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794, he was introduced at Oxford to S. T. Coleridge,

vith whom he formed an intimate friendship. As he

ad no definite prospect, and was much perplexed in

elation to the choice of a profession, he resolved to join

Coleridge in his visionary project to emigrate to Penn-

ylvania and found a Pantisocracy on the banks of the

iusquehanna. His aunt Tyler, who was a staunch Tory

nd abhorred dissenters, on being informed of his pro-

ect and opinions, turned him out of her house in a

ainy night of October, 1794. He left Oxford in the

ame year, received from Joseph Cottle fifty guineas for

iis "Joan of Arc," and married Edith Fricker in Novem-

ner, 1795. About the same date the project of Pantisoc-

ncy was abandoned, for want of money. Immediately

fter his marriage he sailed for Lisbon with his uncle

ilr. Hill, who was chaplain to the British embassy in

hat city. He remained about six months in the penin-

ula, and laid the foundation of that acquaintance with

Spanish and Portuguese literature in which he was sur-

jassed by few, if any, Englishmen. After his return, he

mblished "Letters written during a Short Residence in

_pain and Portugal," (1797,) and, having entered Gray's

nn, London, began to study law, which he found so

uncongenial that he soon abandoned it. Reading lave

seemed to him "like thrashing straw."

He published in 1801 "Thalaba the Destroyer: a
Metrical Romance." After various adventures, and sev.
eral changes of occupation and residence, he settled in
1803 at Greta Hall, near Keswick, with Coleridge, who
was his brother-in-law. Here he enjoyed the society of
Wordsworth and the most beautiful scenery of England,
the lake country. The subsequent part of his life
affords an example of almost unequalled literary indus-
try, combined with a faithful performance of his domestic
duties. After his youthful enthusiasm had cooled, he
Became a conservative in politics, and a zealous member
of the Anglican Church. In 1805 he published "Met-
rical Tales, and other Poems ;" and "Madoc, a Poem, in
Two Parts," which was not received with much favour.
He became a contributor to the "Quarterly Review"
about 1808, published a Indian poem entitled "The Curse
of Kehama" in 1810, and was appointed poet-laureate in
1813. He generously supported the family of Coleridge,
whom the latter left dependenf on him at Greta Hall.
In 1835 he received a pension of three hundred pounds
a year from the government. Having lost his wife in
1837, he married Caroline Bowles in 1839. About this
time his overtasked faculties became prostrated, and he
sank into a state of mental imbecility. He died at Greta
Hall, March 21, 1843. Besides the poems above named,
he wrote "Roderick, the Last of the Goths," (1814.)
Among his numerous prose works are an excellent
"Life of Lord Nelson," (2 vols., 1813.) a "Life of John
Wesley," (2 vols., 1820,) a "History of the Peninsular
War," (3 vols., 1822-32,) "Essays, Moral and Political,"
(1832,) "The Doctor," (7 vols., 1834-37.) and a "Life
of William Cowper."

"Mr. Southey's prose style," says Hazlitt, "can
scarcely be too much praised. It is plain, clear, pointed,
familiar, perfectly modern in its texture, but with a grave
and sparkling admixture of archaisms in its ornament*
and occasional phraseology." ("Spirit of the Age.") "It
is Southey's almost unexampled felicity," says Coleridge,
"to possess the best gifts of talent and genius, free from
all their characteristic defects. . . . As son, brother, hus-
band, father, master, friend, he moves with 6rm yet light
steps, alike unostentatious and alike exemplary. As a
writer, he has uniformly made his talents subservient
to the best interests of humanity, of public virtue, and
domestic piety." (" Biographia Literaria.")

See "The Life and Correspondence of Robert Soulhey." edited
by his son, lh RKV. CHARLES CUTHBERT SOUTHEY, 6 vols., 1849-
50: JOSEPH COTTLE, "Reminiscences of S. T. Coleridge and R.
Southey." 1847; CHAJiLEsT. BROWNK, "The Life of R. Soulhey."
1854 ' "Selections from the Letters of R. Southey," edited by his
son-in-law, J. W. WARTBR. 4 volj., 1856: " Edinburgh Review" for
April. 1851: MACAULAY'S essay entitled " Southey's Colloquies on
Society," 1830: JEFFREY'S criliques in the " Edinburgh Review"
for February, 1811, (vol. xvii..) and for June, 1815, (vol. xxv. ;) AL-
LJP.ONB, " Dictionary of Authors."

South/gate, (HORATIO,) D.D., an American divine,
born at Portland, Maine, July 5, 1812, graduated at



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, J, short; a, e, j, <),ol>icure; Or, fill, fit: met; n6t; good; mcJon;



SOUYffGATE



2225



SPAGNOLETTO



Bowdoin College in 1832, studied in the Theological
Seminary at Andover, and in 1835 entered the ministry
of the Episcopal Church. He was sent as a missionary
to the Levant, and in 1844 was consecrated a missionary
bishop for Turkey, lie resigned this position in 1850.
His principal works are "A Tour through Armenia,"
etc., " A Visit to the Syrian Church of Mesopotamia,"
(1844,) a treatise on the Anglican Church, (in Greek,
1849,) "Practical Directions for Lent," (1850,) "The
War in the East," (1855.) " Sermons," (I S6o,) and "The
Cross above the Crescent," (1877.) Died April 12, 1894.

South'gate, (RlCHAKD,) REV., an English antiquary,
born in Huntingdonshire in 1729. He became an assist-
ant librarian of the British Museum. Died in 1795.

South'well, (NATHANIEL,) was secretary to the
general of the order of Jesuits at Rome about 1650. lie
wrote a continuation of the "Bibliotheca Scriptorum
Societatis Jesu," or "Jesuits' Library," down to 1676, in
which year he died.

South/well, (ROBERT,) an English Catholic, born in
1560, became prefect of the English Jesuits' College at
Rome, and was afterwards sent as a missionary to Eng-
land. Having admitted that he came for the purpose
of making converts, he was tried and executed in 1595.
He was the author of hymns and religious treatises.

See "Gentleman's Magazine" for November, 1798: "Retro-
spective Review," voL iv., (1821:) CLEVELAND, "Compendium of
English Literature."

South'worth, (MRS. EMMA D. E. NEVITT,) an
American novelist, born at Washington, District of
Columbia, in 1818. She contributed a number of tales
and sketches to the " National Era" at Washington, and
subsequently published in that journal her novel entitled
" Retribution." Among her other works may be named
"The Deserted Wife," "The Lost Heiress," and the
"Curse of Clifford." Died in 1899.

Soutman, sowt'man, (PETER,) a Dutch painter of
history, born about 1590; died in 1653.

Soutzo, soot'zo, or Sutzps, soot'zos, (ALEXANDER,)
a modern Greek poet and historian, born at Constanti-
nople about 1800. He wrote political satires against
various parties which divided Greece after 1824. In
1829 he published, in French, a " History of the Greek
Revolution." He is considered by some writers as the
greatest poet of modern Greece. Died in 1863.

Soutzo, (PAYANOTE,) a modern Greek poet, was a
younger brother of the preceding. He became councillor
of state at Athens. Died November 6, lS6S.

Souvarof. See SUWAROW.

Souvestre, soo'vJstR', (EMILE,) a French writer and
journalist of high reputation, born at Morlaix, in Brit-
tany, in 1806. He published in 1836 a work entitled
"Les derniers Bretons," an admirable description of the
manners, customs, etc. of Brittany. About the same
time he became associate editor of the " Revue de Paris"
and the " Revue des Deux Mondes." Among his best
productions, many of which appeared first in the leading
Parisian journals, we may name "The Confessions of a
Workman," (" Les Confessions d'un Ouvrier,") " Pierre
et Jean," "Travels in Finisterre," (1836,) "The Greased
Pole," ("Le Mat de Cocagne," 1842,) and " Le Philo-
gophe sous les Toits." H is works are highly commended
for their moral purity. Died in Paris in 1854.

See " Nouvelle Biographic GiJnerale."

Souvorof or Souvorov. See SUWAROW.

Souza. See FARIA v SOUZA.

Souza, de, da so'za, (ADELE,) MARCHIONESS, a
French romance-writer, whose original name was FIL-
LKUI-, was born in Normandy in 1760. She was rirst
married in 1784 to Count Flahault, who perished under
4he guillotine in 1793, and in 1802 became the wife cf
the Portuguese ambassador Souza-Botelho, noticed be-
low. She published several popular romances, among
which we may name "Eugene de Rathelin," (lSo8,)and
"Adele de Senanges." Died in 1836.

See QuiRARD, "La France LitteVaire;" SAINTB-BEUVH, " Cri-
tiques et Portraits."

Souza, de, (JoXo.) a learned monk, born at Damas-
cus, in Syria, about 1730, settled in Portugal, where he
became professor of Arabic. He was the author of an
Arabic Grammar. Died in 1812.



Souza, de, (PEtmo LOPEZ.) a Portuguese navigator,
who explored the coast of Brazil about 1532. He was
drowned on the coast of Madagascar in 1539.

Souza-Botelho, so'zj bo-teYyo, (Dom Jozi MARIA,)
a Portuguese diplomatist and writer, born at Oporto in
1758, was employed in important embassies to Sweden,
Denmark, England, and France. He published in 1818
a valuable edition of the works of Camoens. Died in
1819.

SSw'er-by', (GEORGE BRETTINGHAM,) an English
naturalist, born in 1788, was a son of James, noticed
below. He gave special attention to conchology and
entomology. Died in 1854.

Sowerby, (GEORGE BRETTINGHAM,) an art:st and
naturalist, a son of the preceding, was born in 1812.
lie wrote, besides other works, a "Popular British
Concholugy," (1854,) and "Illustrated Index of British
Shells," (1859.) Died July 25, 1884.

Sowerby, (JAMES,) an English naturalist and artist,
born at Lambeth about 1760. He published "English
Botany," (1790,) in conjunction with Sir James Smith;
also, "Exotic Mineralogy," a treatise "On the Eng-
lish Fungi or Mushrooms," (3 vols., 1797-1803.) "Brit-
ish Mineralogy," (5 vols., 1804-17,) and the "Mineral
Conchology of Great Britain," (6 vols., 1812-30.) These
works are beautifully illustrated by himself with coloured
plates. Died in 1822. His son, JAMES DE CARLE, born
in 1787, was one of the founders of the Royal Botanicali
Society. He died August 26, 1871.

Soyaux, swS'yo', (HERMANN,) a German traveller,
born at Breslau, January 4, 1852. lie was employed by
a commercial house in the colTee-trade near the river
Gaboon, where he made rich botanical collections. He
published " Aus Westafrika, 1873-76," (1879,) etc.

Soyer, swa'ya', (ALRXIS,) a celebrated French cook
and writer on gastronomy, born about iSoo; died in
1858.

See " Eraser's Magazine** for August, 1851.

Soz'o-men, [Gr. ZuCp/urof ; Lat. SOZOM'ENUS ; Fr.
SOZOMENE, so'zo'm^n',] or, more fully, So-zom'e-nos
Her'ml-as, a Greek ecclesiastical historian, borr. at
Bethel, in Palestine, about 400 A. p. He practised law
at Constantinople, and wrote a History of the Church
from 323 10439 A.D., which is extant. He is deficient
in judgment, compared with Socrates, (who lived at the
same time and wrote on the same subject,) but his style
is commended.

Sozomene and Sozomenus. See SOZOMEN.

SozzinL See SOCINUS.

Spach, sp3k, (DOUARD,) a French naturalist, bom
aj Strasburg, November 20, 1801. He was attached to
the Royal Gardens as assistant naturalist, and wrote
several botanical works. Died May 18, 1879.

Spada, spa'dfl, (BERNARDINO,) an Italian cardinal,
born in the Romagna in 1594, was a patron of literature
and the fine arts. Died in 1661.

Spada, (LtoNELLO,) a celebrated Italian painter,
born at Bologna in 1576. He studied at Rome undei
Caravaggio, whose manner he adopted and refined.
Among his master-pieces are his "San Domenico burn-
ing the Proscribed Books of the Heretics," at Bologna,
" Return of the Prodigal Son," at M6dena, and " The
Miracle of Saint Benedict," in the monastery of San
Michele at Bosco. He excelled as a colorist, and was
esteemed one of the best artists of his time. Died in
1622.

See MALVASIA, " Felsina pittrice."

Spadafora, spl-da-fo'ra, (PLACIDO,) an Italian gram
marian, born at Palermo in 1628. Among his works is
"Prosodia Italiana," (1682.) Died in 1691.

Spaendonck, van, vfn spin'donk, (GERAART,) a
celebrated Dutch flower-painter, born at Tilburg about
1750. He became miniature-painter to the King of
France in 1774, and professor of iconography at the
Jardin des Plantes. Died in Paris-in 1822.

Spagnoletto, span-yo-let'to, [Fr. ESPAGNOLET, 2s'-
ptn'yo'lj',] an eminent Spanish painter, whose propel
name was Jos Ribera, (re-Ba'ra,) was born at Sar-
Felipe de Xativa in 1588. He was a pupil of MichaeJ
Angelo de Caravaggio. He worked at Rome, Naples,
and Madrid, and was afterwards appointed painter to



e as k; c as i: g hard; g as /; G, H, K,suttural: N, nasal; R, trilled; as :

140



th as in this. (3T"See Explanations, p. 25.



SPAGNUOLT



2226



SPARKS



the court of Spain. Among his master-pieces are "The
Adoration of the Shepherds," and a "Mater Dolorosa."
His favourite subjects were martyrdoms, executions, and
Other tragical scenes. Died at Naples in 1656.

Spagnuoli or Spagnoll See MANTUAN.

Spalatin, spa'li-teen', [Lat. SPALATI'NUS,] (GEORG,)
a German scholar and Reformer, whose original name
was BURCKHARD, was born at Spalt, in the bishopric of
Eichstadt, in 1484. Having become a convert to the
doctrines of Luther, he was appointed in 1514 by Fred-
erick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, his court chaplain
and private secretary. Among his works we may name
his biographies of Frederick the Wise and John the
Constant, and " History of the Popes and Emperors of
the Time of the Reformation." Died in 1543.

See SCHLEGEL, "Historia Vita G. Spalatini:" p. EKERMAN,
"Dissertatio de G. Spalatino," 1760; J. WAGNER, "G. Spalatin
und die Reformation der Kirchen," etc., 1830; BBKTHBL, "G.
Spalatini in Emendationem sacrorum Merita," 1840.

Spalatinus. See SPALATIN.

Spal ding, spal'ding, (GEor.GLuDWlG,)adistingn!shed
philologist, a son of Johann Joachim, noticed below, was
bo.n at Barth in 1762. He prepared an excellent edi-
tion of the works of Quintilian, published after his death.
He also wrote (in Latin) "Vindication of the Megaric
Philosophers." He was a member of the Academy of
Sciences at Berlin, and councillor in the ministry for
public instruction. Died in 1811.

See GEORG LUDWIG SPALDING, " Memoria G. L. Spaldingii,"

lSl2.

Spalding, (JoHANN JOACHIM,) a Protestant theolo-
gian and religious writer, born in Swedish Pomerania in
1714 ; died in 1804.

Spal'ding, (JOHN,) a Scottish historian, lived in Aber-
deen. He wrote " Memorials of the Troubles in Scot-
land." Died about 1670.

Spal'ding, (JOHN FRANKLIN,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in Belgrade. Maine, August 25, 1828, grad-
uated at Bowdoin College in 1853, and at the General
Seminary in New York in 1857. In 1858 he was ordained
a priest of the Episcopal Church. In 1873 he *:as con-
secrated Bishop of Colorado.

Spaldlng, (JOHN LANCASTER ) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Lebanon, Kentucky, June 2, 1840, was
educated at Emmittsburg, Rome, and Louvain, where he
graduated in 1859. He became a Catholic priest of Ken-
tucky, and in 1877 was consecrated Bishop of Peoria,
Illinois, the first of that title. Among his works are a
'Life of Archbishop Spalding," "Essays and Reviews,"
" Religious Mission of the Irish People," " Lectures and
Discourses," (in 4 vols.,) a series of school-books, etc.

Spal'ding, (LYMAN,) an eminent American physician,
born at Cornish, New Hampshire, in 1775. He gradu-
ated at Harvard College in 1797, and settled at Ports-
mouth in 1799. He published a "New Nomenclature
of Chemistry," (1799.) In 1812 he became president of
the College of Physicians at Fairfield, New York, and
professor of anatomy and surgery. He removed to the
city of New York in 1813. He originated the " Phar-
macopoeia of the United States," the plan of which he
formed about iSiS. He died in October. 1821.

SeeTHACHER, "Medical Biography."

Spalding. (MARTIN JOHN-,) D.D., an American arch-
bishop, born in Marion county, Kentucky, May 23, 1810,
graduated at Saint Mary's College, Lebanon, Kentucky,
in 1826, and at the College of the Propaganda in Rome.
In 1834 he was ordained a Catholic priest, was consecrated
Bishop of Lengone, and coadjutor of Louisville in 1848,
succeeded Bishop Fhget as Bishop of Louisville in 1850,
and in 1864 was appointed Archbishop of Baltimore,
where he died, February?, 1872. He was one of the most
learned, active, and influential prelates of his Church in
this country. Among his works are " Evidences of Cath-
olicity," (1847,) "Miscellanea," (1855,) and " History of
the Protestant Reformation," (1860.) See his "Life,"
by Bishop J. L. Spalding.

Spal'ding, (SAMUEL,) an English theologian and dis-
senting divine, born in London in 1807. He died in
1844 at the Cape of Good Hope, whither tie had gone
on account of his health. His principal work is entitled
"The Philosophy of Christian Morals."



Spalding, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish critic and writer,
bom at Aberdeen about 1809. He wrote, besides other
works, " Italy and the Italian Islands from the Earliest
Ages," etc., (3 vols., 1841,) and became professor of logic
in the University of Saint Andrew's in 1845. He con-
tributed to the "Encyclopaedia Britannica." Died in
1859.

Spallanzani, spjl-lln-za'nee, (LAZZARO,) an eminent
Italian anatomist, born at Scandiano, in the duchy of
Modena, in 1729, was educated at Bologna. He became
professor of logic and Greek at Reggio in 1754. and ob-
tained a chair at Modena in 1761. In 1768 he published
" On the Action of the Heart in 'he lilood- Vessels,"
(" Dell' Azione del Cuore ne' Vasi sanguigni.") He was
appointed professor of natural history at Pavta about
1770. He wrote treatises on respiration, digestion, re-
production, etc. Died in 1799.

See J. TOURDES, " Notice sur la Vie de Spallanzani," 1799 : Poz-
ZBTTI, " Elogio di L. Spallanzani," 1800; J. L. ALIBERT, " E"loge
historique de Spallanzani," 1806; "Nouvelle Diographie GtSne'rale."

Dpangenberg, spang'gen-berg' or spang'en-be'Rc',
(AUGUST GOTTLIEB,) founder of the Moravian Church
in America, was born at Klettenberg, in Germany, in
1704. In 1735 he visited America and founded a Mo-
ravian settlement in Georgia. Having been made a
bishop in 1744, he continued to reside nearly twenty
years in America, where he was instrumental in estab-
lishing Moravian colonies at Bethlehem in Pennsylvania,
and in North Carolina, He returned to Germany in



Fratrum.")

Spangenberg, spang / en-b5RG', (CvRiACUS,) a Ger-
man theologian and historical writer, born at Herden
in 1528, was the author of "Chronicles of Henneberg,
Holstein, etc" Died in 1604.

Spanheim, spjn'him, (EzEKIRL,) an eminent Swiss
diplomatist, scholar, and numismatist, born at Geneva
in 1629. He studied Hebrew, Arabic, and theology at
Leyden. In 1659 he was sent by the Elector-Palatine to
Italy on a diplomatic mission. He published at Rome a
work on ancient coins, " De Praestantia et Usu Numis-
matum antiquorum," (1664.) He returned to Heidelberg
in 1665, after which he was employed by the Elector as
minister to England. About 1680 he entered the service
of the Elector of Brandenburg, who sent him as ambas-
sador to Paris. Among his works is "The Roman
World," etc., (" Orbis Romanus," etc., 1697.) Died in
London in 1710.

See NICERON, " Mfmoires ;" SBNEOIER, "HUtoire littlraire do
Geneve;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge"nerale."

Spanheim, span'him, (FRIEDRICH,) a theologian.
born at Amberg, in Bavaria, in 1600, was the father of
the preceding. He was appointed professor of theology
at Leyden in 1642. He published, besides other works,
" Gospel Doubts," (" Dubia Evangelica," 1639,) and
a "Treatise on Universal Grace," (1646.) Died in 1649.

See NICSRON, "Me'moires;" BAVLS, "Historical and Critical
Dictionary."

Spanheim, (FRIEDRICH,) a son of the preceding,
was born at Geneva in 1632. He became professor of
divinity at Heidelberg in 1655, and obtained the chair
of theology and sacred history at Leyden in 1670.
Among his works is "A Summary of Ecclesiastical
History," ("Summa Historic ecclesiasticae," 1689.)
Died in 1701.

See NICEROW, "Me'moires."

Spark or Sparke, (THOMAS,) an English cleigy-
man, born in 1655, became prebendary of Lichfield and
Rochester. He published an edition of Lactantius.
(1684.) Died in 1692.

Sparke, (THOMAS,) a learned English Puritan min-
ister, born in Lincolnshire in 1548. He became preb-
endary of Lincoln in 1582. He wrote several religious
works. Died in 1616.

Sparks, (JARED,) a distinguished American historian
and biographer, born at Willington, Connecticut, in
May, 1789, graduated at Harvard College in 1815. He
studied theology, and was ordained minister of the First
Unitarian Church of Baltimore in 1819, after which he



E, e, I, o. u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; 5, e, 1, 6, vi, y, short; a, ?, i, o, ol/taire; far, fall, fit; m> ; not; good; mooiv



SPARR



2227



SPELMAN



wrote several treatises on theology. He became in 1823
the editor of the "North American Review," which he
conducted (in Boston) until 1830. He published "The
Life of John Ledyard," (1829,) and "The Life of Gouver-
neur Morris," (3 vols., 1832,) and expended much
labour on "The Life and Writings of George Wash-
ington ; being his Correspondence, Addresses, Mes-
sages, etc.," (12 vols. 8vo, 1833-40,) which, says R. W.
Griswold, is "a work in all respects as nearly perfect
as possible." He published a good edition of the com-
plete works of Franklin, (10 vols., 1835-40.) In 1839
he was appointed professor of ancient and modern history
in Harvard University. He edited "The Library of
American Biography," (First Series, 10 vols., 1835-39,
and Second Series, 15 vols., 1844-48.) For this valuable
collection he wrote the biographies of Ethan Allen, Ben-
edict Arnold, Marquette, Count Pulaski, La Salle, Ri-
bault, and General Charles Lee. He was president of
Harvard University from 184910 1852. It is stated that
he was engaged for many years on a History of the
American Revolution. Died in 1866.

"The great merits of Mr. Sparks," says Griswold,
"are reverence for truth, soundness of judgment in re-
gard to evidence, and exhausting fulness of detail and
illustration." (See " Prose Writers of America.")

See ERANTZ MEYER, "Memoir of Jared Sparks," 1869: REV.
GEORGE E. ELLIS, "Memoirs of Jared Sparks," 1869; ALLISONS,
"Dictionary of Authors."

Sparr, spaR, (OTTO CHRISTOPH,) BARON, a German
commander, born in 1593, served against the Swedes in
1655, and was made field-marshal-general in 1657. Died
in 1668.

Sparre, spar'reh, (ERIC LARSSON,) a Swedish states-
man and writer, born in 1550. He was an adherent of
Sigismund in a civil war which resulted in the de-
thronement of that king. He was executed for treason
in 1600.

Sparre, (GEHR GEORG,) a Swedish novelist, born
near Kronoberg in 1790. He entered the army in 1807,
and became a colonel in 1832. Died July 25, 1871.

Sparrmann, spaR'mSn, (ANDREAS,) a Swedish natu
ralist, born in the province of Upland about 1747. He
studied at Upsal under Linnaeus, and in 1772 visited
the Cape of Good Hope. He afterwards accompanied
the Forsters in their voyage round the world with Cap-
tain Cook in 1772. In 1775 he set out for the interior
of Africa, where he made a valuable collection of plants,
animals, etc. After his return to Sweden, he was elected
a member of the Academy of Sciences at Stockholm,
and appointed conservator of the Museum. His travels
are highly esteemed for their accuracy, and have been
translated into several languages. Died in 1820.

Spar'row, (ANTHONY,) an English prelate under the
reign of Charles II., became Bishop of Norwich. He
published a " Rationale of the Book of Common Prayer.'
Died in 1685.

Spar'row, (WILLIAM,) D.D., an American divine
born in Massachusetts, of an Irish family, March 12,
1801. He lived in Ireland, 1805-17, studied in Columbia
College. New York, and became one of the leaders of the
" Low Church" party in the Episcopal Church. I le held
professorships in Miami University, 1824-25, in Kenym
College, and in the Theological School of Virginia
1840-74. Died at Alexandria, Virginia, January 17,1874
Spar'ta-cus, a Thracian soldier, who was taker
prisoner by the Romans, reduced to slavery, and trainee
as a gladiator. Having escaped with a number of his
associates, he became leader of a numerous band, am
defeated Claudius Pulcher, who was sent against him
about 73 B.c Having proclaimed freedom to all slave,
who should join him, he raised a powerful army and de
feated several times the consuls sent against him. He
was prudent as well as brave. His army amounted tc


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 318 of 425)