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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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designs of Pisistratus. He began a poem, the subject
of which was the fabulous island of Atlantis, but did not
live to finish it Solon was ranked among the Seven
Sages of Greece. Died about 558 B.C.

See PLUTARCH, "Life of Solon ;" MEURSIUS, " Solon, seu de ejus
Vita, Legibus," etc., 163* : G. SCHMIDT, " De Solnne Legislalore."
1688; H. SCHELLING, " tie Solonis Legibus," 1842; GROTK, " History
of Greece:" BOCKH, "Economic politique des Athe'niens;" KLEIN&,
"Quxstiones de Solonis Vita et Fragments, " 1833,

Solon, a Greek gem-engraver, who flourished proba-



bly about I A.D., and was a contemporary of Dioscorides.
His name occurs on several gems.

Solovieff, so'-o've-ef, (SERGEI,) a Russian author,
born in 1820. He published a "History of Russia."
Died in 1879.

Soltikof, sol'te-kof, written also Soltikow, Bol-
tikov, and Ssaltykow, (NICOLAI IVANOVITCH,) a Rus-
sian general and statesman, born in 1736, was tutor to
the grand duke Alexander, afterwards emperor. He was
appointed field-marshal in 1796, president of the Impe-
rial Council in 1812, and made a prince in 1814. Died
in 1816. His grandson Alexei has published "Travels
in India," (1849,) and "Travels in Persia," (1851,) in
French and Russian.

See SVININI. " Histoire du Feld-Mare'chal Soltikof." 1818

Soltikof, Soltikow, or Ssaltykow, (PETER SB-
MENOVITCH,) a Russian general, born about 1700, became
in 1759 commander-in-chief of the Russian army in ths
Seven Years' war, and shared in the victory of Kuners-
dorf over Frederick the Great He was created a field-
marshal, and appointed governor-general of Moscow
Died in 1772.

Soltikof or Soltikow, (PRASCOVIA FEDOROVNA,)
was married to the Czar Ivan Alexeievitch, and was the
mother of the empress Anna.

Spltyk, sol'tik, (ROMAN,) a Polish nobleman and
patriot, born at Warsaw in 1701, served in the French
army in the campaigns of 1810-12, and afterwards took
an active part in the insurrectiot. of 1830. He died in
1843, leaving a work entitled " Napoleon in 1812."

Soltyk, (STANISLAS,) a Polish patriot, born in 1751,
ras the father of the preceding. He was exiled about
1794, and was marshal of the Diet in 1811. Died in
1830.

Solvyna, sol-vins', (FRANCIS BALTHASAR,) a Flemish
writer and artist, born at Antwerp in 17(0. He spent
many years in Hindostan, and published, after his re-
turn, a work entitled "The Hindoos, or a Picturesque
Description of the Manners, Customs, and Religious
Ceremonies of this People," (4 vols., in French.) Died
n 1824.

Sol'^-man or Soliman [Turk. pron. so'lee-mln'or
so-la-mJn'] I., written also Suleyman, soo-la-mln', an
Ottoman Sultan, eldest son of Bayazeed, (Bajaiet,) was
nvolved in a contest with his brother Moosa, and was
tilled in battle in 1410.

Solymau or Soliman IX, surnamed THE MAGNIFI-
CENT, Sultan of Turkey, born in 1496, was the son of
Selim I., whom he succeeded in 1520 A.D. Soon after
iis accession he invaded Hungary and took Belgrade,
and in 1522 besieged Rhodes, which surrendered after
an obstinate defence. In 1526 he defeated Louis II.,
King of Hungary, at the battle of Mohacz. Having
Bestowed the crown of Hungary upon John Zapolya,
Solyman roused the opposition of Ferdinand of Austria,
against whom he subsequently turned his arms. He
also subjected a large portion of Persia and Arabia, and
" '537 gained a signal victory over the Austrians at
Essek, resulting in the conquest of Croatia. In 1560 his
general, Piali, defeated the combined fleet of the Chris-
ian powers at Jerbeh, and a truce was concluded with
Austria in 1562, leaving Turkey in possession of her
conquests in Hungary. The Turks, having besieged
Malta in 1565, were repulsed with a heavy loss, and in
1566 Solyman died, while engaged in the siege of Szi-
;eth in Hungary. He was one of the ablest rulers of his
country and his time, and equally eminent in the arts of
war and of peace. He constructed numerous magnifi-
cent public edifices, encouraged learning and the arts
and was distinguished for his literary attainments. He
vas succeeded by his son, Selim II.

See C. ANCILLON, " Hisloire de la Vie de Soliman II," rjo6r
>N HAMMER, " Gescliichle des Osmanischen Raichs ;" " Novlvello

Jiogrsphie Gine'rale ;" ROBERTSON, ' History of Charles V.," vol.11.

>ook ii. ; CRBASV, " History of the Ottoman Turks," 1877.

Solyman or Soliman, son of Ibraheem, became
Sultan of Turkey in 1687, his brother, Mahomet IV.,
laving been deposed. During his reign the Austrian*
egained a great part of Hungary, previously conquered
>y the Turks. lie died in 1691, and was succeeded by
us brother, Ahmed II.



, e, i, 6, ft, y,Ion S ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; ni8l; nol; good; mSon;



SOMA



2219



SOMERVILLE



So'd^, in the Hindoo mythology, a name for the
moon. (See CHANDRA.)

Sombreuil, de, deh s6N'bRul', (CHARLES VIROT,) a
French officer, distinguished for his zeal and courage in
the defence of the royal cause, was born in 1769. He
commanded a party of royalist emigrants who took arms
against the republic. He was captured at Quiberon, and
shot, in 1795.

SombreuU, de, (MARIE MAURILI.E VIROT,) a sister
of the preceding, was born near Limoges in 1774. She
saved the life of her father from the massacre of Sep-
tember, 1793, after he had been imprisoned in Paris.
Died in 1823.

Somer, van. See VANSOMER, (PAUL.)

Somer, van, vSn so'mer, (JAN,) a Dutch mezzotint
engraver, flourished about 1675.

Someren, van, vtn so'mer-en, (JAN,) a Dutch lawyer
and poet, born at Dort in 1622, was a friend of Huy-
ghens. He was noted for learning and eloquence. Died
in 1676.

Somers, sum'erz, (JOHN,) Lord Somers, an excellent
English statesman and lawyer, born at Worcester about
1650, was a son of John Somers, an attorney. He was
educated at Trinity College, Oxford, studied law at the
Middle Temple, and was called to the bar in 1676. He
continued to reside for about five years at the university,
where he wrote, besides other works, "A Brief History
of the Succession of the Crown of England," (1681,) and
"The Security of Englishmen's Lives; or, The Trust,
Power, and Duty of the Grand Juries of England." He
also translated into verse some of Ovid's " Epistles." In
1682 he began to practise law in London. His success
as a pleader was remarkably rapid. He was selected in
I6SS as one of the counsel for the defence in the impor-
tant trial of the seven bishops. He spoke briefly in this
case, "but every word," says Macaulay, "was full of
weighty matter ; and when he sat down, his reputation
as an orator and a constitutional lawyer was established."

He was an intimate friend of the Earl of Shrewsbury,
and was a constant adherent of the Whig party. He
represented Worcester in the Parliament or Conven-
tion which met in January, 1689, and was a member
of the first, and chairman of the second, of the two com-
mittees which prepared the memorable Declaration of
Rights. In 1689 he was appointed solicitor-general, and
knighted. He became attorney-general in May, 1692, and
lord keeper of the great seal in March, 1693. "Neither
in forensic nor in parliamentary eloquence," says Mac-
aulay, "had he any superior. The consistency of his
public conduct had gained for him the entire confidence
of the Whigs; and the urbanity of his manners had
conciliated the Tories. It was not without great reluc-
tance that he consented to quit an assembly over which
he exercised an immense influence for an assembly where
it would be necessary for him to sit in silence." (" His-
tory of England," vol. iv. chap, xix.)

In 1697 he was appointed lord chancellor, and received
the title of Baron Somers of Evesham. The great seal
was taken from him in 1700, in consequence of a reso-
lution of the House of Commons. He was impeached
by the Tory majority of the lower House, but was
acquitted by the Lords, (1701.) While he was in power
he patronized Locke and Addison, the latter of whom
dedicated to Lord Somers the first volume of his " Spec-
tator," and said, " I know that the homage I now pay
you is offering a kind of violence to one who is as
solicitous to shun applause as he is assiduous to deserve
it." He was appointed president of the council in 1708,
when the Whig party returned to power. He died in
April, 1716. Lord Somers was never married. " He was
equally eminent," says Macaulay, "as a jurist and as a
politician, as an orator and as a writer. His speeches
have perished ; but his state papers remain, and are
models of terse, luminous, and dignified eloquence."
("History of England," vol. iv. chap, xx.)

See LOKD CAMPBELL, "Lives of the Lord Chancellors;" COOK-
6EV, "Essay on the Life and Character of Lord Somers," 1791;
HENRY MADDOCK, "Life of Lord Somers," 1812; "Westminster
Review" for October, 1847.

Somerset, sum'er-set, (CHARLES,) was an illegitimate
son of Henry Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, who was



executed in 1463. He was a man of eminent talents,
and performed important diplomatic missions in the
reign of Henry VII. He was created Earl of Worcester
in 1513 or 1514. Died in 1526.

Somerset, (CHARLES SEYMOUR,) DUKE OF, called
" the Proud Duke of Somerset," was the second in rank
among the temporal peers of the realm, lie acquired
\he greatest estate in England by his marriage with the
heiress of the noble family of Percy. He was a Prot-
estant and a \Vhig. In 1687 he offended James II. by
his refusal to officiate in a procession of the papal nuncio.
He was an adherent of William III. in 1688, and acted
a prominent part in the reign of Anne. Died in 1748,
aged eighty-seven.

Somerset, EARL OF, (favourite of James I.) See
CARR, ROBERT.

Somerset, (EDWARD.) See WORCESTER, MARQUISOP.

Somerset, (EDWARD SEYMOUR,) Earl of Hertford,
Duke of Somerset, and Protector of England, was a
brother of Jane Seymour, queen of Henry VIII., and
an uncle of Edward VI. He commanded an army which
invaded Scotland in 1544 and committed great devas-
ation. On the death of Henry VIII., in 1547, he re-
seived the title of Duke of Somerset, and became lord
treasurer and Protector of the realm. He favoured the
Protestant cause. In 1547 he undertook to coerce Mary,
Queen of Scots, to marry Edward VI., and defeated the
Scotch at Pinkie Cleugh. He found a rival in his own
brother, Thomas Seymour, who conspired against the
Protector and was executed for treason in 1549. Som-
erset made many enemies by his ambition, his severity,
and his zeal against popery. His most powerful enemy
was the Earl of Warwick, by whose agency he was de-
prived of his high office in 1549. He was tried on the
charges of treason and felony, convicted of the latter
crime, and beheaded in January, 1552. He left several
sons, one of whom, named Edward, was created Earl
of Hertford about 1558, and married Catherine Grey, a
sister of Lady Jane.

See HUME, "History of England."

Somerset, (FirzROY.) See RAGLAN, LORD.

Somerset, (Lady HENRY,) an English reformer,
born Isabel Somers, daughter of Earl Somers; married
Lord Henry Somerset in 1873. She became highly
active in the cause of women, edited the "Woman's
Signal," opened an industrial farm colony for inebriate
women and a home for workhouse children, and in
1889 was made president of the World's Women's
Christian Temperance Union.

Somerset, (HENRY DE BEAUFORT,) DUKE OF, was
a descendant of John of Gaunt. He fought for the Lan-
castrians in the war of the Roses, was taken prisoner at
Hexham and beheaded in 1463.

Somerset, (JOHN DE BEAUFORT,) EARL OF, a son
of John of Gaunt, and a grandson of Edward III., was
created Earl of Somerset about 1396. Died in 1410.

Somerville, sum'er-vil, (Mrs. MARY,) an eminent
astronomer and scientific writer, the daughter of Sir
William Fairfax, was born at Jedburgh, in Scotland,
about 1780. At the request of Lord Brougham, she
wrote for the " Library of Useful Knowledge" a summary
of the " Mecanique Celeste" of Laplace, which appeared



Geography," (2 vols. I2mo, 1848.) She was elected an
honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society,
and received a pension of three hundred pounds a year
in acknowledgment of her great services to science.
Died November 29, 1872.

See "Edinburgh Review" for April, 1832; " Blackwood's Mag-
azine" for October, 1849; "Atlantic Monthly" for May, 1860.

Somerville, (THOMAS,) a Scottish divine and his-
torian, was born at Hawick in 1741. He published a
" History of the Reign of William III.," (1792,) and a
" History of Great Britain under the Reign of Queen
Anne," (1798.) Died in 1830.

See his "Autobiography," 1861.

Somerville, sum'er-vil, (WILLIAM,) an English poet,
born in Warwickshire in 1692. His principal work it



; jasj; g hard; g as j s,H,K,guttu-ai; F, nasal; K,trilled; sasz; thasinMw. (J^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



SO MM A R IV A



222O



SOPHIA



a poem in blank verse, entitled "The Chase." He also
wrote lyrics, tales, and fables, and a poem called " Field
Sports. Died in 1 742.

Sommariva, som-ma-ree'va, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,)
an Italian statesman and celebrated collector of pictures,
was born at Milan. He was one of the directors of the
Cisalpine republic in 1800-1802. Died in 1826.

Sommer, so'maiR', (JEAN EDOUARD ALBERT,) a
French writer, born at Nancy in 1822. He published
several dictionaries. Died at Paris in 1866.

Sommerard. See Du SOMMERARD.

Sommering or Soemmering, von, fon sbm'meh-
ring or zbm'meh-ring, (SAMUEL THOMAS,) a celebrated
German anatomist and physiologist, born at Thorn in
1755. He studied at Gottingen, and became professor
of anatomy at Mentzin 1784. Among his numerous and
valuable works we may name his treatise, in German, " On
the Brain and Spinal Marrow," (1788,) "On the Struc-
ture of the Human Body," (5 vols., 179,1,) "On the Organ
of the Soul," (1796.) and (in Latin) "On the Diseases
of the Absorbing Vessels of the Human Body." He
maintained the theory that the nerves act independently
of the brain, which he considered not essential to the
continuance of life. Died in 1830.

See RUDOLPH WAGNER, " Soemmering's Leben und Verkehr mil
(einen Zeilgenossen," 2 vols., 1844: I. DSLLINGER. "Gedachtniiv
Kde auf S. T. von Soemmering," 1830; "Nouvelle Biographic
GtSnerale."

Sommler, so'me-4', QEAN CLAUDE,) a French prel-
ate and writer, borTi^at Vauvillers in 1661, published
" Dogmatic History of Religion," (" Histoire dogmatique
de la Religion," 6 vols., 1708-11,) and other works.
Died in 1737.

Somner, sum'ner, (WILLIAM.) an English antiquary
and philologist, born at Canterbury in 1606. He pub-
lished " The Antiquities of Canterbury," (1640,) a " Saxon
Dictionary," (1659,) a " Treatise on Gavelkind," one " On
the Roman Ports and Forts in Kent," and other valuable
works. He was a friend of Archbishop Usher and other
learned men of the time. Died in 1669.

Som'nus, [Gr. Tnvoc; Fr. SOMMEIL, so'mkl' or so'-
roi'ye,] in classic mythology, the god of sleep, was called
a son of Erebus and Nox, and a brother of Death,
(Mors or Thanatos.) (See MORPHEUS.)

Sonderland, son'der-llnt', (FRITZ,) a German painter
of genre, a son of J. B. Sonderland, was born at Dussel-
dorf, September 20, 1836. He was bred an engineer.
He is known for his quaintly humorous pictures of
domestic life.

Sonderland, son'der-1 ant* or zon'der-1 inr", (JoHANN
BAPTIST,) a German painter and engraver, born at Dus-
seldorf in 1804, was a pupil of Schadow. Among his
best works are etchings illustrating- Burger's " Lenore,"
and "The Magician's Pupil," by Goethe. Died in 1878.

Sonnenberg, son'nen-beRG' or zon ' nen - b JRG',
(FRANZ ANTON JOSEPH IGNAZ MARIA,) BARON, a
German poet and imitator of Klopstock, was born at
Miinster, in Westphalia, in 1779. Died in 1805.

See CRUBER, " Lebensbeschreibung Sonnenbergs," 1806.

Bonnenfels, von, fon son'nen-fels' or zpn'nen-fels',
(JOSEPH,) a German writer, born at Nikolsburg, in
Moravia, in 1733. He became professor of political
science at Vienna in 1763, and filled several high offices
under Maria Theresa and the emperor Francis II. He
published in 1775 a treatise "On the Abolition of the
Torture," which was chiefly instrumental in abolishing
that barbarous practice in Austria. Died in 1817.

Sonnerat, son'ri', (PIERRE,) a French naturalist,
born at Lyons about 1746. He spent about seven years
in exploring Hindostan, Malacca, the Philippine Islands,
etc., and published an account of his travels, entitled
" Travels in the Enst Indies and China," (" Voyage aux
Indes Orientales et a la Chine," 2 vols., 1782,) which is
esteemed valuable. Died in Paris in 1814.

Sonnini de Manoncourt, so'ne'ne' deh m5'n6N''
UOOR', (CHARLES NICOLAS SIGISBERT,) a celebrated
French naturalist and traveller, born at Luneville in
1751. He studied at the Jesuits' College at Pont-i
Mousson, and in 1772 was sent as an officer of marine
engineers to Cayenne, where he spent several years in



scientific researches. In 1777 he accompanied Baron
de Tott on his African expedition, visiting Egypt,
Greece, and Asia Minor. He returned to France in
1780, and was imprisoned in the reign of terror. Among
his chief works are "Travels in Egypt," (3 vols., 1799.)
"Travels in Greece and Turkey," (2 vols., 1801.) and
"Natural History of Fishes and Cetaceae," (14 vols.,
1804.) He published a complete edition of the works
of Buffon, (127 vols., 1798-1807.) Died in Paris in 1812.
He had been employed by Buffon to describe many
species of birds for his "Natural History."

SeeTmEBAUT DE BERNEAUD, " lot;e historique de Sonnini,"
1812; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale;" " Monthly Review" fo
January, 1802.

Sonntag, son'tig, (WILLIAM Louis,) an American
artist, born near Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, March 2, 1822
He studied art in Cincinnati, in New York, and in Italy,
and in 1860 establii hed himself in New York. He is a
member of the National Academy, and by the rare
poetry and pure and suggestive idealism of his work
takes a very high rank among American landscape-
painters.

Sontag, son'tag or zon'tac, (HENRIETTE,) one of the
most celebrated female vocalists of Germany, was born at
Coblentz in 1805. Having studied at the Conservatory
of Music at Prague, she visited successively the principal
cities of Germany, Paris, and London, being received
everywhere with enthusiastic applause. In 1830 she
was married to Count Rossi, ambassador of Sardinia at
the Hague, and retired from the stage. Owwig to pecu-
niary embarrassments, she appeared again in public in
1848, and in 1853 set out for America, where she also
met with brilliant success. She died in 1854, while on
the way to Mexico.

See "Memoirs of the Countess de Rossi," London, 1840.: T.
GAUTIBR, " L'Ambassadrice ; Biographic de la Comtesse de Rossi,"
1850; " Blackwood's Magazine" for June, 1850.

Sonthonax,s6N'to'niks',(LEGER FELlC!Tfi,)aFrench
political agent, born in Bugey (Ain) in 1763. He was
sent in 1792 as commissary to Hayti to restore order,
and liberated the slaves of that island in 1793, in con-
sequence of which the pro-slavery party commenced a
civil war. Died in 1813.

Soodra or Sfldra, written also Cudra, soo'dra,
called Soo'der by the modern Hindoos, [etymology
uncertain.] The Soodras are the lowest of the four prin-
cipal Hindoo castes. (See BRAHMANISM.)

Soomarokof or Sumarokovvysoo-ma-ro'kof, writ-
ten also Somarokof and Sumarokov, a Russian
poet and dramatist, called the founder of the Russian
drama, was born at Moscow in 1718 or 1727. He was
the author of both comedies and tragedies. Among
the latter we may name his "Demetrius," and " Sinov
and Truvor." He also wrote numerous lyrics, elegies,
sonnets, epigrams, and satires. Died in 1777.

Sooras. See SURAS.

Soorya. See SORYA.

Sooy, soy, (JOSEPH LEANDER,) an American clergy,
man, born at Green Bank, New Jersey, March I, 1849.
He graduated at Princeton College in 1871. His prin-
cipal work is " American Methodist Authors and Liter-
ature."

Sop'a-ter [SuTrorpof] OF APAMEA, a Greek Sophist,
and a pupil of Jamblichus. He enjoyed for a time the
favour of Constantine the Great, but was afterwards put
to death by him, about 334 A.D.

So-phi'a, [Ger. SOPHIE, zo-fee'eh ; Fr. SOPHIE, so'-
fe',] Electre'ss of Hanover, born about 1630, was a daugh-
ter of the Elector-Palatine. Her mother was Elizabeth.
a daughter of James I. of England. Sophia was married
in 1658 to Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick- Liine-
burg, who became Elector of Hanover. She was intimate
with Leibnitz. In 1701 she was recognized as the heir
to the English crown (next to the princess Anne) by
Parliament, which preferred her to other members of
the royal family because she was a Protestant. Her son
became George I. of England. She died in 1714.

'See FHDER, " Sophie Churfursten von Hannover, im Umrisa,"
1810.

So-pbi'a Al-ex-I-ev'na, a Russian princess, daugh-
ter of the Czar Alexis Mikhailovitch, and half-sister of



a. e. i, 6, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; not; good; moon;



SOPHIA



2221



SOREL



Peter the Great, was born in 1657. She was ambitious and
energetic. At the death of Feoclor (1682) she instigated
the Strelitzes to revolt against Peter I., and caused her
brother Ivan to be recognized as joint sovereign with
Peter. She acted as regent from 1682 to 1689, and then
was confined in a convent. Died in 1704.

So-phi'a Dor-o-the'a,[Ger. SOPHIE DOROTHEA, zo-
fee'eh do-rd-ta'i ; Fr. SOPHIE DOUOTHEE, so'fe' do'ro'-
ti'J OF BRUNSWICK, born in 1666, was a daughter of
George William, Duke of Zell. She was married in 1682
to her cousin George, afterwards George I. of England,
who treated her ill. 1 laving been suspected of a passion
for the Count de Konigsmarck, she was divorced in 1694,
and confined in prison until she died, in 1726.

See " Memoirs of Sophia Dorothea, Consort of George I.," Lon-
don, 3 vols., 1845; HENRI BLAZE, " Les Koenigsmark," 1856.

Sophia Dorothea, Queen of Prussia, born in 1687,
was a daughter of George I. of England. She was mar-
ried to Frederick William I. of Prussia, Died in 1757.

Sophie. See SOPHIA.



Soph'o-cles, [Gr.



; Fr. SOPHOCLE. so'fok'1',1



.

a celebrated Greek tragic poet, born at the village o
Colonus, near Athens, in 495 B.C. lie received a liberal
education. His first drama was represented in 468, when
he appeared as a rival of /lischylus, and gained the first
prize, which was awarded by Cimon ami other judges.
The drama which he exhibited at this time is supposed
to have been "Triptolemus," which is not extant. We
have no record of the events of his life between the years
468 and 440 B.C., when he produced his "Antigone,"
which was very successful. The Athenians were so well
pleased with it that they elected Sophocles one of the
ten itralfgi, or generals. The illustrious Pericles was
one of the slratigi chosen at the same time. Sophocles
acted as a general in the war against Samos in 440-
439, but did not distinguish himself in military affairs.
His conduct appears to have been consistent with
the patriotic sentiments expressed in his writings, lie
was invited to their courts by several monarchs, but
always refused to abandon his native country or accept
their patronage.

He composed more than a hundred tragedies, of which
seven are extant, namely, "Antigone," " Electra," "Tra-
chiiiise," "CEdipus Tyrannus," "Ajax," " I'hilocteles,"
and "CEdipus at Colonus." He is said to have gained
the first prize twenty times or more. His son lophon
was distinguished as a dramatic poet. Sophocles was
remarkable for personal beauty and symmetry, and
excelled in music and gymnastics. He died in 405 B.C.

" By the universal consent of the best critics," says
Professor Philip Smith, " both of ancient and of modern
times, the tragedies of Sophocles are not only the per-
fection of the Greek drama, but they approach as nearly
as is conceivable to the perfect ideal model of that
species of poetry." (See Smith's " Dictionary of Greek
and Roman Biography," etc.)

"Sophocles was the high-priest of humanity. He
chose, as he phrased it, 'to put away the pomp of /Es-
chylus along with his childish things ;' and he exhibited
that mild grandeur and matchless refinement in which
he excels all the dramatists of Greece, lie made tragic
poetry a true mirror of the passions of the soul of
man, and exhibited, as has seldom been done, the true
moral significance of human action." ("Encyclopaedia
Britannica.")

See LESSINC, "Leben des Sophocles," 1700. SCHCM.I, " Sopho-
Hes, sein I.eben und Wirken," etc., 1842; KEKCK, " De Vila So-
phnclis," 1858; K. O. MULLER, " H iMory of the Liuraiure _o(
Ancient Greece;" WELCKHR, "Die Griechischen Tragbdien," 3


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 316 of 425)