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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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' Facts relating to the Colouring-Matter of Vegetables."
rle was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and a friend of Sir
Humphry Davy and other eminent philosophers of the
time. He died in 1829, leaving the whole of his property
to found at Washington, in the United States, an insti-
tution, called by his name, for the increase and diffusion
of knowledge.

Smlts, (DIRK,) a Dutch poet, born at Rotterdam in
1702. His productions, among which is " De Rotte
Stroom," (1750,) are eulogized by Gravenweert. Died
In 1752.

See LoNC.pEt.tow, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" GRAVEM-
WBEKT, " Literature Ne'erlandaise."

Smitz or Emits, smJts, (CASPAR,) a Dutch portrait-
painter, who worked in England and Ireland. He ex-
:elled in painting Magdalens, and was called MAGDALEN
SMITH. Died in 1689,

Smitz, (Louis,) a Dutch painter of flowers and fruit,
born at Dort in 1635; died in 1675.

Smol'lett, (TOBIAS GEORGE.) a distinguished British
novelist and historian, born in the vale of Leven, Dum-
bartonshire, Scotland, in 1721. He studied medicine at
Glasgow, and entered the royal navy as surgeon's mate
about 1741. Having quitted the naval service in disgust
about 1744, he settled in London. He produced coarse
satires, entitled "Advice," (1746,) and "Reproof." In

1747 he married a Creole named Miss Lascelles, and in

1748 published "Roderick Random," a novel, which
was successful and displayed a great talent for humour.
His next work was "Peregrine Pickle," a coarse and li-
centious tale, (1751.) "Count Fathom, "another romance,
similar in character to the preceding, appeared in 1753.
He was not successful in obtaining practice as a phy-
sician. In 1758 he published a "Complete History of
England from the Earliest Times to the Treaty of Aix-
la-Chapelle," (6 vols.,) which was received with favour,
although it has little merit except the style. He after-
wards wrote a " Continuation of the History of England"
to the year 1764. During the administration of Lord
Bute, Smollett edited "The Briton," a political paper
which supported the ministry and was denounced by
John Wilkes in the "North Briton." Among his
numerous works is "The Expedition of Humphrey
Clinker," (1771.) He went to Italy for his health in
1770, and died, near Leghorn, in October, 1771.

See R. ANDERSON, "Life of T. Smollett." iSoj: SIR WALTER
SCOTT, " Biographical Memoirs of Eminent Novelists;" DR. MOORS,
"LileofSmollett;" CHAMBERS, " Itiograpliical Dictionaryof Eminent
Scotsmen:" HAZLITT. "Comic Writers;" " Inedited Memorials of
Smollett," in the "Atlantic Monthly" for June, 1859 ; CARV, " Live*
of English Poets from Johnson to Kirke Wliite ;" AU.IBONK, " Dic-
tionary of Authors."

Smybert. See SMIBERT.

Smyth, (CLEMENT,) D.D., a bishop, born at Finlea,
county of Clare, Ireland, January 24, 1810. He origi-

, e, I, o, u, y, long; 4, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1,6, fi, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fjr, fill, fit; mt; n&t; good; mooo




nally bore the name of TIMOTHY SMYTH. He in youth
joined the Order of the Presentation, but was afterwards
transferred to the Trappists of Melleray. In 1844 he
was ordained a priest. In 1849 he went to Iowa, and
there founded the abbey at New Melleray, of which he
became the prior. In 1857 he was consecrated titular
Bishop of Thanasis, and made administrator of the see
of Chicago, and in 1858 he was translated to the. see of
Dubuque. Died September 23, 1865.

Smyth, (EGIIERT COFFIN,) D.D., an American Con-
gregationalist divine, born at Brunswick, Maine, August
29, 1829. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1848,
studied divinity in the Seminaries of Andover and Han-
gor and in the University of Berlin, was professor of
rhetoric in Bowdoin College, 1854-56, and of natural
and revealed religion, 1856-63, and in the latter year
was called to the chair of ecclesiastical history in An-
dover Seminary. His principal works are " Discourses
upon the Religious History of Bowdoin College," (1858,)
and a translation (with C. J. H. Ropes) of Uhlhorn's
"Conflict of Christianity with Heathenism," (1879.) He
is a large contributor to current review literature.

Smyth, (JAMES CARMICHAEL,) a Scottish physician,
born in 1741, published several medical works, and dis-
covered a method of preventing contagion by the use
of nitrous vapour. He was a Fellow of the Royal So-
ciety. Died in 1821.

Smyth, (NEWMAN,) D.D., an American divine, whose
was born in Brunswick, Maine, June 25, 1843, and is a
son of Professor William Smyth, and a brother of Pro-
fessor E. C. Smyth. He graduated at Bowdoin College
in 1863. served as a volunteer officer in the army, 1864-
65, and entered the Congregational ministry. A suspi-
cion of doctrinal unsoundness caused his rejection when
proposed as a candidate for a professorship in Andover
Seminary, but he was soon after called to an important
pastorate in New Haven. His principal works are " The
Religious Feeling," (1877,) "Old Faith in a New Light,"
(1879,) "Orthodox Theology of To-Day," (iSSl,) and
"Dorner on the Future State," (1883).

Smyth, (PlAZZi,) a British astronomer, a son of W.
H. Smyth, noticed below, was born at Naples, January 3,
1819. In 1845 he was appointed astronomer royal for Scot-
land, and professor of practical astronomy in the Univer-
sity of Edinburgh. Among his works are "Teneriffe,"
"Three Cities in Russia," (1862,) "Life and Work at
the Great Pyramid," (1867,) " Antiquity of Intellectual
Man," (1868,) "Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid,"
etc. Died February 21, 1900.

Smyth, (THOMAS,) D.D., born at Belfast, Ireland, in
iSoS, emigrated to the United States, and in 1832 be-
came pastor of the Second Presbyterian Church in
Charleston, South Carolina. He has published "The
Life and Character of Calvin Defended," and other
theological and controversial works. Died in 1873.

Smyth, (THOMAS A.,) a general, born in Ireland,
emigrated to the United States. For his conduct at
Cold Harbour, June, 1864, he was appointed a brigadier
general. He was killed near Farmville, Virginia, in
April, 1865.

Smyth, (WlLLTAM,) an English poet and scholar,
born at Liverpool in 1766. He took his degree al
Cambridge, where he was appointed in 1809 professor
of modern history. He published a treatise " On the
Evidences of Christianity," " English Lyrics," and a
collection of "Lectures." Died in 1849.

Smyth, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an English naval officer,
born in Westminster in 1788, was employed in 1823
in a survey of the coast of Sardinia. He publishec
a " Sketch of the Present State of the Island of Sar
dinia," and "The Mediterranean: a Memoir, Physical
Historical, and Nautical," (1854.) He was made a
rear-admiral in 1853. Died in 1865.

Snape, (ANDREW,) an English theologian, born at
Hampton Court about 1670. He wrote against Hoadly
Died in 1742.

Siiayers, sni'ers, (HENRY,) a skilful Flemish en
graver, born at Antwerp in 1612. He engraved some
works of Rubens.

Snayers, (PiERRE,) a Flemish painter, born at Ant-
werp in 1593. He painted landscapes and battles. Died
in 1670.

SnSll, (Lunwir.,) born at Idstein, in the ctuctiy of
Nassau, in 1785, became professor of political science
at Kerne, in Switzerland. Died in 1854,

Snell, (RUDOLPH,) a Dutch mathematician and phi-
lologist, born at Oudenarde in 1547, became professoi
of mathematics at Leyden. Died in 1613.

Snell, (WiLHELM,) a German jurist, brother of LuH-
ivig,. noticed above, was born at Idstein in 1789. He
'jecame successively professor of law at Bale, Zurich,
and Berne, in Switzerland. Died in 1851.

Snell, |Lat. SNEL'LIUS,! ( WILLEBROD,) a Dutch
mathematician, born at Leyden in 1591, was a son of
Rudolph, noticed above. He discovered the law of the
i-efraction of light, that the sines of the angles of incidence
and refraction have to each other a constant ratio. He
published, besides other works, " Cyclometricus," ( 162 1,)
a treatise on the measurement of a circle. Died in 1626.

SeeFoppENs, " Biblioiheca Belgica;" MONTUCLA. "Hisioire des

Snellaert, snel'liRt, (FERDINAND AucusTYN,) a
distinguished Belgian writer, born at Courtrai in 1809.
Among his principal works are an essay on the history
of Flemish poetry, entitled "Over de Nederlandsche
Dichtkunst in Belgie," (1838,) and "A Brief Sketch of
Dutch and Flemish Literature," (" Kort Begrip eener
Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Letterkunde," 1849.)
He founded a society for the cultivation of the Flemish
language. Died July 3, 1872.

Snellincks, snel'links, or Snellinx, (JAN,) a Flern-
ish painter of history and battles, born at Mechlin in
1544. He worked at Antwerp-. Died in 1638.

Snellius. See SNELL.

Sue'then, (NICHOLAS,) an American Methodist di-
vine, born on Long Island in 1769, settled in Maryland,
and was elected chaplain to Congress. He was an
eloquent and popular preacher, and one of the principal
founders of the Methodist Protestant Church. Died in


Sneyders. See SNYDERS.

Sniadecki, sne-a-dSts'skee, (ANDREW.) a Polish
physiologist, born in 1768, studied at Pavi'a under Gal-
vani and Volta, and subsequently at Edinburgh. He
became professor of chemistry and pharmacy at Wilna
in 1797. He was the author of a "Theory of Organic
Existences," (in Polish,) which is regarded as a standard
work and has been translated into French and German.
Died in 1838.

See BALINSKI, " Biographic d'A. Sniadecki," 1846.

Sniadecki,(JoHN,) a celebrated Polish mathematician,
and astronomer, born in Gnesen in 1756, was a brother
of Andrew, noticed above. He studied at Cracow, and
subsequently visited Paris, where he made the acquaint-
ance of D'Alembert, Laplace, and other eminent savants,
and on his return to Poland became professor of astron-
omy and mathematics at Cracow. Having resided for 2
time in England, and made another tour on the continent,
he was appinted in 1806 rector of the University of
Wilna, which under his direction obtained riie highest
reputation for the culture of the exact sciences. Snia-
decki was a corresponding member of the Saint Peters-
burg Academy, to which he contributed a number of
aluable astronomical observations. He published 3

__ system . .

Miscellaneous Writings," 2 vols., (1822-24,) and other
works, which are highly esteemed. Died in 1830.

Snorri-Sturluson, snoR'ree stur'lu-son, written also
-Sturleson Or -Sturulson, one of the most eminent
poets and scholars of Iceland, was born in 1178. He
was educated by the learned Ion, and soon distinguished
himself by his attainments in almost every department
of knowledge. He was afterwards appointed to the high
office of interpreter of the law, and obtained the rank
of jarl, (a word etymologically related and nearly corre-
sponding to our "earl.") His avarice and his turbulent
disposition, however, involved him in a quarrel with his
own family, several of whom joined a faction of his ene-

as /. 4 as j, g hard; g as/'; C, H, K.guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as s; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 23.)




mies, and he was murdered by his own sons-in-law, (1241.)

His greatest work is a collection of sagas, entitli

" Heimskringla," which has been translated into Latin,

Swedish, and Danish ; he is also supposed to have : writ-
ten the first part of the Snorra-Edda, entitled ihe
Gylfa-Ginning," the Scaldic songs called "Kanmngar,-
and " Hattalykill," (the "Key of the Wise. )

See CRONHOLM. " Dissertatio de SnorronU Sturlomdis Historia,
1841 ; Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Snoy, snoi, (RECNIER or RENIER,) a Dutch historian
and physician, born at Gouda in 1477- He wrote a
Latin history of Holland, " De Rebus Batavicis, (1620.)

D Snyde 5 rs 7 or Sneyders, sni'ders, or Snyera, sni'ers.
(FRANCIS ) an eminent Flemish painter, born at Ant
werp in 1579, studied fruit- and flower-painting under
Henry van Balen. He afterwards devoted himsel.
chiefly to the delineation of animals and hunting-scenes,
which are among the most admirable works of their
kind. He was an intimate friend of Rubens and Jor
daens, for whose pictures he frequently painted
animals and still life. Among his master-pieces are
a stag-hunt, and other similar productions, painted t
Philip III. of Spain. Died in 1657.

See DESCAMFS, "Vies des Peintres Flamands," etc.
Soane, (Sir JOHN,) a celebrated English architect,
born at Reading in 1753. Having studied for a time
under Dance and Holland, he was enabled, through the
influence of Sir William Chambers, to visit Italy as
a student of the Royal Academy. After his return to
England he was successively appointed architect to the
royal woods and forests, surveyor to Chelsea Hospital,
and professor of architecture at the Royal Academy,
(1806) Among his principal works are the Free-
masons' Hall, Dulwich Gallery, and the State Paper
Office in Saint James's Park, London. He died in
1837, bequeathing to the nation his valuable collections
of ancient and modern art.

Soanen, so'S'nON', (JEAN,) a French prelate, born at
Riom in 1647, was an eloquent preacher. He became
Bishop of Senez in 1695-, and, having identified himself
with the Jansenists, was suspended in 1727.

See ABB* GAULTIKII, " Vie de Soanen," 1750.
Soave, so-a'vi, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian teacher am
writer, born at Lugano in 1743. He was professor of
philosophy at Milan, and professor of ideology at Pavia.
He published, besides other works, " Moral Tales,'
(" Novelle moral!,") which are highly commended. Died
at Pavia in 1806.

See SAVIOLI, " Elogio di Soave," 1806; "Vita di Fr. Soave,
(anonymous,) 1815.

Sobieski, so-be-eVkee, (JAMES Louis,) a Polisl
nobleman, a son of the following, was born in Paris in
1667. He displayed great courage in the campaign
against the Turks in 1683. After the death of his father
in 1696, he aspired to the throne ; but the Poles pre
ferred Augustus of Saxony. Died in 1734.

Sobieaki, (JOHN III.,.) a celebrated Polish warrio
and king, born of a noble family in Galicia in 1629. A
an early age he distinguished himself by repelling th
invasions of the Cossacks, Tartars, and Russians, an
In 1665 was made grand marshal and hetman of Po
land. In 1671 he defeated the Turks under Mahome
IV., and took the fortress of Kotzim. On the death o
Michasl, King of Poland, in 1674, John Sobieski wa>
elected his successor. The Turks, having again invade
Poland, were soon after driven out by Sobieski, and
peace was concluded between the nations. In 1683 h
marched to the relief of the Austrians besieged in V
enna by a numerous army under the grand-vizier Kar
Mustafa, and, with the assistance of his French an
German allies, raised the siege of the city and expelle
the Turks from the country. He died in 1696, havin
earned the reputation of one of the truest patriots h
country has produced.

See COVER, " Histoire de Jean Sobieslti," 3 vols., 1761 : SA
VANUV, " His'.oire de Pologne sous Jean Sobieski," 3 vols., 1821
L,. RO^ALSKI, " Histoire du Regne de Sobieski," 1847, "Authent
Memoirs of John Sobieski," by A. T. PALMER ; " Nouvelle Biogra
phie Generale."

Socin. See SOCINUS.

So-ci'nua, (FAUSTCJS,) the Latin name of FAUSTO
OZZINI, (fows'to sot-see'nee,) [Fr. FAUSTE SOCIN, fost
o'slN',] an eminent Italian theologian, born at Sienna
n 1539. He passed twelve years at Florence in the
ervice of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, and adopted
nti-trinitarian opinions. In 1574 he removed to Swit-
erland. After he had spent three years at Bale in the

udy of theology, he visited Transylvania, and in 1579
egan to propagate his doctrines in Poland, where he
lade many converts. He rejected the doctrines of pre-
estination, atonement, and original sin. In 1594 he
ublished a work "On Christ the Saviour," (" De Jesu
;hristo Servatore,") for which he was violently perse-
uted. Died in Poland in 1604.

See I. TOUUMIN. "Life of F. Socinus," 1777: SAMUEL PRZYP-
ovius,' 1 Vita Faust! Socini," 1636 ; BAVLH, " Historical and Lnucal
lictionary;" PISARSKI, " Dissertatio de Vita F. Socini, 1788;
Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Socinus, (LAXIUS,) an uncle of the preceding, and
he first teacher of Socinian doctrines, was born at Sienna
n 1525. He was versed in the Hebrew and Greek lan-
uages. About 1545 he emigrated from Italy, probably
o avoid persecution. He travelled or wandered in
~rance, England, Germany, and Poland. He appea-s
o have acted with much circumspection and reserve in
he assertion of his opinions, which were similar to
hose of Faustus Socinus, and which neither Catholics

or Protestants would then tolerate. Died at Zurich

SeeC.'F. lLLCEW."ViuF. Socini," 1814; "Nouvelle Biographif

Socquet, so"k&', (JOSEPH MARIE,) a chemist, born
n Savoy in 1771, became professor of chemistry at
,yons in 1809. He published several works. Died

" SoVra-tel, [Gr. Soicpurw ; Lat. SOC'RATES ; Fr. So
CRATE, sd'kRaT; It. SOCRATE, so-kRi'ta,] the illustrious
ounder* of Grecian philosophy, was born at Athens
about 470 B.C. Several modern writers, on the author-
ty of Demetrins Phalereus and others, have given the
ourth year of the seventy-seventh Olympiad that is,
468 B.C. 36 the date of his birth ; but this can scarcely
be correct, as we are told in the " Apology" of Socrates
hat he was then (399 B.C.) more than seventy years old :
icnce he could not have been born later than 469 B.C.
rlis father, Sophroniscus, was a sculptor, his mother,
Phznarete, a midwife. He was educated to his father's
art, by which he supported himself after he was grown
to manhood. Subsequently Crito, a wealthy and gener-
ous Athenian, admiring the zeal for knowledge and t
'enius evinced by Socrates, furnished him with the mean;
o procure books and pay his teachers in the various
jranches of art and science then taught at Athens, and
afterwards became one of his most faithful and devoted
disciples. According to some writers, Socrates was a
pupil of Anaxagoras ; but this is very doubtful, as Plato
represents him in the " Phaedo" as saying that he be-
came acquainted with the doctrines of Anaxagoras from
a book written by this philosopher.

Socrates served as a soldier during the Peloponnesian
war in three different campaigns. He was remarkable
for the fortitude, or rather indifference, with which h
bore the severest privations and hardships of a military
life. In one of the actions during his first campaign he
saved the life of his pupil Alcibiades, for which exploit
he would have received the prize of bravery, (4/woreia ;)
but, at Socrates' own request, it was transferred to Alci-
biades. In the second campaign, at the battle of Delmm,
in which the Athenians were defeated, he saved the life
of Xenophon, another of his pupils. On this occasion,
when everywhere around him was fear and flight, he
exhibited a calm, determined courage which inspired his
pursuers with such respect and fear that they gladly
permitted him to retreat unmolested. He afterwards,
as senator, displayed a far higher and rarer courage,
He was ordered by the Thirty Tyrants to assist in
bringing back to Athens Leon, who, to escape their
tyranny, had fled to Salamis. Socrates firmly refused

" He may be justly called," says Cicero, " the father of Philoso-
phy," Ifartns Philosefliia juri Jki poltil.) (" De Finibus. 1 n

e, i, o, u, y, hng; i, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, ?, i, 9. obscurt; fir, fill, fat; met; 1161; good; moon;




to take any part in the affair, for which he would per-
haps have suffered death had not the government of
the Thirty been soon after overthrown. On a previous
occasion, when president (efi/talis) of the Prytanes,
his inflexible devotion to justice was still more signally
shown. The question before the assembly was the sen-
tence to be passed on the admirals who had neglected
to bury the dead after the battle of Arginusae. The
burial of the dead was regarded by the ancient Greeks
as among the most important and sacred of all duties.
It was, however, clearly proved that, owing to a violent
storm, it was impossible to recover the bodies of the
slain. Had the question then been put to vote, the ad-
mirals would beyond doubt have been acquitted. But
the accusers succeeded in adjourning the assembly, on
the pretext that it was then too dark to count the hands
of the voters. Meanwhile, everything possible was done
to inflame the minds of the people against the accused.
In their pity for the dead, the multitude lost sight of
their duty to the living. The votes were to be given on
the general question whether the admirals had been
guilty in omitting the recovery of the bodies of those
who fell at Arginusas. If they should be found guilty,
the penalty for all was death and the confiscation of
their property. But it was contrary to law to condemn
all by one vote of the assembly. Socrates, as epistates,
refused to put the question to vote ; he would in no wist
sanction what was illegal and unjust. The populace be-
came furious, and demanded that those who opposed
their will should themselves be punished. The other
prytanes yielded ; Socrates alone remained firm and
unmoved by the menaces of the angry multitude.* So
the question could not be put to vote that day, and the
assembly was again adjourned. Afterwards, however,
another epistates was chosen, and the admirals were
condemned. (See Wigger's " Life of Socrates," pp. lii.-
Iv.) Socrates appears to have held no office in the gov-
ernment except that of senator, already referred to. He
believed that he was called by Heaven to a different
class of duties, to be a teacher of wisdom and virtue,
and, therefore, the voice of the divinity^ within him had
warned him against engaging in the contests of a political
life. He availed himself of every opportunity of awaking
in the minds of the young the love of wisdom ; and, if
we may trust the accounts that have come down to us,
he was endowed not only with a talent for subtle and
profound reasoning, which rendered him more than a
match for the ablest sophists and rhetoricians of that
age, but there was also a marvellous and irresistible
fascination in his talk, of which history furnishes per-
haps no other example. /Elian calls this peculiar power
" the Siren of Socrates." " When I hear him speak,"
says Alcibiades.t " my heart leaps up more than the
hearts of those who celebrate the Corybantic mysteries;
my tears are poured out as he talks, a thing I have seen
happen to many others besides myself. I have heard
Pericles and other excellent orators, and I have been
pleased with their discourses, but I suffered nothing of
this kind ; nor was my soul ever on these occasions
disturbed and filled with self-reproach. . . . But he has
often affected me in the way I describe, until the life
which 1 lead seemed hardly worth living. ... I stop

It seems more than probable that Horace had before his mind
the example of Socrates braving the fury of the Athenian mob, and
resisting the tyrannical command of the Thirty, when he wrote those
well-known lines " On the Just Man," (lib. iii., ode 3.)
41 Justum et tenacem propositi virum

Non civium ardor prava jubentiura,

Non vultus instantis tyranni

Menle quatit solidi."

t It may not be improper to caution the reader against, a mistake
tnat has sometimes arisen from the use of the term " demon" or
"dxmon" in speaking of the divine intimations which Socrates be-
lieved were sometimes eiven him. The primary signification of the ex-
pression TO ta.inovtoi', (from Scu'noi', "god,") which Socrates applied
in his supernatural monitor, is "*he divinity," or "the divine one."
He doubtless meant simply to say that somi divine power admonished
him to do or not to do certain things. The suggest ion of some modern
writers that Socrates used TO fiaiM-<mof merely to express certain
intuitions or practical judgments which he could not readily explain,
will scarcely bear examination. It appears to be quite evident that
he himself considered these intimations to be not merely inexplicable,
but, in the strictest sense, supernatural and divine.
JSee PLATO'S" Banquet," (or "Symposium.")

my ears, therefore, as from the Sirens, and flee away as
fast as possible, that I may not sit down beside him and
grow old in listening to his talk. . . . But I know not
if any one of vou have ever seen the divine images
which are witnfn when he is serious and opens himself.
I nave seen them ; and they are so supremely beautiful,
so golden, so divine and wonderful, that everything which
Socrates commands surely ought to be obeyed, even like
the voice of a God."

It is impossible to state precisely at what time Socra-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 314 of 425)