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man physician, and one of the earliest advocates of phre-
nology, was born at Longwich, near Treves, in 1776- ^ c
studied medicine at Vienna, and there met Dr. Gall, ol
whom he became a disciple. About 1805 he left Vienna,
and accompanied Dr. Gall in visits to various cities of
Germany, France, etc. As partners, they lectured in
Paris from 1807 to 1813, and published "The Anatomy
and Physiology of the Nervous System in general, and
of the Brain in particular." Spurzheim is reputed to
have discovered the fibrous structure of the brain. He
lectured in England several years, and returned to Paris
in 1817. He published a number of works on phre-
nology, etc. He visited the United States io 1832, and
died at Boston in the same year.

See " Memoir of the Life and Philosophy of Spurzheim," by A.
CARMICHAEL, 1833. " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale. "

Squarcione, skwiR-cho'na, (FRANCESCO.) an Italian
painter and amateur, born at Padua in 1394. 1 le enjoyed
i very high reputation as a teacher, and numbered among
nis pupils Bellini, Marco Zoppo, and Andrea Mantegna.
He possessed great wealth, and was the owner of a large
and choice collection of works of art Died in 1444.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters ;" SELVATICO. " 11 Pittore F.
Squarcione," 1839.

Squi'tjr, (EPHRAIM GEORGE,) an American archaj-
ologist, born in Albany county, New York, in 1821. lie
j/ecame in 1843 editor of the " Hartford Daily Journal,"
an organ of the Whig party, and in 1844 took charge
of the"Scioto Gazette," Ohio. In 1848 he published
in the "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge" a
description of the ancient monuments of the Mississippi
valley, and in 1849 an account of the aboriginal monu-
ments of the State of New York, lie was soon after
appointed charge-d'affaires to Guatemala. In 1851 he
Furnished the plan for an inter-oceanic railway through
Honduras, the survey of which road he subsequently
conducted. Among his principal works may be named
"Nicaragua, its People, Scenery, Ancient Monuments,"
etc., (1852,) "Notes on Central America," etc., (1854,)
" Monograph of Authors who have written on the Abo-
riginal Languages of Central America," and "Tropical
Fibres : their Production and their Economic Extraction,"
(1861.) In 1863 he was appointed United States Com-
missioner to Peru, where he travelled extensively for two
years. lie published the results of his researches under
the title of " Peru : Incidents and Explorations in the
Land of the Incas," (1877.) He was admitted to many of
the learned institutions of Europe. Died April 17, isSS.

Squire, (SAMUEL,) an English writer and scholar,
born in Wiltshire in 1714. He studied at Cambridge,
and rose through several preferments to be Bishop of
Saint David's in 1761. He was the author of " An En-
quiry into the Origin of the Greek Language," (1741.)
"The Ancient History of the Hebrews Vindicated,"
(1741,) and other learned works, also a number of ser-
mons. Died in 1766.

Sree. See SRt.

Sri, sree, or Shrt, shree, (sometimes written Sree,)
a Sanscrit word, signifying "prosperity," "wealth,"
" splendour," is often applied as an epithet to Lakshm^
the consort of Vishnu, and is sometimes given as a name
to Saraswati, the wife of Brahma, and the goddess of
music and eloquence. (See LAKSHM? and SARASWAT!)

Srong Tsaii Gampo, a king of Thibet, was born
soon after 600 A.D., and founded Lhassa, or Hlassa, the
capital of Thibet In 622 he began the formal introduc-
tion of Booddhism into his realms, lie did much for
the advancement of his people, building roads, bridges,
and tanks, and founding schools and monasteries. He
was noted as a student and translator. He is now
regarded as a national patron saint.

Sse-ma-Kwang, (or -Kouang,) si ma kwSng, writ-
ten also Sze-ma-K'wang, an eminent Chinese his-
torian, born in the province of Shen-see about 1018
A.D. He enjoyed the favour of several successive sove-
reigns. About the year 1084 he was appointed presi-
dent of the Imperial Academy of Han-lin, the highest
literary institution in China, He died in 1086. He left
a great historical work, entitled "Universal Mirror, .
("Toong-Kian,") which has been translated into French,
by Fere Mailla.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'oe'rale.'

Sse-ma-Tsien, sa-ma-tse-en (or -tse-an,) or Sse-ma
Tsian, written also Sze-ma-Ts'een and Se-ma-Tsien,
a. celebrated Chinese historiographer, scholar, and critic,
born in the province of Shen-see about 145 B.C. His
father, who held the office of historiographer to the em-
peror Woo-tee, greatly distinguished himself by his zea.
in collecting and arranging the writings of the ancients.
After his death the son succeeded to his office, and ap-
plied himself with equal industry and zeal to collecting
and preserving the writings of antiquity. Having by
his freedom and boldness incurred the anger of the em-
peror, he was banished. While in exile, he wrote his
principal work, entitled " Historical Memoirs, (
Kee or -Ki,") which was not published until after his
death Having recovered the favour of his sovereign, ne

as k; 9. as ,; g hard; g as/; G, H. K >S uttural; N. nasal: R, trilled; s as z. th as in //<. <J^=See Explanations, p. JJ.)




was recalled from banishment and treated with distin
guished regard. lie is supposed to have died abou
So B.C.

Staal, von, fon stll, (KARL,) a Russian general, o
German extraction, torn at Reval in 1777, served unde
Suwarow in Italy in 1799, and subsequently in the princi
pal Austrian and German campaigns against the French
He was afterwards appointed by the emperor Nicholas
commandant of Moscow and genera] of cavalry, (1843.'
l>ied in 1853.

Staal, von, fon stjl, (MARGUERITE JEANNE Cordier
koR'de-4',) BARONESS, an accomplished French writer
born in Paris in 1693, was the daughter of the painte
Launai, and was married to Baron von Staal, a Swis:
officer. She was the author of poems, letters, anc
" Memoirs," (3 vols., 1755,) which are remarkable fo:
the elegance of their style. Died in 1750.

Staben, sti'ben, (HENDRlK.)a Flemish painter, born
in 1578, was a pupil of Tintoretto. He worked at Venice
and excelled in pictures of small dimensions. Died in

Stabili. See CECCO D'AscoLi.
Sta'bles, (WILLIAM GORDON,) a British author,
was born in Banffshire, Scotland, in 1840. His books,
largely for boys, number nearly a hundred.
Stace, the French for STATIUS, which see.
Stackelberg, stak'el - be'Ro', ( OTTO MAGNUS,)
BARON, a distinguished archaeologist, of German extrac-
tion, born near Reval, in Russia, in 1787. His principal
works are entitled "The Sepulchres of the Greeks,"
and "Greece, Picturesque and Topographic Views,
(1830.) Died in 1834.

Stack'house, (stak'us,) JOHN,) an English botanist,
was a nephew of Thomas Stackhouse, noticed below. He
published in 1801 a description, in English and Latin,
of the Alga=, Fuel, and Confervas of England, entitled
" Nereis Britannica," (fol., with coloured plates,) also
" Illustrations of Theophrastus," etc. Died in 1819.

Stackhouse, (THOMAS,) an English divine and the-
ological writer, born in 1681, became vicar of Benham,
In Berkshire. He published "Memoirs of Bishop At-
terbury," (1723,) a "History of the Holy Bible," (2
vols., 1732,) and other works. Died in 1752.

Stadiou, sta'de-on, (JOHANN PHILIPP KARL JOSEPH,)
COUNT, an Austrian diplomatist and statesman, born at
Mentz in 1763, was sent as ambassador to Stockholm,
London, and Saint Petersburg, and succeeded Cobenzl
as minister of foreign affairs in 1806. He relinquished
this post to Count Metternich in 1809. He was restored
to power in 1813, and signed the peace of Paris in 1814.
Died in 1824.

Stadius, sta'de-us, (JAN,) a Dutch astronomer and
astrologer, born in Brabant in 1527, wrote "Roman
Calendars," ("Fasti Romanorum,") and other works.
Died in 1579.

Stadler, stJd'ler, (MAXIMILIAN,) a German organist
and composer of church music, born at Melk in 1748.
Among his works we may name his oratorio of "The
Deliverance of Jerusalem." Died in 1833.

Stael-Holstein, de, deh stal-hol'stin, [Fr. pron.
sta'el' /iol'sti.N',] (ANNE LOUISE GERMAINE NECKER,)
BARONNE, commonly called MADAME DE STAEL, a
Trench lady of great genius, and the most celebrated
authoress of modern times, was born in Paris on the 22d
of April, 1766. She was the only child of Necker, the
eminent financier. Her education was directed by her
mother, whose nature was far less genial and expansive
than that of the daughter. Madame Necker subjected her
to a strict and rigid regime of formalism, adapted rather
to contract than to develop her genius. Her character
was better appreciated by her father, for whom she always
felt the most ardent affection and even adoration. In her
early youth she listened with interest to the conversation
of Marmontel, Raynal, and other authors, who frequented
her father's house. To restore her health, impaired by
hard study, she was sent to the country at about the age
of fourteen, and enjoyed more liberty. Her favourite
author at this period of her life was J. J. Rousseau.
"She was from the first the very incarnation of genius
and of impulse. Her precocity was extraordinary, and

her vivacity and vehemence, both of intellect and tem-
perament, baffled all her mother's efforts at regulation
and control." ("North British Review" for November,
1853.) I" '7.86 she was married to Eric, Baron de Stae'l,
a Swedish diplomatist, and received from her father an
immense dowry. It appears that she did not love De
Stae'l, but that she or her parents preferred him to other
suitors because he was a Protestant and intended to
reside permanently at Paris. Her first literary produc-
tion was "Letters on the Writings and Character of
J. J. Rousseau," (1788.) During the reign of terroi she
made courageous and successful efforts to save the lives
of a number of proscribed persons, among whom was the
Count de Narbonne.

In 1793 she retired to England, and resided for a time
near Richmond with M. Talleyrand, the Count de Nar-
bonue, and other French exiles. She returned to Paris in
1795, and passed her time happily for the next four years.
She was an advocate of constitutional liberty, and during
the Directory was the leading spirit of a party whose
chief orator was Benjamin Constant. Her influence was
so great as to excite the jealousy of Bonaparte, to whom
she constantly refused to offer homage. A mutual and
invincible antipathy arose between her and the First
Consul, who not only persecuted her but bullied and
banhhed others because they sympathized with her.
She published in 1800 a worl< " On Literature consid-
ered in its Relations with Social Institutions." In 1802
she was banished from Paris and forbidden to reside
within forty leagues of that capital, the social charms
of which she deemed indispensable to her happiness.
She published in 1802 a novel entitled " Delphine," and
visited Germany, where she associated with Goethe,
Schiller, and A. W. Schlcgel, (1803-04.) Some of these
are said to have listened to her brilliant conversation
"with vast admiration and not a little fatigue." "To
philosophize in society," observes Goethe, "means to
talk with vivacity about insoluble problems. This was
her peculiar pleasure and passion. . . . More than once
I had regular dialogues with her, with no one else pres-
ent : in these, however, she was likewise burdensome ;
never granting, on the most important topics, a momen.
of reflection, but passionately demanding that we should
despatch the deepest concerns as lightly as if it were a
game at shuttlecock." (" Dichtung und Wahrheit.")

After a tour in Italy, she produced in 1807 her " Co-
rinne," a novel, which displays profound insight and
equal sensibility. It had immense success, which irri-
lated Napoleon to renew his persecution of the author.
She was ordered to leave France. She afterwards
iravelled in Germany, and settled at Coppet in Swiuer-
and, where a number of her friends came to console
ler. Among these were Sismondi, Schlegel. Madame
Recamier, and B. Constant. In 1810 she published her
capital work on Germany, (" De 1'Allemagne,") which, in
:he opinion of Goethe, " ought to be considered a power-
ul battery which made a wide breach in the sort of
wall raised up between the two nations by superannuated
jrejudices." "Thus terminates," says Sir J. Mackm-
osh, " a work which, for variety of knowledge, flexi-
>ility of power, elevation of view, and comprehension of
mind, is unequalled among the works of women, and
which in the union of the graces of society and litera-
ure with the genius of philosophy is not surpassed by
nany among those of men." (" Edinburgh Review" for
Dctober, 1813.) Among her other works are her auto-
biographic memoirs, entitled "Ten Years of Exile," and
'Considerations on the French Revolution," (" Con-
iderations sur la Revolution Francaise," 1818.) She
vas privately married to M. Rocca, a young Italian
nfiicer, in iSio or 1812. In 1813 she visited Saint
'etersburg and England, and after the abdication of
I'apoleon she returned to Paris, where she died in July,
817. She was rather deficient in personal beauty, bul
he is said to have had magnificent eyes. She had two
ons, and one daughter who became the Duchess de

SAUSSURE, " Notice sur !e Caraclere et les Ecrils de Madame de
tae'l." 1820: F SCHLO^RR, "Madame de Slael et Madame Ro-
ind," 1830: SAINTE-BEUVE, "Portraits de Femmes;" MARIA
MORRIS, " The Life and Times of Madame de Suel," 1853 ; MAHC

i, e, 1, 5, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; nit; good; ii5ouj




AKTOINE Puvrs, "Notice sur Madame de Stael-Hoistein," 1828;
VILLEMAIN, " Tableau du dix-huitieme Siecle :" CHATEAUBRIAND.
" Memoiresd'Outre-Tombe :" BAUDRILLART, "Eloge de Madame d<
Stae'l," 1850: SAINTE-BEUVB, " Causeries du Lundi ;" ' NouvelU
Biographic Generale :" articles by JEFFREY in the " Edinburgh Re-
view" for February, 1813, September, 1818. and October, 1821.

Stael-Holstein, de, (AuousTE Louis,) BARON,
born in Paris in 1790, was a son of the preceding. His
education was directed by August W. Schlegel at Cop-
pet. He was a Protestant, and a distinguished philan-
thropist. He was an earnest advocate of the abolition
of the slave-trade, and gave much attention to the im-
provement of rural economy. His character is said to
have been highly honourable. Died in 1827. His
writings, " CEuvres diverses," were published in 5 vols.,

See C. MOUNARD, "Notice sur Aug. de StaEI-Holstein," 1837.

Stael-Holstein, de, (ERIC MAGNUS,) BARON, a
Swedish diplomatist, was the father of the preceding.
He was appointed ambassador at Paris about 1783, and
married the daughter of M. Necker in 1786. He was
many years older than his wife, and was very prodigal
of money. They were not compatible, and soon sepa-
rated by mutual consent. He ceased to be ambassador
at Paris in 1799. Died in 1802.

Staeudlin. See STAUDLIN.

Staf fprd, (ANTHONY,) a iearned English writer, born
in Northamptonshire, took his degree at Oxford in 1623.
He wrote " Niobe dissolved into Nilus," "The Life and
Death of Our Blessed Lady, the Holy Virgin Mary,"
{1635,) and other works. Died in 1641.

Stafford, (JOHN,) an English prelate, became Arch-
bishop of Canterbury in 1443. He was also lord chan-
cellor for nearly eighteen years. Died in 1452.

See W. F. HOOK, "Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury,"
vol. v. chap. xix.

In 1612, was a son of Thomas Howard, the Earl of
Arundel. He married a sister and heiress of Baron
Stafford. He was a Roman Catholic, and a royalist in
the civil war. Having been accused by Titus Oaten
of complicity in the Popish Plot, he was convicted of
treason and executed in 1680. He was probably in-

See HUMS, "History of England;" BUENET, "History of his
Own Times."

Stafford, de, (HENRY,) Duke of Buckingham, was a
Eon of Humphrey, noticed below. He gained the favour
of Richard III., and was accessory to his crimes, but
revolted against him, and was beheaded in 1483.

See A. STAFFORD, " Life of Henry, Lord Stafford,'* 1640.

Stafford, de, (HUMPHREY,) an English peer, was
an adherent of the house of Lancaster in the war of
the Roses. He was created Duke of Buckingham about

StSgemann or Staegemann, von, fon sta'feh
wan', (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) a Prussian statesman and
writer, born in 1763. He published a number of poems
and political treatises. Died in 1840.

Stagnelius, stag-nu'le-us, (ERIK JOHAN,) an eminent
Swedish poet, born in 1793 at Colmar, where his father
was bishop. He studied at the Universities of Lund
and Upsal. His epic poem entitled "Wladi-nir the
Great" ("Wladimir den Store," 1817) obtained the
prize from the Swedish Academy. This was followed
by "The Lilies of Sharon," ("Liljor i Saroo," 1821,)
and tragedies entitled "The Bacchanals," and "The
Martyrs." He became a clerk in the office or depart-
ment of ecclesiastical affairs in 1815. Died in 1823.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" HOWITT.
"Literature and Romance of Northern Europe ;" H AMMEHSKOHLD,
"E. J. Stagnelius," 1823.

Stahelin or Staehelln, sta'el-Ieen', (BENEDICT,) a
Swiss botanist and physician, born at Bale in 1695. He
distinguished himself by his researches in cryptogamous
plants, and published several works. Died in 1750.

Stahl, (GEORG ERNST,) an eminent German physician
and chemist, born at Anspach in 1660. He became
professor of medicine at Halle in 1694, and in 1716
physician to the King of Prussia. His principal medical
work is entitled " Theoria Medica Vera," (1707,) in
which he opposes Hoffmann's theories and advances a

new doctrine of physical influence, lie made several
valuable discoveries concerning the alkalies, acids, etc.,
originated the theory of phlogiston, and contributed
more than any other of his contemporaries to give to
chemistry a scientific form. He published, among other
works on this subject, " Experimenta et Observations
Chemicae," (I73t,) and " Fundamenta Chymiae Dog-
malicas," (3 vols., 1723.) Died in 1734.

See SPRENGBL, " History of Medicine:" HOEPER, " Histolre de
la (Jliitnie ;" STREDBL, " Programma de Vita Slahl," 1759; A. LE-
MOINE, " Le Vitalisme et 1'Animisme de SiaM," 1864; " Nouvelle
Biographic Ge'neVale."

Stahl, (P. J.) See HF.TZEL.

Stahr, staR, (ADOLF WILHELM THEODOR,) a German
writer, born at Prenzlau, in the Uckermark, in 1805. lie
published "Aristotelia," (1832,) or an explanation and
criticism of Aristotle's works, "The Republicans in Na-
ples," a romance, (3 vols., 1849,) and various other works,
lie married Fanny Lewald, about 1854. Died in 1876.

Stahremberg. See STARHEMBERG.

Stain'er, (JoHN,) an eminent English musician, born
in 1840, graduated as B.A. at Oxford in 1863, and as
Mus. Doc. in 1865. In 1872 he became organist of
Saint Paul's Cathedral, London. He early won wide
fame as a brilliant performer on the organ. lie has
published some excellent music, a "Treatise on Har-
mony," "The Music of the Bible," and various educa-
tional books on music.

Stai'ner or Stayner, (Sir RICHARD,) an English
naval officer, who contributed to the victory of Blake
over the Spaniards at Santa Cruz in 1657. For this
service he was knighted by Cromwell. He became a
rear-admiral. Died in 1662.


Stalbent, stal'bent, (ADRIAN,) of Antwerp, a skilful
Flemish landscape-painter, born in 1580. lie worked
in England for Charles II. Died at Antwerp in 1660.

Stallbaum, stil'bowm, (GOTTFRIED,) a distinguished
German scholar, born near Delitzsch in 1793. His
editions of the works of Plato are particularly esteemed.
He was professor of classics in the University of Leipsic,
and wrote several works on education. Died in 1861.

Stal'lo, (JOHN BERNHARD,) a German-American
philosopher, born at Sierhausen, Oldenburg, Germany,
March 16, 1822, was educated in the Vechte gymnasium.
He was professor of mathematics and physics in Saint
John's College, New York, 1844-47, a "d a judge of the
common pleas court in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1852-55. His
principal works are "General Principles of the Philos-
ophy of Nature," (1848,) and "Concepts and Theories
of Modern Physics," (1882.) He was United States
minister to Italy 1885-89. Died January 8, 1900.

Stam'buloff, (STEPHAN NIKOLOF,) a Bulgarian
statesman, born at Tirnova in 1855. He held office
under the government in 1878, and afterwards became
a radical leader in the Assembly. After the abdica-
tion of Alexander in 1 886 he became chief in the
regency and strongly opposed all Russian partisan-
ship. He was premier under Ferdinand 1887-94,
and ruled so autocratically that he was forced to retire.
He was attacked by assassins on July 15, 1895, and
died of his wounds on the iSth.

Stam'ford, (HENRY WILLIAM,) a general and poet,
born at Bourges, France, in 1742. He entered the ser-
vice of Holland, and obtained the rank of lieutenant-
general. Died at Hamburg in 1807.

Stam'fprd, (THOMAS GREY,) EARL OF, an English
peer, accused of a share in the Rye-House Plot, was
committed to the Tower in 1685, and liberated the same
year, having turned king's evidence. He joined William
III. in 1688.

Stampa, stam'pa, [Fr. ESTAMPES, eVtoMp',1 (GAS-
PARA,) an Italian poetess, born at Padua aboui 1524,
wrote under the assumed name of ANASILLA. She was
a victim of unrequited love. Died at Venice in 1554.

Stampart, stAm'part, (FRANCIS,) a Flemish por-
trait-painter, born at Antwerp in 1675. He worked in
Vienna, and was painter to the emperor Leopold. Died
in 1750.

Stampfli or Staempfli, stJmpf'lee, (JAKOB,) a
Swiss politician, born in the canton of Berne in 1820.

e as *; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




He became about 18453 leader of the radical party, was
elected president of the canton of Berne in 1849, and
federal president in 1858. Died May 15, 1879.

Stan'bridge, (JOHN,) an English schoolmaster, born
in Northamptonshire, became a Fellow of New College,
Oxford, about 1480. He wrote several school-books.
Died after 1522.

Stancari, stan-kl'ree, [Lat, STANCA'RUS,] (FRAN-
CESCO,) an Italian theologian, born at Mantua in 1501.
He became a Protestant, and emigrated to Poland. He
taught Hebrew at Cracow, and published several works.
Died in 1574.

Stand'ish, (FRANK HALL,) an English writer and
connoisseur of art, was born in 1798. He wrote a "Life
of Voltaire," a volume of poems, and other works. Died
in 1840.

Blandish, (MiLES,) an English officer, born in Lan-
cashire about 1584. He was one of the emigrants that
arrived at Plymouth in the "Mayflower" in 1620, and
became the military leader of the pilgrims in their war
against the Indians. His adventures form the subject
of one of Longfellow's poems. Died in 1656.

Stan'field, (CLARKSON,) an eminent English marine
painter, born at Sunderland in 1798. He served for a
time as a sailor, and subsequently employed himself in
scene-painting at the London theatres, where he broughl
that branch of the art to a perfection hitherto scarcely
known. He was elected a Royal Academician in 1835.
He contributed to the exhibitions of the Academy a
great number of pictures of marine and coast scenery,
which he delineated with a beauty and fidelity per-
haps never surpassed. Among these are views on the
Adriatic, the Italian lakes, and the coasts of Holland,
Normandy, and England. He also executed several
admirable works of a different character, such as " Saint
Sebastian during the Siege under the Duke of Welling-
ton," and " Port na Spana, near the Giant's Causeway,
with the Wrecked Vessels of the Armada." Died in
May, 1867.

Stan/ford, (CHARLES VILLIERS,) a musical com-
poser, born at Dublin in 1852. In 1887 he became
Cambridge professor of music. He produced various
operas, oratorios, etc.

Stanford, (LELAND,) an American railroad con-
structor, born at Watervliet, New York, in 1824. He
engaged in gold-mining in California in 1852, after-
wards became wealthy in business, and was one of the
four who engaged to build the Central Pacific Rail-
road, of which he drove the last spike in 1866. He
was elected United States Senator in 1884 and 1890.
On the death of his son, in 1885, he deeded prop-
erty valued at $20,000,000 for the establishment of
the Leland Stanford, Jr., University, opened in 1891.
He died June 20, 1893, leaving the university a be-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 321 of 425)