Joseph Thomas.

Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

. (page 320 of 425)
Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 320 of 425)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Jesuit," (1829,) "The Invalid," and "The Bird-Fancier
of Imst," (" Der Vogelhandler von Imst.") His writings,
including several dramatic pieces, amount to one hun-
dred volumes. Died in 1855.

See the " Foreign Quarterly Review" for October, 1833,
Spinelli. See SPINELLO.

Spiuelli, spe-nel'lee, (N ICCOL&,) an Italian jurist, born
at Naples about 1325. He was appointed chancellor
of the kingaom by Queen Joan I. of Naples. Died
after 1394.

Spiuelli, (PARRI,) an Italian painter, born at Arezzo
about 1390, was the son of the artist Spinello Aretino,

by whom he was instructed in painting. His frescos
were distinguished for their richness of colouring. His
death is variously dated about 1410, 1426, or 1444.

Spinello, (ARETINO.) See ARETINO.

Spiuello, spe-nel'lo, or Spinelli, spe-nel'lee, (MAT-
TEO,) an Italian chronicler, born in the province of Ban
in 1230, wrote a chronicle of events of his time in Italy.
Died after 1285.

Spin'ner, (FRANCIS E.,) an American politician, born
in Herkimer county, New York, in 1802. lie repre-
sented the seventeenth district of New York in Congress
from 1855 to 1861, and was then appointed treasurer of
the United States. Died December 31, 1890.

Spinola, spee'no-la, (AMBROSIO.) MARQUIS OF, a
celebrated military commander, born at Genoa in 1569.
In conjunction with his brother Frederick, at that time
admiral of the Spanish fleet on the coast of Holland,
he fought against the Flemish insurgents in the cam-
paign of 1602. His brother having been killed in an
engagement with the Dutch in 1603, Spinola became
general-in-chief of the Spanish army in the Nether-
lands, and in 1604 took the city of Ostcnd, which had
been besieged more than three years by the Spaniards.
He afterwards opposed Maurice, Prince of Orange,
without, however, gaining any decided victory ; and, the
Spanish fleet near Gibraltar having been defeated by
Admiral Heemskerk in 1607, a truce was concluded
with Maurice for twelve years, (1609.) Hostilities being
renewed in 1621, Spinola was again the opponent of
Maurice, over whom he gained several important vic-
tories, among which was the capture of Juliers, Wesel,
and Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1625, after a siege of ten
months, he took the city of Breda, Maurice having died
of a fever during the progress of the siege. Spinola
afterwards commanded against the French in Italy ; but
he died in 1630.

See ADOI.PHE SIRRT, "A. Spinola, Episode," etc., 1851 : J. BA-
LINUS, "De Bello Belgico Auspidis A\ Spinels," 1609: P. _CASOMI,
"Vila d'Ambrogio Spinola," 1691: "Nouvelle Biographic Gen6
rale:" MOTLBY, "History of the Netherlands," chap. xliL

Spinosa. See SPINOZA.

Spinoza, spe-no'za, or Spinosa, spe-no'sJ, (BENE-
DICT,) a celebrated pantheistical philosopher, born at
Amsterdam on the 24th of November, 1632. His parents
were Spanish or Portuguese Jews, who gave him the
name of BARUCH, which he exchanged for its equivalent
Benedict. He learned Hebrew and other ancient lan-
guages, and read with avidity the works of Descartes,
who was one of his favourite authors. At an early age
he announced opinions which were considered heretical
and for which he was excommunicated by the Jews.
One of them also attempted to assassinate him in the
night, about 1656; but he escaped with a slight wound.
To avoid persecution, he retired to Leyden or Ryns-
berg, and gained a subsistence by making lenses for
telescopes and microscopes. He passed his life as a
solitary recluse, and practised great frugality. About
1668 he settled at the Hague, where he remained until
his death. He published a "Theological and Political
Treatise," ("Tractatus theologico-politicus," 1670,) and
left several works, which were published in 1677 under
the title of "Opera Posthuma."

Spinoza was never married. In 1673 the Elector- Pal-
atine, Charles Louis, offered him a chair of philosophy
at Heidelberg, promising to allow him liberty of thought
and discussion provided he should not speak or write
against the established religion. He politely declined
this offer. His constitution was naturally frail and
delicate. He died in February, 1677. For more than
a century after his death he was generally stigmatized as
an atheist, a monster, and a blasphemer. A reaction
followed, especially in Germany, and he became a great
favourite with Goethe, Lessing, Novalis, and Schleier-
macher. His most important work is "Ethics De-
monstrated by a Geometrical Method," ("EthicaMore
Geometrico demonstrata,") "Spinosa was truly," says
Hallam, "what Voltaire has with rather less justice
called Clarke, a reasoning machine. A few leading
theorems, too hastily taken up as axiomatic, were sufficient
to make him sacrifice, with no compromise or hesitation,
not only every principle of religion and moral right, but

a. e, I, o, Ci, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short '/a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, lit; met; n8t; good; moon;




the clear intuitive notions of common sense. . . . Spi-
nosa does not essentially differ from the Pantheists of
old. He conceived, as they had done, that the infinity
of God required the exclusion of all other substance."
(" Introduction to the Literature of Europe.")

"Bayle's article 'Spinoza,'" says Goethe, "excited
displeasure and mistrust in me. In the first place, the
man was represented as an atheist, and his opinions as
most abominable ; but immediately after it was con-
fessed that he was a calm, reflective, diligent scholar, a
good citizen, a sympathizing neighbour, and a peaceable,
domestic man. They seemed to have quite forgotten
the words of the gospel : ' By thiir fruits you shall
know tAem.'" ("Autobiogr^hy," book xvi. p. 2.) The
same critic says in another place, "The mind which
worked upon me so decisively, and which was destined
to affect so deeply my whole mode of thinking, was
Spinoza. After looking through the world in vain to
find a means of development for my strange nature, I
at last fell upon the ' Ethics' of this man. . . . Here
I found a sedative for my passions, and a free wide view
over the material world seemed to open before me. But
what especially bound me to him was the great disin-
terestedness that shone from every sentence. . . . The
all-composing calmness of Spinoza was in striking con-
trast with my all-disturbing activity, his mathematical
method was the opposite of my poetic imagination and
way of writing, and the very precision which was thought
ill adapted to moral subjects, made me his enthusiastic

we extract the following: "The character of Spinoza is
naturally one of the most devout on record, for his life
was, in a manner, one unbroken hymn. He was not a
pious man, as that word is now usually understood, for
he was not a Christian, at least in profession." Among
the numerous biographies of Spinoza, that of J. Colerus,
"Vie de B. Spinosa," (1706,) is said to be the best.

See, also. LUCAS VR/BSE, " La Vie et 1'Esprit de Spinoza," 1719:
H. F. VON DIETZ, " Spinoza nach Leben und Lehre," 1783; PIERRE
EAYLE, "Het Leven van B. de Spinoza," 1698; JACOBI, " Uriefe
ueber die Lehre des Spinoza," 1786; PHILIPPSON, "Leben von
Spinoza," 1790: KARL THOMAS, " Spinoza als Metaphysiker," 1840;
A. SAINTKS, " Histoire de la Vie de Spinoza," 1842 : CONRAD VON
ORBLU, " Spinozas Leben und Lehre." 1843 ; VON VLOTEN, " Ha-
nich d'Espinoza," 1862. For an excellent (popular) notice of the
philosophic system of Spinoza, see FROUDE, "Short Studies on
Great Subjects," i86S: see, also, MATTHEW ARNOLD, "Essays in
Criticism;" "Westminster Review" for May, 1843, (by G. H.
LEWES :) " British Quarterly Review" for November, 1848 : *' North
British Review" for May, 1863, article "Saisset and Spinoza."

Spira, de, deh spee'ri, (JOHANNES,) or JOHN OF
SPEYER, a German printer, who in the latter part of the
fifteenth century removed to Venice, where he founded
the first printing-establishment. Among the works
issued from his press were editions of Cicero's "Epistles"
and Pliny's "Natural History," (1469.)

Spiritl, spee're-tee, (SALVATORE,) MARQUIS, an Ital-
ian litterateur, born at Cosenza in 1712 ; died in 1776.

Spirito, spee're-to, (LORENZO,) an Italian satirical
poet, born at Perugia about 1430. He wrote "Sorti,"
41473,) and other works, which were once popular. He
died about 1495.

Spitta, spit'ta, (KARL JOHANN PHILIPP,) a German
devotional poet, born at Hanover in 1801. Died 1859.

Spittler, spit'ler, (Luowia TIMOTHEUS,) BARON,
born at Stuttgart in 1752, became in 1779 professor
of philosophy at Gb'ttingen. He published several his-
torical and ecclesiastical works. Died in 1810.

Spitzel. See SPIZELIUS.

Spix, von, fon splks, (JOHANN BAPTIST,) a German
naturalist, born at Hoctistadt, in Bavaria, in 1781. Hav-
ing published in 1811 his "History and Review of all
Systems of Zoology," he was elected to the Academy of
Sciences, and made conservator of the Zoological Mu-
seum at Munich. In 1817 he accompanied Von Martius
on his scientific expedition to Brazil. He died in 1826,
having with some assistance completed five splendidly
illustrated works on the birds, apes, bats, and reptiles
of Brazil.

See the "Foreign Quarterly Review" for February, 1830;
* ; Monthly Review" for December, 1824.'

Spizelius, spit-sa'le-us, or Spitzel, spit's?!, (THEO
PHILUS,) a German scholar and ecclesiastic^ born at
Augsburg in 1639, wrote a "Commentary on the State
of Literature among the Chinese," (1660,) and other
works. Died in 1691.

Spof'ford, (AINSWORTH RAND,) an American
librarian, born at Gilmanton, New Hampshire, in
1825. He was assistant librarian of Congress 1861-
64, librarian-in-chief 1864-94, then chief assistant.
He edited " Libraries" of literature, history, etc.

American author, born at Calais, Maine, April 3, 1835.
From early childhood she has resided in Newburyport,
Massachusetts. In 1865 she married Mr. R. S. Spufford,
a lawyer. Her writings are mostly poems and tales.
Among her works are "Sir Rohan's Ghost," (1859,)
"The Amber Gods," (1863.) " Azarian," (1864.) "New
England Legends," (1871,) "The Thief in the Night,"
(1872,) "Art Decoration," "The Servant Question,"
"The Marquis of Carabas," " Hester Stanley at Saint
Mark's," etc.

Spof'forth, (REGINALD,) an English composer of
great merit, born in Nottinghamshire in 1768. He is
chiefly known by his glees, which are esteemed master-
pieces of their kind. Died in 1826.

Spohn, spon, [Lat. SPOH'NIUS,] (FRIEDRICH AU-
GUST WILHELM,) an eminent German scholar, born at
Dortmund in 1792. He studied at Leipsic, where he
became in 1819 professor of the Greek and Latin lan-
guages. He published editions of the " Panegyricus"
of Isocrates, the two geographical works of Nicephorus
IJIemmida, and the "Opera et Dies" of Hesiod. He
died in 1824, leaving a work on hieroglyphics, entitled
"De Lingui et Literis veterum jEgyptiorum," which
was continued and published by Seyffarth in 1825-

See G. SSVPFARTH, " Memoria F. A. G. Spohnii," 1825.

Spohnius. See SPOHN.

Spohr, spoR, (Louis,) one of the greatest compusers
and musicians of recent times, was born at Brunswick in
1784. He was instructed in violin-playing by Maucowrt
and Eck, and subsequently made a professional tour in
Russia, France, and Italy, being everywhere received
with distinguished favour. In 1813 he became chapel-
master at Vienna, where he produced his opera of
" Faust," and several other admired works. He was
appointed in 1822 chapel-master to the Duke of Hesse-
Cassel, and soon after composed his popular operas of
" Jessonda," " The Alchymist," " Pietro of Abano," and
"The Crusader." His oratorios of "The Crucifixion,"
"The Last Judgment," and the "Fall of Babylon" are
entitled to a very high rank among works of the kind j
the last-named was composed for a musical festival in
England, where Spohr's music enjoys great popularity.
He also produced numerous symphonies, cantatas,
and pieces for the violin and other instruments. Died
in 1859.

Spolverini, spol-vi-ree'nee, (GIAMBATTISTA,) MAR-
QUIS, an Italian poet, born at Verona in 1695. He wrote
a poem " On the Cultivation of Rice," (" La Coltivazione
del Riso," 1758,) which was much admired. Died in

Spolverini, (HILARION,) an Italian painter of battles,
was born at Parma in 1657; died in 1734-

Spon, sp6N, (CHARLES,) a French physician, born at
Lyons in 1609. He practised at Lyons, and translated
into Latin verse the " Prognostics" of Hippocrates,
(1661.) Died in 1684.

Spon, (JACOB,) a celebrated French antiquary and
physician, born at Lyons in 1647, was a son of the pre-
ceding. In 1676 he explored Greece, from which he


(3 vols., 1678,) which was highly esteemed, a " History
of the Republic of Geneva," (1680,) and other works.
Died in 1685.

Spondanua. See SPONDE, DE., deh sp6Nd, [Lat. SPONDA'NUS,! (HENRY,)
a French prelate, born at Mauleon in 1568, became
Bishop of Pamiers in 1626. He published an abridgment

as k; $ as s; g hard; g asy'; G, H, K,git(titraf; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 2; th as in this.

Explanations, p. 33.)




of the " Annals" of Baronius, and wrote a continuation
of them from 1197 to 1640, (2 vols., 1639.) Died in

SM MORERI, " Di.-tionnaire Hislorique :" NlCBRON, " Me'raoireE.", |Lat. SPONDA'NUS,] (JEAN,) a French
scholar, born at Mauleon in 1557, was a brother of the
preceding. He published a Latin version of Homer's
poems, with notes, (1583.) Died in 1595.

Sponneck, von, fon spon'nek, (WILHELM CARL
Kri'lNGEN,) COUNT, a Danish economist and financier,
born at Rinkjbbing in 1815. He published a systematic
treatise on customs, or tariffs, (2 vols., 1840.) He was
appointed^ninister of finance in 1848. Died in 1888.

Spontini, spon-tee'nee, (GASPARO LUIGI PACIFICO,)
an Italian musician and composer, born near Jesi, Nov.
14, 1774. He produced in 1796311 opera called " I Pun-
tigli delle Donne." About 1803 he removed to Paris,
where his " Finta Filosofa" was performed in 1804. He
Composed "La Vestale," an opera, (1807,) which had
great success. In 1820 he became director of the Royal
Opera in Berlin, and chapel-master to the king. Among
his chief works are " Olympis" and " Fernand Cortez."
Died in 1851.

Spontone, spon-to'ni, (ClRO,) an Italian littfrateur,
born at Bologna about 1552. He wrote many works, in
prose and verse. Died about 1610.

Spork, von, fon spoRk, (JOHANN,) COUNT, a Ger-
man general, born in Westphalia in 1597. He fought
for the Elector of Bavaria, and afterwards for the em-
peror Ferdinand III. Died in 1679.

His son, FRANZ ANTON, also a count, born in 1662,
was a philanthropist in Bohemia. He founded hospitals
and public libraries. Died in 1738.

See STILLENAU, " Lebensgeschichte des Grafen Spork," 1725.

Spots'wood or Spof tis-wood, (JOHN,) an ambi-
tious Scottish prelate, born at Mid-Calder. in 1565. He
became Archbishop of Glasgow in 1603, and Archbishop
of Saint Andrew's in 1615. He was the object of popu-
lar odium among the Scotch. In 1635 he was appointed
lord chancellor of Scotland. He wrote a " History of
the Church of Scotland," (1655.) In 1638 he was de-
posed and declared infamous. Died in 1639.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."

Spots-wood, (Sir ROBERT,) a lawyer, a son of :he
preceding, was born about 1596. He was appointed
lord president of the court of session by Charles I. In
the civil war he was a royalist, fought under Mpntrose,
was taken prisoner, and executed in 1646.

Spottiswood. See SPOTSWOOD.

Spot/tis-woode, (ALICIA ANN,) the composer
of "Annie Laurie," (in its recent form,) "Douglas,
Tender and True," and other popular songs, was mar-
ried in 1836 to Lord John Scott, but resumed her
maiden name on succeeding to the estate of Sputtis-
woode in 1870.

Spot'tis-woode, (WILLIAM,) an English mathema-
tician, born in London, January n, 1825. He was edu-
cated at Eton and Harrow, and graduated in 1845 at
Balliol College, Oxford, and inherited a partnership in a
great printing-business. His principal works are " Ele-
mentary Theorems relating to Determinants," (1851,)
"ATarantasse Journey through Eastern Russia," (1856,)
and "Polarisation of Light," (1874.) In 1878 he was
chosen president of the British Association. Died June
27, 1883.

Spragg or Spragge, (Sir EDWARD,) an English ad-
miral under the reign of Charles Undistinguished him-
self in several engagements with the Dutch in 1666-67,
and subsequently fought VanTromp in three successive
battles. During the last he was drowned, while going
from one boat to another, (1673.)

Sprague, sprag, (CHARLES,) an American poet, born
in Boston on the 26th of October, 1791. He left school
at an early age, to acquire a practical knowledge of mer-
cantile business, which he pursued for some years.
About 1825 he was elected cashier of the Globe Bank
of Boston. He produced in 1823 an ode in honour of
Shakspeare, "which," says R. W. Griswnld. "is one ol
the most vigorous and beautiful lyrics in the English

language." His most extensive work is "Curiosity,"
a didactic and satirical poem, delivered before the Phi
Beta Kappa Society nf Harvard University in 1829.
Among his other works are a centennial ode on the foun-
dation of Boston, pronounced in 1830, and short poems
entitled " The Winged Worshippers," " Art," and "The
Family Meeting," which exhibit much skill in the use
of language. Died at Boston, January 21, 1875.

See R. W. GKI^WOLD, " Poels and Poetry of America ;" " North
American ReAiew" for April, 1830.

Sprague, (WILLIAM BUEL,) D.D.,an American Pres-
byterian divine, born at Andover, Connecticut, in 1795.
He published "Lectures to Young People," (1825,)
"Hints on Christian Intercourse," (1834,) "Visits to
European Celebrities," (1855,) and "Annals of the
American Pulpit," (9 vols., 1856-69.) Of this valuable
work, vols. i. and ii. treat of Trinitarian Congregationalist
divines ; vols. iii. and iv., Presbyterian ; vol. v.. Epis-
copalian ; vol. vi., Baptist ; vol. vii., Methodist ; vol. viii.,
Unitarian, and vol. ix., Lutheran, Dutch Reformed, etc.
He also contributed a " Life of Timothy Dwight" to
Sparks's " American Biography." Died May 7, 1876.

See the "North American Review" for April, 1857; ALLIBONK,
"Dictionary of Authors."

Spranger oY Sprangher, spRang'er or spRang'Her,
(BARTHOLOMEW,) a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp
in 1546, studied in Italy, and while at Rome was patron-
ized by Pius V. and Cardinal Farnese. lie painted for
the former a "Last Judgment," containing nearly five
hundred heads. Died about 1625.

Sprat, (THOMAS,) an English writer, born in Devon-
shire in 1636. He graduated at Oxford in 1657, was
appointed successively chaplain to Charles II., Dean of
Westminster, (1683,) and Bishop of Rochester, (1684.)
He was the author of a poem "On the Death of Oliver
Cromwell," and other poetical pieces, and an account
of the Rye-House Plot, entitled "A True Account and
Declaration of the Horrid Conspiracy against the Late
King," etc. He also published a " Life of Cowley," and
a "History of the Royal Society," of which he was one
of the original members; and ne is said to have been
associated with the Duke of Buckingham, Butler, and
others in writing "The Rehearsal." Died in 1713.

See JOHNSON, " Lives of the Poets," and a " Life of Thomas
Sprat," London, 1715.

Spreng, JAMES,) called PR^EPOS'ITUS, a Flemish theo-
logian, born at Ypres about 1485. He adopted the prin-
ciples of Luther, and became in 1524 pastor of a church
at Bremen. Died in 1562.

See J. H. von SEELBN. "Vita J. Prepositi," 1747.

Spreng'el. (HERMANN JOHANN,) chemist, was
born near Hanover, Germany, in 1834. He settled
in England in 1859, and became a Prussian professor
in 1893. His discoveries and inventions connected
with chemistry are numerous, the chief one being his
vacuum-pump, or mercury air-pump, which produces
an almost perfect vacuum.

Spiengel, (Kus,T,) one of the most eminent phy-
sicians and botanists of Germany, was born near Anklam,
in Pomerania, in 1766. He studied at Halle, where he
took his medical degree in 1787, and in 1797 became
professor of botany. Among his works we may name
his "Manval of Pathology," (3 vols., 1795.) " Institu-
tiones Medicje," (6 vols., 1809,) a "History of Botany,"
(1817,) "New Discoveries in the Entire Circuit of Bot-
any," (3 vols., 1819,) "Pragmatic History of Medicine,"
(5 vols., 1828,) " Historia Rei Herbaria;," and " Flora
Halensis." Died at Halle in 1833.

Sprengel, (MATTHAUS CHRISTIAN,) an uncle of the
preceding, was born at Rostock in 1746, and became
professor of history at Halle in 1779. He wrote a " 1 lis-
tory of Great Britain and Ireland," a " History of the
Mahrattas," (1786,) and other works. Died in 1803.

Sprenger, spReng'er, (ALOYS,) a distinguished Ori-
entalist, born in Tyrol in 1813. After a residence of
several years in Hindustan, he became in 1850 inter-
preter of the government at Calcutta and secretary of
the Asiatic Society of Bengal. He translated from the
Arabic into English Masoodee's " Meadows of Gold,"
(1849.) wrote a valuable " Life of Mohammad," (1851,)

a, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, li, J, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fit- met; n5t; good; mflOD-




and published several translations of English works into
Hindostanee. Died at Heidelberg, December 19, 1893.

Sprenger, (PLACIDUS,) a German monk and writer,
born at Wurzburg in 1735. He published, besides other
works, "The Literature of Catholic Germany," (II vols.,
1775-90.) Died in 1806.

Spreti, spRa'tee, (DESIDERIO,) an Italian historian,
burn at Ravenna in 1444, wrote (in Latin) a " History
of Ravenna," (1489.) Died about 1474.

Spring, (GARDINER,) D.D., LL.D., a son of Samuel
Spring, noticed below, was born at Newburyport, Mas-
sachusetts, in 1785. Having graduated at Yale College,
he became in 1810 pastor of a Presbyterian church
in New York. He published, among other works,
"Obligations of the World to the Bible," "The Attrac-
tion of the Cross," " Discourses to Seamen," and " The
Power of the Pulpit." Died August 18, 1873.

Spring, (SAMUEL,) D.D., an American Presbyterian
divine, born at Northbridge, Massachusetts, in 1746,
became a chaplain in the Continental army in 1775.
He published a number of religious and controversial
works. Died in 1819.

Spruner, von, fon spRoo'ner, (KARL,) a German
historian and geographer, born at Stuttgart in 1803.
He published a "District Map of East Fran con: a, '
(1835.) a "Historical-Geographical Hand-Atlas," (1837-
1852,) which is esteemed a standard work, a "Universal
Historical School-Atlas," etc. Died August 24, 1892.

Spuches, de, da spoo'kes, (GIUSEPPE,) Prince of
Galata, an Italian scholar, born at Palermo in 1819.
He became a magistrate of his native town and a mem-
ber of the Italian Parliament. Besides several collec-
tions of epigraphs and inscriptions, and a large number
of poetical translations from the Greek, he published
" Discorsi filologici," (1860,) " Carmina Grseca et Latina,"
(1877, original,) and volumes of " Poesie," (1868, 1880,)
which gave him a place among the most versatile and
dexterous of recent Italian poets. Died November 12,

Spuller, spii'yj', (EucfeNE,) a French author, born at
Seurre, December 8, 1835. He became an advocate at
Paris in 1862, was an ardent Gambettist, and also the
principal editor of " La Republique Franfaise," and one
of the founders of the " Revue Politique." He was
very prominent as a radical politician. His writings in-
clude a "Brief History of the Second Empire," (1870,)
"Life of Michelet," (1876,) "Ignatius Loyola and the
Company of Jesus," (1876,) etc. Died July 23, 1896.

Spurgeon, spur'jpn, (CHARLES HADDON,) a popula-
and eloquent English Baptist preacher, born at Kelve-
don, Essex, in 1834. He began to preach in London
about 1853, and attracted large audiences in Exeter
Hall and Surrey Music-HalL A new chapel, of vast
dimensions, wis erected for him, and opened in 1861.
He published several religious works, besides many
volumes of sermons. Died January 31, 1892.

Spu-rin'na, (VESTRICIUS,) a Roman poet and soldier,
was a contemporary of Tacitus and Pliny the Younger.
He gained several victories over the Germans on the
Rhine, and held various offices under the government.
His lyric poems, in Latin and Greek, are praised by Pliny.

Spflrs'tcvw, (WILLIAM,) an English clergyman and
writer, was minister of Hackney, from which he was
ejected for nonconformity in 1662. Died in f666.

Spurzheim, spooRts'hlm, (JOHANN KASPAR,) a Ger-

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 320 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425

Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 320 of 425)