Adam Smith. Soon after this event he formed a friend-
ship with Madame de Stael, with whom he travelled in
Italy and Germany, (1804-08.) By the advice of his
mother, he devoted himself to the composition of history.
In 1807 he published the first and second volumes of an
important work, "The History of the Italian Repub-
lics," which was received with favour. The sixteenth
and last volume appeared in 1818. " Sismondi," says
Mignet, "has traced this history with vast learning, a
noble spirit, a vigorous talent, sufficient art, and much
eloquence." He contributed many articles to the "Bio-
graphie Universelle" of Michaud. In 1819 he married
Miss Allen, an English lady and a sister-in-law of Sir
James Mackintosh. About this time Guizot offered to
him a professorship in the College of France, but he
declined it. He expended many years in writing his
"History of the French," ("Histoire des Francais," 30
vols., 1821-44,) which some critics consider his best
work. Sismondi was a Protestant and a republican.
His moral character is highly commended. He died at
Geneva in 1842, leaving no children.

See "Vie de Sismondi," Paris, 1845: LOMENIE, "Galerie des
Conlemporains," tome vii. : F. A. A. MICNBT, "Nonce histonque
ur la Vie de M. de Sismondi," 1845: "Nouvelle Biographic Gene-
rate ; Quarterly Review" for June, 1813, and September, 1843:
" Edinburgh Review" for June, 1815; " Foreign Quarterly Renew"
for April, 1829

Sisto, the Italian of SIXTUS, which see.
Sisto Rosa. See BADALOCCHIO.

a, e, i, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ti, J, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; mSon,




Sisupala, sis-oo-p5'la, in Hindoo legend, a king of
Chedi, in Central India. He was the enemy of Krishna,
who slew him.

Sis'jf-phus, [Gr. Ziovf*; Fr. SISYPHE, se'seP; It
SISIFO, see'se-fo,] a fabulous king of Corinth, was called
a son of >Eolus, a brother of Cretheus, Athamas, and
Salmoneus, and the husband of Merope. He was ex-
tremely crafty and deceitful. The poets feigned that
when Death was sent to take him he outwitted Death
and bound him in fetters ; and that for his various crimes
he was doomed in the infernal regions to roll up hill a
large stone, which, as soon as it reached the top, rolled
down again. According to one tradition, he was the
father of Ulysses.

Sita, see'ti, written also Seeta, in the Hindoo my-
thology, the name of the beautiful and spotless wife of the
god Kama. As Rama was an avatar of Vishnu^so Sita
is regarded as an avatar of Lakshmi. (See RAMA.)

Sitting Bull, (Indian name, Tatanka Yotanka,)
a Sioux chief, born in Dakota in 1837. He was leader
of the warlike part of his tribe, and commanded in
the Custer massacre of 1876. He was killed in the
Messiah outbreak of 1890.

Siun- (or Setm-) King, se-uN king, a Chinese phi-
losopher, regarded by many as the ablest of all the fol-
lowers of Confucius, flourished from about 270 to 220
B.C. He wrote a refutation of the doctrine of Mencius
that man is naturally good. He maintained, on the
contrary, that "the nature of man is evil ; that the good
which it shows is factitious, (or artificial.") He supports
his position with great ingenuity and force of reasoning.
He says, if man's nature were good, men would not need
to be continually taught and governed ; they would do
right spotitanemsly. To live properly. and virtuously
requires continual self-denial ; but why deny our natural
inclinations, if these are good ? As man is naturally
crooked and perverse, his nature needs to be corrected
by the government of wise rulers and the restraints
of just laws.

Siva, see'vd, the goddess of harvests among the
Wends and some other northern nations. She is called
in the Norse mythology SIP, which see.

SIv'a or iva, commonly pronounced (in English]
and sometimes written See'va, spelled also Shiva, [from
the Sanscrit adjective sMvds, thfvS, shtvarn, "prosper-
ous," " happy.'M the usual name of one of the gods of
the Hindoo triad ; also popularly known as Mahadfiva,
ma-hi' da'va, (generally called by the common people
of India Mahadeo, ma-ha' da'o,) or the "great god.'
Mahesa (ma-ha'sa) is another, and one of the most
common, of his many names. He may be said to repre-
sent the destructive powers of nature ; and since, in the
present order of things, destruction seems necessary tc
prepare the way for a renewal of life, he is also believec
to preside over generation or reproduction. In this lat-
ter character his power is typified by the phallic emblem
called in Sanscrit the Linga (ling'ga) or Lingam ; which
is commonly, if not invariably, found in temples or places
dedicated to his worship. Among the gods of classic
mythology the character of Saturn, or Time, (who both
produces and destroys,) would, in its leading features
seem most to resemble that of Siva; but the attributes
and offices of the Hindoo deity are so multitudinous
that we must seek his counterpart, not in one, but in
several, of the Western divinities. As being the might
iest of all the gods, as he is usually regarded at least by
the common people, and as his name Mahadeva wouk
appear to imply, he may be said to correspond to the
Zeus (or Jupiter) of the Greeks and Romans; and, if we
take simply the radical part of the two names, Zat 01
Zn;* and Siv\ or SArv,] the resemblance might wel
seem to be something more than a mere accident. Adi
to this that Siva is represented with three eyes, (one ii
the middle of his, forehead,) whence he was surnamec
in Sanscrit MtSchanS, (or "three-eyed,") and that the
Greek triophthalmos, having exactly the same meaning

* As it mny have been pronounced by the ancients, and as it a
pronounced by the modem Greeks.

t So called in the common dialect of India.

as also an epithet of Zeus.} It is, moreover, expressly
tated by Hindoo authorities that Siva had a thousand
eparate names. Zeus also had a multitude of names;
n the noble hymn to Jupiter by Cleanthes the god is
ddressed as irohvuw/it, "thou many-named." (See,
jn this subject, Sir William Jones's article "On the
Sods of Greece, Italy, and India," in vol. i. of "Asiatic

In India, a country where the vegetation is so often
lestroyed by the heat of the sun, it would be natural to
associate not only fire or heat, but the sun itself, with
he destroying power. Accordingly, not only fire in
general, but the sun in particular, is considered to be
one of the many forms of Siva. Again, cold, another
cause of the destruction of life, would seem to be an.
especial favourite with Mahadeva. who is said to have
selected the inaccessible snows of Mount Kailasa (or
Dailasa) as his permanent abode. There his devoted
consort Parvati (i.e. the "mountain-born") is ever at
nis side. It is related that on a certain occasion, in
Deseeching a favour of her lord, or, as some say, in
mere playfulness, she placed one of her hands upon
-lis forehead ; his middle eye (the sun) was completely
eclipsed, and, although she instantly took her hand
away, the period of darkness seemed an age to the in-
habitants of the earth. When she removed her hand,
t was covered with the perspiration from Siva's temples.
Shaking off the moisture, she produced the Ganges. The
'able is related variously, but the universal tradition is
jhat the Ganges sprang from Siva's hair ; and in many of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 310 of 425)