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tes first began to teach ; but from the manner in which
he is spoken of in the "Clouds" of Aristophanes, (repre-
sented for the first time 423 B.C.,) he must nave been
already well known as a teacher of philosophy. Some
have assumed that, as the representation of that comedy
occurred twenty-four years before the death of Socrates,
it could have had no share in producing his condemna-
tion ; but the truth of this is very questionable. It is
by no means improbable that a popular drama addressed
to the prejudices of the masses should leave upon their
minds a permanently unfavourable impression, which
any fresh cause might excite into active hostility.

Be this as it may, about4OO B.C. an orator named Lycon,
with Meletus, a poet, and Anytus, an influential dema-
gogue, brought an accusation against Socrates that he
disbelieved the gods of his country and sought to intro-
duce new deities, and that, moreover, he was guilty of
corrupting the Athenian youth. The judges declared
him guilty, leaving the punishment as yet undetermined.
When called upon to offer what he could in mitigation
of the sentence, he would make no concession. Con-
scious of innocence, he would not confess himself guilty.
His calm, dignified, and almost haughty manner ap-
pears to have irritated and incensed the judges, who
were accustomed to the most humble and even abject
behaviour from those whom they had condemned. He
closed his defence, or "apology," with these memorable
words: "We must now depart, I to die, and you to
live; but which of us has the happier destiny is known
only to Godf" He was sentenced to death by a majority
far greater than that by which he had bean pronounced
guilty. By a law of Athens, the sentence could not be
carried into execution until the return from Delos of the
vessel which had been sent thither on the periodic reli-
gious embassy or mission called Theoria. This obtained
for him a reprieve of thirty days, which he spent in con-
versation with his friends on the highest and most im-
portant subjects, among others, on the duty of obeying
the laws, and not seeking to escape from them, even in.
cases, like his own, where they might seem to be applied
unjustly ; and on the immortality of the soul, for his
own belief in which he gave perhaps the most admirable
arguments that have ever yet been offered by the human
intellect in support of that sublime doctrine.

When at length the sacred vessel had returned from
Delos, and the order was sent for his execution, he
drank the fatal hemlock with the utmost composure, as
one who was setting out on a happy journey might drink
to the health of the friends he left behind. In the clos-
ing scene of his life he was serene and even cheerful,
but in his manner there was nothing like bravado, no-
thing in his conduct or language that was not indicative
of simplicity and entire sincerity. He approached his
death not as one who demanded of the gods a happjr
futurity in return for a virtuous life, but rather as one
who had a firm though humble hope that the Great
Being, whom he believed to exercise a benevolent and
constant care for man, would free him from the disease
and darkness incident to his earthly life, and give him
an inheritance in a divine and spiritual kingdom. He
died in 399 or, as some say, 400 B.C.

Socrates has been regarded by almost universal con-
sent as the most perfect example of a wise and virtuous
man that pagan antiquity presents to us. Pope but ex-
presses the prevailing sentiment when he assigns to him
the first place among the heroes

"Of less noisy and less guilty fame.
Fair Virtue's silect train ; supreme of tnese
Here ever shines the godlike Socrates." Temflt of Pamt,

His character is thus given by his friend and disciple
Xenophon: "As to myself, knowing him to be such a



cas.4; 9 as*; %AarJ; gas/;G, H. K, guttural; ti,mtsai; v. t trilled; sasz; th as in /to.



Explanations, p. 23. f



SOCRATES



2216



SOISSONS



man as I have described ; so pious towards the gods as
never to undertake anything without first consulting
them ; so just towards men as never to do the slightest
injury to any one, while he conferred the greatest bene-
fits on all who came in contact with him ; so temperate
and chaste as never to prefer pleasure to what was right ;
so wise as never to err in judging of good and evil, nor
needing the aid of others in order properly to discrimi-
nate between them ; so able to discourse upon, and
accurately define, such points as those of which we have
been speaking; so skilful in penetrating the hidden
characters of men, and seizing the fittest time to reprove
the erring and turn them to the paths of virtoe; being
such, I cannot but consider him as the most excellent
and most happy of mankind. But if any one thinks
differently, let him compare the character of Socrates
with that of any other man whatsoever, and then let
him decide."

Socrates is commonly believed to have been very
unfortunate in his domestic relations. It is, however,
probable that there is much exaggeration in the reports
that have come down to us of Xanthippe's intolerable
temper. Socrates evidently entertained for her a sincere
regard, and Speaks highly of her domestic virtues. (See
Xenophon's "Memorabilia," lib. ii. 2, 7.)

Socrates committed nothing to writing; he taught his
disciples by oral instruction only. Almost all that we
know of his philosophic views, as well as of his personal
character, is derived from the works of his disciples
Plato and Xenophon. Of all whom he taught, Plato
alone appears to have fully understood the essential
character, the depth and extent, of his philosophy. But
although Plato makes Socrates the chief interlocutor in
his dialogues, we are not therefore warranted in as-
suming that the master taught every doctrine which the
disciple has attributed to him. Plato, doubtless, often
puts his own thoughts into the mouth of Socrates, either
from motives of modesty or for the purpose of clothing
them with greater authority. As Mr. Emerson has aptly
remarked, "Socrates and Plato are the double star whicn
the most powerful instruments will not entirely separ-
ate."* By a comparison, however, of the writings of
Xenophon and Plato, we are enabled to conjecture with
a good degree of confidence the essential characteristics
of Socrates* philosophy. That which cannot fail to
strike every thoughtful reader is the prominence which
he gives to morality in all his teachings. He may be
said, indeed, to contemplate the universe from an ex-
clusively moral stand-point. Anaxagoras had previously
taught that there was an infinite autocratic Intelligence
or Soul, that created and governed all things ; but he
ascribed to this Intelligence no distinctly moral attri-
butes. Socrates likewise recognized an infinite creative
Intelligence as the Soul of the universe, but he also
taught that this power was invariably exerted in con-
formity to certain moral attributes which constituted, so
to speak, the basis of the Divine character.

In the opinion of some able critics, (of Schleiermacher
among others,) the world is less indebted to Socrates
for the truths which he arrived at or discovered than
for his improved method of philosophic investigation.
Socrates employed with remarkable success a mode of
reasoning first introduced by Zeno of Elea.' He would
ask some person, the errors of whose opinions he wished
to expose, a simple question, the answer to which would
seem to be quite obvious, then gradually lead him on
from one admission to another, till it was too late to
retreat, and impossible to advance without ending in
some absurdity. It is often difficult to determine (as
already intimated) how much of the improved method,
or of the great doctrines which we discover in the writings
of Plato, are to be ascribed to Socrates, and how much to
his illustrious disciple. (See PLATO.) We have, however,
the direct testimony of Aristotle that Socrates must be
regarded as the author of inductive reasoning and of ad-
strait definitions. In Socrates inductive reasoning is s=en
in its incipient and simplest form. Subsequently Aris-
totle improved greatly on the idea of Socrates, and he
has givsn us a definition of induction so complete and



See article " Plato." in his " Representative Men."



perfect that it could scarcely be bettered even in the light
of modern science. (See ARISTOTLE.) But philosophy
is under the greatest obligation to Socrates for teaching
so clearly and impressively the manner and spirit with
which the search after truth should be conducted. Hy
pointing out the importance of thoroughly and accurately
defining our ideas before we proceed to reason upon
them, he has done much to remove the most frujiful
and most universal source of error connected with human
thought. While exposing the pretended knowledge of
the Sophists, who claimed to be so wise, he taught how
necessary were modesty and a just appreciation of the
limits and weakness of the human intellect, as well as
of its powers, for the successful pursuit of truth. So
great, so transcendent are his merits in these respects,
that, as has justly been observed, his life forms an era
not merely in the history of philosophy, but in that of
the human race.

See WIGGER, " Life of Socrates ;" RITTER, " History of Ancient
Philosophy," (translated by A. J. W. MORRISON. Oxford, 1838;)
G. H. LEWES, " Biographical History of Philosophy ;" the excellent
article on" Socrates" in the " Encyclopaedia Britannica ;" SCHLEIER-
MACHER on the "Worth of Socrates as a Philosopher," (translated
by THIRLWALL, and included in the recent English version of \Vic-
GHR'S "Life of Socrates ;") F. CHARPKNTIER. "Vie de Socrate,"
1650; GILBERT COOPEK, "Life of Socrates," 1740: F. D. GERLACH,
"Socrates und die Sophisten," 1827; J. A. EBERHARD, " Neue
Apologie des Socrates," 1772: H. W. HELLER, "Socrates," 3
rt>ls-, 1789: J. G. HAMANN. "Socratische Denkwurdigkeiten," 1759 ;
K.NORR, "Dissertatio de Vila, Fatis atque Philo.oopliia Socratis,"
1720; A. WINBOM, "Dissertatiode Socrate." 1734 ; XBNOPHON, "Me-
morabilia;" PLATO, "Dialogues;" GROTB, " History of Greece."

Socrates, a Greek painter, mentioned by Pliny, and
supposed to have lived about 320 B.C.

Socrates sornamed SCHOLAS'HCUS, [Fr. SOCRATE LB
SCHOLASTIQUE, so'kRJU' leh sko'lis'tek',] a Greek eccle-
siastical historian, born at Constantinople about 379 A.D.
He was an advocate or lawyer. He wrote a " History
of the Church from 306 to 439 A.D.," which is a continua-
tion of the history of Eusebius, and is highly esteemed
for accuracy, moderation, and impartiality. He was op-
posed to all persecution for religious opinions. Died
after 440.

See VALKSIL") or VALOIS, "De Vila et Scriptis Socralis;"
*'De Historicis Gracia."

Soden, so'den or zo'den, (FRIEDRICH JULIUS HEIN-
RICH,) COUNT, a German writer, born at Anspach in
1754. He published several dramas, and treatises on
political economy. Died in 1831.

Soderini, so-di-ree'nee, (GIOVANNI VETTORIO,) an
Italian writer on agriculture, was born at Florence in
1526; died in 1596.

Soderini, (PiETRO,) an Italian magistrate, born at
Florence about 1450. He was elected gonfalonier for
ife in 1502, but was deposed in 1512. Died in 1513.

Sodoraa, H. See RAZZI.

Soemmering. See SOMMERINQ.

Soest See Sosr.

Sceur, Le, leh SUR, sometimes written Le Sueur.
(HUBERT,) an able French sculptor, born in the sixteenth
century, removed to London about 1630. Among his
works is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I., now
at Charing Cross.

Sogaro, II. See GATTI, (BERNARDINO.)

Sogliani, sol-yi'nee, (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) an Italian
painter of the Florentine school, lived about 1530.

Sografi, so-gRa'fce, (ANTONIO SIMONE,) an Italian
dramatist, born at Padua in 1760. He produced suc-
cessful comedies, among which is " Olive and Pascal."
Died in 1825.

Sohn, son or zon, (KARL FERDINAND,) a German
winter and professor in the Academy of Dusseldorf, was
Dorn at Berlin in 1805 ; died in 1867.

Soiron, von, fon swa'rdN', (ALEXANDER,) a German
politician, born at Mannheim in 1805. Devoted to the
:auseof the unity of Germany, he took a prominent parl
in the movements of 1848. Died May 6, 1855.

Soissons, de, deh swl's6N', (CHARLES de Bour-
bon deh booR'b6N',) COUNT, born in 1566, was a son
of Louis I., Prince of Conde. He fought for Henry IV.
against the League, and was appointed grand master of



France in
treachery,



1589. He was turbulent
Died in 1612.



and inclined to



I, e, i, 6, u, y. long; 4, e, d, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, 5, j?, short; a, e, j, 9, obscun; fir, fill, fit; niSt; n6t; good ; moon



SOJSSONS



2217



SOLOMON



Solasons, de, COUNTESS See MANCINI, (OLYMPIA.)

Soissons, de, (Louis,) COUNT, a son of Charles,
noticed above, was born in Paris in 1604. He rebelled
against Cardinal Richelieu, and was killed in battle
in 1641.

Sola, de, de so'li, (ABRAHAM,) LL.D., a rabbi and
author, was born in London, England, September 18,
1825. His father, D. A. de Sola, (1796-1860,) was emi-
nent as a rabbi. The younger de Sola was in 1848 made
professor of Hebrew in McGill University, at Montreal.
He published a " History of the Jews of Poland," " His-
tory of the Jews of France," several biographies, and
other works, besides some volumes of translations of
Jewish writings, chiefly liturgical.

Solander, so-lan'der, (DANIEL CHARLES,) an emi-
nent Swedish naturalist and physician, born in Nordland
in 1736, was a pupil of Linnaeus. He took his medical
degree at the University of Upsal, and afterwards visited
Russia and England, where he subsequently became an
assistant in the natural history department of the Brit-
ish Museum, and was elected a Fellow of the Royal
Society in 1764. He sailed in 1768, accompanied by Sir
Joseph Banks, with Captain Cook on his first voyage
round the world. They returned in 1771, having made
a large and valuable collection of objects in natural his-
tory, and in 1773 Solander was appointed under-librarian
at the British Museum. He contributed several valuable
articles to the " Philosophical Transactions," and other
scientific journals. Died in 1782.

Solari, so-la'ree, (ANDREA,) an Italian painter, called
also ANDREA DEL GOBBO, an Italian painter, flourished
at Milan about 1500-20.

Solari, (CRISTOFORO,) called IL GOBBO, an Italian
sculptor, a brother of Andrea, noticed above, worked
at Milan about 1500.

Solario, da, da so-11're-o, or Solari, so-li'ree, (AN-
TONIO.) an Italian painter, surnamed IL ZI.NGARO, (" the
Gypsy,") born about 1382, was originally a blacksmith.
He became the son-in-law of Colantonio del Fiore, who
gave him his daughter on condition of his acquiring
distinction as a painter. Died in -1455.

See G. A. MOSCHINI, " Memorie clalla Vita di A. de Solano," 1828.

Soldani, sol-da'nee, (AMBROGIO,) an Italian natural-
ist, born at Foppi, in Tuscany, in 1733. He gained
distinction by his researches in microscopic fossil shells,
and published " Testaceography and Zoophytography,"
etc., (" Testaceographia ac Zoophytographia parva et
microscopica," 3 vols., 1789-98.) Died in iSoS.

See G. BIANCHT, " Elogio storico di A. Soldani," 1808 ; RICCA,
"Discorso sopra le Opere di A. Soldan:," iSio; TIPALDO, " Bio-
grafia degli Italian! illustrL"

Soldani, (JACOPO,) an Italian poet, born at Florence
in 1579. He wrote seven Satires, which the Academy
Delia Crusca approved as testi di lingua. Died in 1641.

Soldani, (MASSIMILIANO,) an Italian sculptor and en-
graver of medals, born at Florence in 1658 ; died in 1740

Sole, del, del so'li, (ANTONIO MARIA,) an Italian
'landscape-painter, born about 1600 ; died about 1680.

Sole, del, (GIANOIOSEFFO,) an Italian painter, born
at Bologna in 1654, was a son of the preceding. He
painted some frescos at Milan. His works (part of
which are in oil) are highly praised. Died in 1719.

Soleil.so'l&I' orso'li'ye, (JEAN BAPTISTE FRANCOIS,)
a Frenchman, distinguished for his skill in the fabrication
of optical instruments and philosophical apparatus, was
corn in Paris in 1798. He was a coadjutor of Fresnel
hi his scientific labours. Died November 17, 1878.

Solger, sol'ger or zol'ger, (KARL WILHELM FERDI-
NAND,) a German writer on philosophy and jesthetics,
born at Schwedt in 1780; died in 1819.

Solie, so'le-4', or Soulier, soo'le-4', (JEAN PIERRE,)
a French actor' and composer of operas, was born at
Mimes in 1755 ; died in 1812.

Solignac, so'len'ytk', (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a French
writer, born at Montpellier in 1687, became secretary to
Stanislaus, King of Poland. He was the author of a
" History of Poland," (6 vols., 1751.) Died in 1773.

Soliman, (Sultans of Turkey.) See SOLYMAN.

Soliman or Solyman, so'le-mSn', Sultan of Persia,
born in 1646, was the son of Abbas II., whom he suc-
ceeded in 1666. He was a weak and depraved prince.



and abandoned the control of the empire to his able
minister, Sheik Alee Khan. Died in 1694.

See MALCOLM, "History of Persia."

Soliman, so'le-mln', or Suleyman, soo-la-min ,
written also Solyman, (Ibn-Abd-el-Malek, ib'n abd-
el mJl'ek,) seventh Caliph of the Omeyyade dynasty,
succeeded to the throne in 715 A.D. Died in 717.

See WEIL, "Geschiclite der Chalifen," vol. i. chap. xi.

Soliman or Suleyman, (Ibn-Al-Hakem, Ib'n al-
hl'kem,) a Moorish soldier, who took possession of
Cordova, and caused himself to be proclaimed king, in
1009 A.D. He was defeated and slain in 1016.

Solirnena, so-le-ma'nl, (FRANCESCO,) a Neapolitan
painter and poe{, sometimes called L'ABATE CiCCio,
(chet'cho,) was born in 1657. Among his master-pieces
are his oil-paintings in the chapel of San Felippo Neri,
and the frescos of the sacristy of the Theatines of San
Paolo Maggiore. He was a friend of Luca Giordano,
whom he equalled in genius and reputation. He pub-
lished a collection of sonnets. Died in 1747.

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy;" DOMENICI, "Vito
de' Pittori Napoletani."

Solin. See SOLINUS.

So-li'nus, [Fr. SOLIN, soHaN',] (CAius JULIUS,) a
Latin writer, of whom little is known, lived probably in
the third century. He left a work called " Polyhistor,"
which describes the world known to the ancients, and
is a compilation from Pliny's "Natural History." Sal-
masius published an edition of the "Polyhistor," in
1629.

Soils, de, da so'less, (JuAN DIAZ,) a Spanish navi-
gator, born in the province of Seville, sailed in company
with Pinzon to the northern coast of South America, and
discovered Yucatan. In 1512 Soils set out on another
voyage, in which he discovered Cape Frio and obtained
information from the Indians of gold on the banks of the
river Paraguay. Having returned with this account, he
sailed again, in 1515, with three vessels, but was mur-
dered, with a great part of his crew, by the Indians, soon
after landing.

Soils y Ribadeneira, de, di so'less e re-ba-oi-
na'e-ri, (ANTONIO,) a celebrated Spanish dramatist and
historian, born at Alcala de Henares in 1610. While
studying law at Salamanca, he published a comedy en-
titled " Love and Duty," which was very successful.
He was appointed secretary to Philip IV., and, after his
death, historiographer of the transactions of the Span-
iards in the Indies. Among his dramas we may name
the co.nedies of "The Gypsy-Girl of Madrid," (" La
Gitanilla" (or " Preciosa") "de Madrid,") "One Fool
will make a Hundred," (" Un Bobo hace Ciento,") and




point of accuracy and impartiality, possesses merit of a
rery high order, and has been translated into several
languages. Prescott observes, " In the judgment of
eminent Spanish critics, the style of Solis claims the
merits of perspicuity, copiousness, and classic elegance;"
and he adds, "such is the charm of its composition and
its exquisite finish as a work of art, that it will doubtless
be as imperishable as the language in which it is written,
or the memory of the events which it records." Died
in 1686.

See PRF-SCOTT, " Conquest of Mexico." vol. iii. book vi. : TICK-
NOR, " History of Spanish Literature ;" N. ANTONIO, " Bibliotheo
Hispana Nova;" NICERON, "Memoires."

Sollohub or Sollogub. See ZOLLOGOOB.

Solms, a family of German princes and counts, of
which the principal bouses are Solms- Braunfels and
Solms-Laubach.

Sol'o-mon, [Heb. noStf ; Gr. 2oXofiuv; Fr. SALO-
MON, st'lo'moN' ; Ger. SALOMO, za'lo-mo,] a Jewish
king, whose name is proverbial for wisdom, was a son
of King David and Bathsheba. He was born about
1033 B.C., and succeeded his father in 1015. He formed
an alliance with Pharaoh, King of Egypt, whose daughter
he married. Soon after his accession he began to build
the magnificent Temple which bore his name. He founded
the city of Tadmor or Palmyra. In his pacific reign the
Jewish kingdom rose to its highest prosperity and great-



* as k ; c as s; g hard; g as // G, H, K,u!tural; N, ihisal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.)



SOLOMON



2218



SOLYMAN



est power. He wrote or compiled the collection ol
Proverbs which form one of the canonical books of the
Bible ; also the Book of Ecclesiastes, and the Book ol
Canticles. He married a large number of "strange
women," who seduced him into idolatry. He died, aftei
a reign of forty years, and was succeeded by his son
Rehoboam.

See I. Kings i.-xi ; II Chronicles i.-x. ; THOMAS THOMAS,
J/ History of the Reign of Solomon," 1813 ; J. L. EWALD, " Salomo
Versuch einer psychologisch-biographischen Darstellung," 1800.

Sol'o-mon, (ABRAHAM,) an English painter, born
about 1823. Among his works is " Waiting for the
Verdict." Died at Biarritz in December, 1862.

Solomon Ben GabiroL See AVICEBRON.

Solomon Ben Isaac. See JARCHL

Sol'o-mon Ben Vir'ga, a Spanish physician and
rabbi of the sixteenth century, wrote a history of the
Jews.

Sol'o-moB, (DENYS,) COUNT, a modern Greek poet,
born in the island of Zante in 1798. Besides other poems,
he wrote about 1825 a "Hymn to Liberty," which was
very popular. Died in 1857.

So'lon, [Gr. ZoXav ; It. SOLONE, so-lo'na,] an illus.
trious Athenian legislator, born in the island of Salamis
about 638 B.C., was a son of Execestides and a descend-
ant of Codrus. In his youth he was a merchant and
visited foreign countries. Some say, however, that he
travelled rather to gratify his curiosity and extend his
knowledge than to improve his fortune. He gained
distinction by his poetical talents in the early part of
his life, and cultivated chiefly that part of moral phi-
losophy which treats of civil obligations. Fragments
of his poetry are still extant and highly prized. The
first recorded public service of Solon was his successful
expedition to Salamis, which he recovered from the Me-
garians. When he began his career, the Athenian state
was demoralized by discordant factions and oppressive
laws. A large portion of the people were insolvent
debtors, liable to be reduced to slavery. There were
three political parties, thus described by Plutarch : " The
inhabitants of the mountains were, it seems, for a de-
mocracy, those of the plains for an oligarchy, and those
of the sea-coast contended for a mixed kind of govern-
ment." In 594 B.C. he was elected archon, and was
accepted as mediator and lawgiver by the opposing
parties, "the rich accepting him readily as one of them,
and the poor as a good and worthy man." (Plutarch.)
He relieved debtors by a reduction of the rate of interest,
and, according to some authorities, cancelled debts and
liberated lands from mortgage. "This was the first of
his public acts," says Plutarch, " that debts should be
forgiven, and that no man should take the body of his
debtor for security." He refused to make himself King
of Athens, although both parties urped him to accept
the supreme power. He repealed the bloody laws of
Draco, except those made for the punishment of murder.
He established the council or court of the Areopagus to be
inspectors and guardians of the laws, and he remodelled
the political constitution by dividing the people into foui
classes, the influence or privilege of which was propor-
tioned to their income. The lowest class could vote, but
could not hold office. He ordained that new measures
should be first considered in the senate, and, if they were
approved by that body, should be proposed to the popular
assembly, which had power to adopt or reject them.
Having been asked whether he had given the Athenians
the best of laws, he answered, "The best they were
capable of receiving." After he had finished his great
legislative task, he obtained leave of absence for ten
years, and visited Egypt and Asia Minor. He returned
to Athens in his old age, and opposed the ambitious


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 315 of 425)