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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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about 100,000 men, and was invincible until dissension
arose among them. In 71 B.C he was blockaded b
M. Licinius Crassus at Rhegium, and killed in a battl
which ended the great Servile war. Spartacus was ai
extraordinary man, and had the qualities of a hero.

See Liw, " Epitome;" M4RI.MEE," Guerre sociale;" "Nouvell
Biographic G^nerale."

Spartianus, spar-she-a'nus, [Fr. SPARTIEN,

Spartianus, spar-she-a'nus, [Fr. SPARTIEN, spfR
s as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as_/; G, H, K, guttural; N, aaial; R,

a Roman historian, who lived aboat
oo A.D'., wrote a " History in Single Biographies of the
<oman Emperors from Caesar down to his Own Time."
Only fragments of it are extant.
Spartien. See SPARTIANUS.

Sparwenfeldt, spaR'wen-felt', (JoHAN GABRIEL,) a

wedish linguist, born in 1655. He left, in manuscript,

"Lexicon Slavonicum." Died in 1727.

SpauI'ding, (LEVi,) an American Congregational

missionary, born at Jaffrey, New Hampshire, August 22,

791. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1815, and

t the Andover Seminary in 1818, went to Northern

"eylon as a missionary, and died there, June 18, 1873.

Sesides writing and translating religious books into the

Tamil language, he published a "Tamil Dictionary."

Speckbacher, spiSk'blK'er, (JOSEPH,) a Tyrolese
>atriot, and friend of Hofer, was born near Innspruck in
768 ; died in 1820.

Speckter, spck'ter, (ERWIN,) a German painter,
>orn at Hamburg in 1806, was a pupil of Cornelius at
Munich. He visited Italy in 1824, and while at Rome
jroduced his picture of the " Sleeping Samson," es-
eemed one of his master-pieces. He died in 1835.
.Us interesting " Letters of a German Artist from Italy"
were published in 1846.

Speckter, (OTTO,) a brother of the preceding, was
)orn at Hamburg in 1807. He acquired a high repu-
ation as a painter of landscapes and animals, and exe-
cuted a number of lithographs and etchings, among
which we may name "Twelve Etchings to Puss in
Boots." Died April 29, 1871.

Spedalieri, spa-dl-le-a'ree, (NICCOL6,) an Italiat.
jriest and writer, born in Sicily in 1740. He pub-
ished a work on the Rights of Man, "De" Diritti del
Homo," (1791.) which gave offence to the clergy. Died
'n 1795.

Spee, von, fon spa, (FRIEDRICH,) a German Jesuit,
born near Kaiserswerth, on the Rhine, about 1595,
wrote devotional poems of great beauty, and an able
treatise against the belief in witchcraft. Died in 1635.

Speed, (JOHN,) an English historian, born in Che-
shire about 1550. He was the author of a chronicle
entitled "The History of Great Britain under the Con-
quests of the Romans, Saxons, Danes, and Normans,"
(1611,) "The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britain,"
and other works. Died in 1629.

Spegel, spii'gel, (HAQUIN,) a Swedish prelate, born
at Romieby in 1645. He wrote, besides other works,
a " History of the Swedish Church," ("Svenska Kyrke-
historie,"2 vols., 1708.) In 1711 he became Archbishop
of LTpsal. Died in 1713 or 1714.

Speight, (THOMAS WILKINSON.) a British novel-
ist, born at Liverpool in 1830. He published " Fate
of the Hara Diamond," (1891,) "The Secret of Wy-
vern Towers," (1898,) and other novels.

Speke, speek, (Captain JOHN HANNING,) an English
officer, distinguished as an explorer of Africa, was born
in 1827. He served in the army in India se%eral years.
About 1855-57 he was a companion of Captain Burton
in a journey in Africa. He discovered Lake Victoria
Nyanza in 1858. In company with Mr. Grant, he per-
formed another journey to that part of Africa in 1860-61,
and discovered the sources of the Nile in 1862 by tracing
that river to Lake Nyanza. He was killed in England
in 1864 by the accidental discharge of his own gun.

See "Gentleman's Magazine" for November, 1864; "Black-
wood's Magazine" for November, 1859, and May, 1860.

Spel'man, (EDWARD,) an English scholar and trans-
lator, was a descendant of Sir Henry, noticed helow.
He translated Xenophon's " Cyropaedia," and Dionysius
of Halicarnassus. Died in 1767.

Spelman, (Sir HENRY,) an eminent English anti-
quary, born in 1562. He studied at Trinity
College, Cambridge, and afterwards settled in London.
He published in 1626 the first part of his "Glc
Archaiologicum," a standard work of its kind, which he
left unfinished ; the remaining part was brought out by
his friend Sir William Dugdale. I !e also wrote " Coun-
cils, Decrees, Laws, etc, of Britain in Ecclesiastical
Affairs," (in Latin, unfinished.) Died in 1641.
His son, Sir JOHN SPELMAN, wrote a "Critical Life

trilltd; I as ,; th as in this.

: Explanations, p. 21.)




of King Alfred," and another son, CLEMENT, became
baron of the exchequer under Charles II. Sir John
died in 1643.

Spelta, spll'tS, (ANTONIO MARIA,) an Italian littera-
teur, born at Pavia in 1559. He published, besides other
\vorks, "Istoria de' Fatti notabili occorsi nell' Universe,"
etc., (1603.) Died in 1632.

Spence, (HENRY DONALD,) an English divine,
born at Pall Mall in 1836. He became Dean of
Gloucester in 1886, and published important works
on theological subjects and on the history of the
English church.

SpSnce, (JOSEPH,) an English divine and critic, born
in Hampshire in 1699. He studied at Oxford, entered
into orders, and in 1728 became professor of poetry in
that college. Having travelled on the continent, he was
appointed after his return professor of modern history
at Oxford. His principal work is entitled " Polymetis ;
or, An Enquiry concerning the Agreement between the
Works of the Roman Poets and the Remains of the
Ancient Artists," etc., which was very well received.
1 le also wrote an " Essay on Pope's Translation of the
Odyssey," which procured for him the friendship o(
that poet, and "Anecdotes, Observations, and Charac-
ters of Books and Men," a valuable and interesting
work. Mr. Spence was made a prebendary of Durham
Cathedral in 1754. lie was accidentally drowned in

Spence, (WILLIAM,) an eminent English entomolo-
gist, born in 1783, published a number of treatises on
natural history, among which we may name "Obser-
vations relative to Dr. Carus's Discovery of the Circu-
lation of Blood in Insects." He also assisted the Rev.
William Kirby in his "Introduction td Entomology,
or Elements of the Natural History of Insects." lie
was a Fellow of the Royal Society and other learned
institutions. (See KIRBY.) Died m 1860.

Spen'cer, (AMBROSE,) LL.D., an able American
jurist, born at Salisbury, Connecticut, in 1765. lie
graduated at Harvard College, and subsequently rose
through various offices to be chief justice of the State
of New York in 1810. lie retired from the bench in
1823. He married successively two sisters of De Witt
Clinton. Died in 1848.


Spen'cer, (CHARLES,) Duke of Marlborough, born
in 1707, was a son of Charles, Earl of Sunderland, and
a grandson of the famous Duke of Marlborough, whose
title he inherited in 1733. He served in the army, and
obtained the rank of lieutenant-general. Died in 1759.

Spencer, (FREDERICK,) Earl of Spencer, an English
peer, born in London in 1798. He served in the navy,
and gained the rank of rear-admiral. In 1845 he entered
the House of Lords. Died December 27, 1857.

Spencer, (GEORGE,) a Roman Catholic priest, born
in 1799, was a younger brother of Viscount Althorp.
He joined the order of Passionists, and assumed the
name of Father Ignatius. Died in 1864.


Spencer, (HERBERT,) a distinguished English
philosophical writer, was born at Derby, April 27,
1820. He became a railway engineer at seventeen,
but after eight years' service he withdrew and devoted
himself to literature. He early became an earnest
believer in and powerful advocate of the theory of
evolution, and gradually developed a wide-embracing
philosophical system based on views largely original
with himself. His first notable work in this direction
was his " Social Statics," (1850.) There followed a
number of essays on evolution and other subjects, of
which the best known is his popular small work on
"Education," (1861.) In 1860 he announced the
publication of a " System of Synthetic Philosophy,"
to begin with the first principles of nature, and to
trace the law of evolution through life, mind, society,
and morality. Most of his later years have been
given to this ambitious project, which was developed
in his "First Principles," (1862,) "Principles of
Biology," (1864-67,) "Principles of Psychology,"

(1870-72,) " Principles of Sociology," (1876-96,) and
"Principles of Ethics," (1879-93.) Spencer is re-
garded as one of the most profound thinkers of mod-
ern times, and his writings have had a remarkable
influence upon recent scientific and philosophical

Spencer, (JESSE AMES,) D.D., an American Episco-
palian divine and theologian, born in Dutchess county.
New York, in 1816. He was appointed in 1850 professor
of Latin and Oriental languages at Burlington College,
New Jersey. He published a "History of the English
Reformation," (1846,) "Egypt and the Holy Land,"
(1849,) and other works.

Spencer, (JoiIN,) D.D., an English divine and scholar,
born in Kent in 1630, was created Dean of Ely. He
wrote a work entitled " De Legibtis Hebraeorum Ritu-
alibus et eorum Rationibus." Died in 1695.

Spencer, (JOHN CANFIELD,) an American lawyer
and statesman, born at Hudson, New York, in 1788,
was a son of Ambrose, noticed above. lie practised
for many years at Canandaigua, to which he removed in
1809. He was elected to Congress in 1816, and was a
member of the Senate of New York from 1824 to 1828.
He gained a high reputation by his revision of the statutes
of New York, on which he wrote a series of essays. In
1839 he became secretary of state for New York. He
was secretary of war under the national government
from October, 1841, to March, 1843, a "d was appointed
secretary of the treasury at the latter date. I le resigned
in 1844 because he was opposed to the annexation of
Texas to the Union. About 1845 ne removed from
Canandaigua to Albany, where he died in May, 1855.
Mr. Spencer was a man of powerful intellect and intense
energy, and occupied a high position as a lawyer and
a philanthropist. He did much to promote popular


Spencer, (JOHN PO\-NTZ,) fourth EARL, a British
nobleman, born October 27, 1835. He was educated at
Harrow, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1857
succeeded his father as earl. He was lord-lieutenant of
Ireland, 1869-74, and was again appointed in 1882, being
also lord president of the Council, with a seat in Mr.
Gladstone's cabinet

Spencer, (JOSEPH,) an American general, born in
Connecticut about 1714. He was appointed a major-
general in August, 1776, resigned in 1778, and was
elected to the General Congress in that year. Died
in 1789.

Spencer, (lion. WILLIAM ROBERT,) an accomplished
English writer, son of Lord Charles Spencer, was born
in 1 770. He produced a translation of " Lenore." Died
in 1834.

Spener, spa'ner, (JAKOB KARL,) a German writer and
jurist, a son of the following, was born at Frankfort in
1684. He published, besides other works, a "General
History of Germany," ("llistoria Germanix Universalis
et IVagmatica," 2 vols., 1717.) Died in 1730.

Spener, (PuiLirp JAKOH,) an eminent German Prot-
estant minister, born at Rappoltsweiler, now Ribeauville,
in Alsace, in January, 1635. He is called the founder
of the sect of Pietists, lie studied theology, Hebrew,
etc. at Strasburg, and began to preach in that city in
1663. Having acquired a high reputation as a preacher,
he became in 1666 first pastor of the Lutheran church
at Frankfort-on-the-Main. He instituted, about 1670,
meetings for religious instruction and prayer, which were
called collegia pietatis. In 1675 he published a small work
entitled " Pious Desires," (" Pia Desidcria,") which was
highly esteemed. He was appointed court preacher at
Dresden in 1686, and removed in 1691 to Berlin, where
he obtained the office of provost of the church of Saint
Nicholas and enjoyed great influence. lie was eminent
for charity and tolerance. His efforts were directed to
the promotion of vital and practical religion. The chairs
of theology in the new University of Halle were filled
by disciples of Spener. A controversy arose between
his friends and the faculty of Wittenberg, who censured
as heretical two hundred and sixty-four propositions
found in his writings. He died, in Berlin in February,
1705, leaving numerous works, among which are "The

5. e. T, 6, u, y, long: A, e, 6, same, lessprolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a, c, j, 9, obscure; far, fill. f*t; met; not; good; moon;




Interior and Spiritual Peace," (1686,) and "The Duties
ot the Evangelical Life," (1692.)

See CANSTEIN, " LebensbeschreibuiiR Speners," 1740 : HOSSBACH,
"Spener und seine Zeit," 2 vols., 1828; W. THILO, "Spener als
Kalechet," 1840; WILDENHAHN, "P. J. Spener," 1842; A. STEIN
METZ. " Leben P J. Spener's," 1741 : PPANNENBEKG, "P. J. Spe
nerder Kirclienvaterdes Evanpelischen Deutschlands" 1833; HAAG.
*' La France proteslante ;" " Nouvelle Biographic G^neVale."

Speng'el, (LEONHARD,) a German philologist, born
at Munich, September 24, 1803. lie was educated at
Munich, Berlin, and Leipsic, and held professorships of
philology in Heidelberg, and in Munich, where he died,
November 8, iSSo. He issued valuable editions of many
Greek and some Latin authors.

Spen'ser, [Lat SPENSE'RUS,] (EDMUND,) an illus-
trious English poet, was born in East Smithfield, Lon-
don, about 1553. His early history is involved in much
obscurity ; he is supposed, however, to have been of a
good family, though probably in indigent circumstances,
as he entered Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, as a sizar, in
1569. Having taken the degree of A.M. in 1576, he
resided foi- a time in the North of England, where he
wrote his "Shephearde's Calendar," a pastoral poem,
dedicated to his friend and patron Sir Philip Sidney,
and first published in 1579. He became secretary to
Lord Grey de Wilton, Viceroy of Ireland, in 1580, and
obtained for his services a grant of 3028 acres of land
from the forfeited estate of the Earl of Desmond. Soon
after he had fixed his residence in this place, which was
situated in the county of Cork, he acquired the friend-
ship and patronage of Sir Walter Raleigh, to whom he
dedicated his poem entitled "Colin Clout's come Home
Again," (1591.) About the same time he published the
first three books of his "Faerie Queene," and in 1595
his "Astrophel," an elegy on Sir Philip Sidney. He
married the same year an Irish lady, supposed to have
been a Miss Nagle, and wrote on the occasion an epi-
thalamium, which Hallam styles a " splendid little poem,
. . . an intoxication of ecstasy, ardent, noble, and pure."
The fourth, fifth, and sixth books of " The Faerie
Queene" came out in 1596. Spenser was appointed in
1798 sheriff of the county of Cork. The rebellion of
the Earl of Tyrone having broken out soon after, he
was compelled to leave his estate, which was plundered
by the rebels, and the house burned, with, it is said, an
infant child in it He did not long survive this severe
calamity, and died in great destitution. He was buried
n Westminster Abbey, near Chaucer, in compliance with
his own request lie left two sons, Sylvanus and Pere-
grine. Of Spenser's poetry Campbell observes, " He
threw the soul of harmony into our verse, and made it
more warmly, tenderly, and magnificently descriptive
than it ever was before, or, with a few exceptions, than
it has ever been since ;" and Hazlitt says, " There is an
originality, richness, and variety in his allegorical per-
sonages and fictions which almost vies with the splen-
dour of the. ancient mythology. If Ariosto transports
us into the regions of romance, Spenser's poetry is all

See J. P. COIUHR, "Life of E. Spenser," 1862: DR. JOHN
AIKIN, "Life of E. Spenser." 1806: H. I. TODD, "Life of E.
Spenser," 1805; PKESCOTT, "Miscellanies; WARTON, "Observa-
tions on the Faerie Queenl" " Blackwood's Magazine" for Novem-
ber, 1833; ALLIBONE, "Dictionary of Authors."

Spenserus. See SPENSER.

Speranskyor Speranskl, spa-rin'ske, (MlCHAEl,)
COUNT, an eminent Russian statesman and mathemati-
cian, born in the government of Vladimir in 1772. He
became secretary to the privy council in 1801 and col-
league of the minister of justice in 1808. He made
important reforms in several departments of the gov-
ernment In 1812 he was removed from office, but in
1819 he was appointed Governor-General of Siberia. He
enjayed in a high degree the confidence of the emperor
Nicholas, and was placed at the head of a commission
appointed to make a digest or code of Russian laws,
which was published in 45 vols., 1830. For these
services he was rewarded with the title of count Died
in 1839.

See BARON VON KORP. " Vie du Comte Speranski," a vols.,
1801 ; " Nouvelle Biographic Gene>ale."

Sperling, spSR'ling, (OTTO,) a German naturalist

born at Hamburg in 1602. He practised medicine at
Copenhagen and at Hamburg. He wrote on botany.
Died in 1681.

See MOLLER, "C'mbria Literati."

Sperling, (OTTO,) an antiquary, a son of the pre
ceding, was born at Christiama in 1634. lie became
professor of history and law at Copenhagen in 1692,
and published several works on numismatics and North-
ern antiquities, among which is " Monumentum Ham-
burfrense Benedictinum," (1675.) Died in 1715.

Speroni, spa-ro'nee, (SPERONE,) an eminent Italian
writer and orator, born at Padua in 1500. He passed
for the foremost orator of Italy in his time. He wrote
several works in verse and prose, among which are
moral dialogues, ("Dialoghi," 1542.) and an admired
tragedy, called "Canace," (1546.) His style is highly
praised. Died in 1588. His complete works were pub-
lished at Venice in 5 vols. 410, 1740.

See DE THOU, " FJnges ;" NICB'RON, " Me'moires;" CINGUHN^,
" Histoire Lirteraire d' Italic;" TIKABOSCHI, "Storia della Lettera-
tura [taliana."

Speusippe. See SPEUSIPPUS.

Speu-sip'pus, [Gr. Znci'onnrof; Fr. SPEUSIPPE, spuh'.
zip',] a Greek philosopher, born in Attica about 380
B.C., was a disciple and nephew of Plato. His mother,
Potone, was a sister of Plato, whom he accompanied in.
his third journey to Syracuse. Having been selected
by Plato as his successor, Speusippus directed the
Academy from 347 to 339 n.c. He adopted the Platonic
philosophy, with slight modifications. Aristotle testified
his respect for the ability of Speusippus by writing a
refutation of his doctrines. His works are not extant.
Died in 339 B.C.

See RITTER, " History of Philosophy:" RAVAISSOV, "Speusipp!
de Primis Rerum Principiis Placita," 1838; M. A. FISCHER, "Scrip-
tio Academica de Speusippi Vita," 1845.

Sphaerus, sfee'rus, [Z^tu'poc,] a Greek Stoic philoso-
pher, was a pupil of Zeno, and lived at Alexandria in
the reigns of Ptolemy I. and Ptolemy Philadelphus.

Sphinx, sfinks, iZ^tyf,] a monster of the Greek
mythology, was said to have the face of a woman,
the wings of a bird, and the breast, feet, and tail of a
lion. According to some writers, the Sphinx was the
offspring of Typhon and Chimsera. The poets feigned
that this monster appeared near Thebes, in Boeotia,
proposed a riddle to every person that passed, and de-
stroyed all that failed to solve the enigma. After many
had failed and had perished, CEdipus came, and the
Sphinx demanded, " What animal is that which goes on
four feet in the morning, on two at noon, and on three
at evening?" lie answered, "That is Man, who creeps in
infancy, walks on two feet in manhood, and uses a staff
in old age." The Sphinx then killed herself, or disap-
peared. This was a favourite emblem among the ancient
Egyptians, with whom it probably originated. At the
present time there may be seen near the pyramid of
Ghizeh a colossal figure of a sphinx, cut out of a solid
rock, and probably as old as the pyramids.

See " Biographic Universelle," (Panic mylhologique ;) SMITHt
"Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology."

Spiegel, spee'gel, (FRIEDRICH,) a German Orientalist,
born near Wurzburg in 1820, has published a " Chres-
tomathia Persica," and an edition of the " Zend Avesta,"
or the sacred books of the Parsees, with a translation.
He became in 1849 professor of Oriental languages at

Spiegel, spee'g?! or spee'H?!, (IlENDRTK,) a Dutch
poet and merchant, called THE DUTCH ENNIUS, bora
at Amsterdam in 1549. He wrote "The Mirror of the
Heart," (" Hart Spieghel," 1614.) Died in 1612.

Spieghel, van den. See SPIGEI.IUS.

Spieker, spee'ker, (CHRISTIAN WILHEI.M,) a Gen*
man Protestant theologian, born at Brandenburg, on
the Havel, in 1780. He wrote a number of religious
and educational works. Died May 10, 1858.

Spielberg. See SPILBERG.

Spielbergen, van, vSn speel'bjR'gen, or Spilber*
gen, (GEORGE,) a Dutch navigator, who made a voyage
to the East Indies in 1601. In 1614 he commanded a
flotilla of six vessels which sailed through the Strait of.
Magellan to the Moluccas.

f as k; 5. as t; g hard; g as/; G, H, K,guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled,- s as z; th as in this. (=See Explanatipns, p. 23.)




Spielhagen, speel'ha'gen, (FRIEDRICH,) an eminent
German novelist, was born at Magdeburg, February 24,
1829. He was brought up at Stralsund, and was educated
at Bonn, Leipsic, Berlin, and Greifswalde. He is regarded
by many as the ablest German novelist of his time. Among
his books are " Problematische Naturen," ( 1 860,) " Durch
Nicht zum Licht," (1861,) "In der zwblften Stunde,"
(1862,) "Die von Hohenstein," (1863,) "Rbschen vom
Hofe,"(i864,) "In Reih und Glied," (1866,) "Unter den
Tannen," (1867,) "Hammer und Amboss," ("Hammer
and Anvil," 1869, which may be considered his master-
piece, ) " Ultimo," ( 1874,) " Was will das werden ?"
(1886) "Susi," (1895,) "Faustulus," (1897,) and
various plays, translations, etc.

Spielmann. speel'man, (JAKOB REINHOLD,) born at
Strasburg in 1722, became professor of chemistry in his
native town. He published " Elements of Chemistry,"
and other scientific works. Died in 1782.

Spierings (spee'rings) OF ANTWERP, (HENRY,) an
able landscape-painter, born about 1633. lie worked
in France for Louis XIV., and in Italy. Died in 1715.

Spierings, (NICHOLAS,) a Flemish landscape-painter
bom at Antwerp in 1633, imitated Salvator Rosa with
success. Died at Antwerp in 1691.

Spiers, van, vtn speeRs, (ALBERT,) a Dutch his-
torical painter, born at Amsterdam in 1666. lie worked
at Rome and Venice, and returned to Amsterdam in
1697. Died in 1718.

Spiesliamraer. See CUSPINIAN.

Spiess, speess, (CHRISTIAN HEINRICH,) a German
novelist and dramatic writer, born at Freiberg, in Sax-
ony, in 1755 ; died in 1799.

Spifame, spe'ftm', (JACQUES PAUL,) a Frenchman,
born in Paris in 1502. He became Bishop of Nevers
in 1548, abjured Catholicism in 1559, and was ordained
a minister by Calvin at Geneva. Charged with calumny
and other offences, he was executed at Geneva in 1566

See BAYLE, " Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Spifame, (RAOUL,) a lawyer, a brother of the pre-
ceding, having become deranged, imagined that he was
King Henry II. of France, whom he resembled in
features. He was confined by that king, who ordered
him to be treated as a sovereign. Died in 1563.

Spi-gell-us, (or spe-Ha'le-us,) (ADRIAN,) a Flemish
anatomist and physician, whose original name was VAN
DEN SpiEGHEL,wasbornat Brussels in 1578. He studied
at Louvain and Padua, where he graduated in medicine,
and became professor of anatomy and surgery in 1616.
He was the author of a valuable work "On the Struc-
ture of the Human Body," (1627,) and other treatises.
One of the lobes of the liver has been called by his
name. Died in 1625.

Spilberg or Spielberg, speel'bSRC, (JOHANN,) a
German paintei of history, born at Dusseldorf in 1619,
was a pupil of Flink. He was patronized by the Count-
Palatine. Died in 1690.

Spilbergen, van. See SPIELBEP.GEN, VAN.

Spil'ler, (JOHN,) an English sculptor, born in Lon
don in 1763, was a pupil of Bacon. His_principal work
is the statue of Charles II. in the centre of the Royal
Exchange. He died soon after its completion, in 1794.

Spinckes, splnks, (NATHANIEL,) an English non-
juror, born at Castor in 1653 or 1654. He became
prebendary of Salisbury about 1687, and was ordained
a bishop of the nonjurors in 1713. Died in 1727.

Spindler, splnd'ler,(KARL,) a popular and voluminous
German novelist, born at Breslau about 1795. Among
his works we may mention "The Jew," (1827,) "The

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 319 of 425)