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Stanhope, stin'op or stin'up, (CHARLES,) third
EARL, a liberal English nobleman^ distinguished for his
mechanical inventions, born in 1753, was a son of Philip,
the second Earl. He married Hester Pitt, a daughter of
the great Earl of Chatham. He invented the printing-
press which bears his name, a calculating machine, etc.
In politics he was radical. He opposed the American
war and the war against the French republic. He was
the father of Lady Hester Stanhope, and grandfather of
Lord Mahon the historian. Died in 1816.

Stanhope, (GEORGE,) an English divine and pulpit
orator, born in Derbyshire in 1660. He studied at
Cambridge, and became Dean of Canterbury in 1701.
He was the author of a " Paraphrase and Comment on
the Epistles and Gospels as they are read in the Book
of Common Prayer," (4 vols. 8vo,) which passed through
numerous editions ; he also translated Charron's " Three
Books of Wisdom," " Pious Breathings," from Saint
Augustine, and other devotional works. Died in 1728.

Stanhope, (Lady HESTER,) an eccentric English-
woman, born in London in 1766, was a daughter of
Charles, Earl Stanhope, and a niece of William Pitt the
eminent statesman. She lost her mother in her infancy,
and her education was consequently neglected. About

the age of twenty she went to reside with her uncle,
then prime minister, whom she aided in his corre-
spondence. She was energetic, impulsive, and disdainful
of conventionality. The death of Pitt, in 1806. was fell
by her as a great disaster. In iSioshe abandoned Eng-
land in disgust, and entered on a career of Oriental ad-
venture. She arrived in Syria in 1812, adopted Oriental
customs, and excited the admiration of the natives, who
were disposed to receive her as a queen. She resided
many years on or near Mount Lebanon, with a large
retinue of servants or subjects, and acquired great pres-
tige as a magician and mistress of mystical lore. Died
in Syria in 1839.

See " Memoirs of Lady Hester Stanhope," by her physician, 3
vols., 1845; LAMARTINE, " Souvenirs d'un Voyage en Orient ;" VY.
RUSSELL, "Eccentric Personages," a vols., 1864: "Memoirs of a
Babylonian Princess," 2 vols-, 1845: A. F. DIDOT, article in the
" Nouvelle Biographic Generate :" " Fraser'6 Magazine" lor August,

Stanhope, (JAMES STANHOPE,) first EARL, a British
general and statesman, born in 1673, was a son of Alex-
ander Stanhope, and a grandson of Philip, Earl of Ches-
terfield. He became a brigadier-general in 1704, and
distinguished himself in Spain in 1705. In 1708 he was
appointed commander-in-chief of the army in Spain.
He gained victories at Almenara andSaragossa in 1710,
but was compelled to surrender his army to the Duke
of Vendftme before the end of that year. He became a
leader of the Whig party, and was appointed one of the
chief secretaries of state in 1714. He was first lord of
the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer from April,
1717, to March, 1718. About this date he received the
title of Earl Stanhope, and resumed the office of secre-
tary of state. He died in 1721, leaving a fair reputation
as a statesman.

See LORD MAHON, "History of England;" COXE, "History of

Stanhope, (PHILIP,) second EARL, born about 1712,
was the eldest son of the preceding. He was the father
of Charles, above noticed, and was a patron of learning.
Died in 1786.

Stanhope, (Captain PHILIP,) an English naval officer.,
brother of James, first Earl Stanhope, was commander
of the Milford at the siege of Ostend, and subsequently
served in the Mediterranean, He was killed in the
attack on Port Mahon, in 1708.


Stanhope, (PHILIP HENRY,) fifth EARL OF, an Eng-
lish statesman and historian, born in Kent in 1805. He
studied at Oxford, and was elected in 1832 member of
Parliament, as Lord Mahon, for Wotton Basset, In 1835
he was returned for Hertford, which he continued to
represent until 1852. He was appointed under-secretary
of state for foreign affairs in 1834, and was afterwards
secretary to the board of control under Sir Robert Peel.
He introduced and carried, while in Parliament, the
copyright act known by his name. He published a
" History of the War of the Succession in Spain," (8vo,
1832,) "Spain under Charles IL," (1840,) "Life of Louis,
Prince of CondeY' " Life of Joan of Arc," (1853,) " His-
tory of England from the Peace of Utrecht to the Peace
of Versailles, 1713-1783," (1854,) which is regarded as a
standard work, and " Historical Essays" contributed to
the "Quarterly Review." Died December 24, 1875.

Stan'is-las or Stan'is-laua, SAINT, a Polish prelate,
born in 1030, became Bishop of Cracow in 1071. He
was killed in 1079 by King Boleslaus, because he had
rebuked the wickedness of that monarch.

Stan'is-las (or Stan'is-laus) Augustus, King of
Poland, born in Lithuania in 1732, was the son of Count
Stanislas Poniatowski. He was in his youth a favour-
ite of Catherine II. of Russia. Through the influence
of his uncles the princes Czartoryski, assisted by Russia,
he was elected to the throne of Poland in 1764. The
first partition of that country, which took place in 1772,
was in vain opposed by him j and he subsequently de-
voted himself to internal improvements and promoted
various reforms, the most important of which was the
new constitution of 1792. Overawed by the power of
Russia, he afterwards joined the Confederation of Tar-
gowicz, formed for the overthrow of the constitution,

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obsoirc; fir, fall, fit; ruSt; n6t; good; m<53n;





and which was followed by a second partition of Poland,
in 1793. After the entire dismemberment of his country,
in 1795, Stanislas abdicated the throne and retired to
Saint Petersburg, where a pension, was assigned him by
the emperor Paul. Died in 1798.

See RuLHifeRE, " Histoire de 1'Anarchie de Polopne ;" LELJHVHL,
" Rigne du Roi Stanislas Auguste," iSiS; CHODZKO, " La Polngne
llhistre>;" DE FERKAND. " Hisloire des Irois Demembrcments de
la Pologne," 3 vols., 1820: " Nouvelle Biographic G^ne"rale."

Stanislas Leszczynski, (Icsh-chin'skee,) written
also Leszinski, King of Poland, born at Lemberg in
1677, was ason of the grand treasurer of Poland. Having
been sent in 1 704, by the Diet of Warsaw, to Charles XII.
of Sweden, to consult him on the election of a king to
succeed- Augustus II., he made so favourable an impres-
sion upon Charles that he recommended him as a can-
didate, and he was elected tle following year. Being
compelled to abdicate after the battle of Poltava, (Pul-
towa,) in 1709, he was again called to the throne on the
death of Augustus II., in 1733 ; but he was finally forced
to resign the crown in favour of Augustus III., whose
claims were supported by Austria and Russia. lie was
afterwards invested with the duchies of Lorraine and
Bar, in 1737, retaining the title of King of Poland. He
was distinguished for his talents and literary attain-
ments, and published, in French, "The Works of the
Benevolent Philosopher," (1765.) His daughter Maria
became the wife of Louis XV. of France. Died in
February, 1766.

, (ANTHONY D.,) an American mathema-
tician, born in 1812. He was professor of mathematics
at Yale College, and published a "Treatise on Spherical
Trigonometry." Died in 1853.

Stan'ley, (Rev. ARTHUR TENRHYN,) common^
known as DEAN STANLEY, son of the Bishop of Nor-
wich, noticed below, was born in Cheshire in 1815. He
studied at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, and subsequently
graduated at Oxford. He published in 1844 "The
Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold, D.D.,"
which obtained wide popularity and has been trans-
lated into several languages. He was appointed chap-
lain to Prince Albert, and in 1856 was elected regius
professor of ecclesiastical history at Oxford. Among
his other works maybe named " Historical Memorials
of Canterbury," etc., (1855,) "Sinai and Palestine in
Connection with their History," (1856,) "Lectures on
the Eastern Church," (1861,) " Lectures on the History
of the Jewish Church," (1863,) " Lectures on the History
of the Church of Scotland," (1872,) " Sermons and Es-
says on the Apostolical Age," (1874,) "Christian Insti-
tutions," (1880,) and numerous sermons. He became a
canon of Christ Church in 1858, and Dean of Westmin-
ster in 1864. Died July 18, iSSi.

Stanley, (DAVID S.,) an American general, bom in
Wayne county, Ohio, in 1828, graduated at West Point
in 1852. He served through the civil war, becoming
major-general of volunteers. He commanded a divi-
sion of Rosecrans's army at the battle of Corinth, dis-
tinguished himself as commander of the cavalry at
Stone River, and as corps commander took part in the
battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864. He obtained
the rank of colonel in the United States army in 1866.

Stanley, (EDWARD.) Sec DERBY, EARL OF.

Stanley, (Rev. EDWARD,) D.D., an English divine
and naturalist, born in London in 1779. lie gradu-
ated at Cambridge in 1805, was subsequently appointed
lector of Alderley, and in 1837 Bishop of Norwich, lie
was the author of " A Familiar History of Birds, then
Nature, Habits, and Instincts," (2 vols., 1835,) anc
contributed a number of treatises on natural history to
" Blackwood's Magazine." He was a Fellow of the
Royal Society. Died in 1849.

See " Eraser's Magazine" for May, 1851.

Stanley, (EDWAKD JOHN,) Lord Stanley of Alderley
an English statesman of the Liberal party, was born ir
Cheshire in 1802. He was a relative of the Earl o
Derby. He entered Parliament about 1831, after which

ic became secretary of the treasury, (1835-41.) and
under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, (1846-52.) In
1848 he was raised to the peerage, as Baron Eddisbury.
He inherited the title of Baron Stanley of Alderley at
he death of his father, in 1850, and was a member of
he cabinet, as postmaster-general, from 1859 to June,
1866. Died in June, 1869.

Stanley, (HENUY M.,) a celebrated African explorer,
of obscure parentage, born near Denbigh, Wales, in 1840.
When fifteen years of age he went to sea, and on arriving
at New Orleans he took the name of a gentleman wlio
>efriended him. (His own name was originally JOHN
ROWLANDS.) On the breaking out of the civil war he
entered the Confederate service, but was made a prisoner,
and afterwards joined the United States navy. As a
correspondent of the New York "Herald," he accom-
lanied the British army to Abyssinia in 1867, and in
1871-72 he conducted an expedition into Africa in search
of Livingstone, the traveller, whom he met at Ujiji, and
with whom he remained several months, and then made
lis way back to Europe. At the joint expense of the
Vew York " Herald" and the London " Daily Telegraph,"
ie revisited Africa in 1874 for the purpose of rescuing
Livingstone, but, learning of that traveller's death, he
crossed the whole continent, descending the Congo
amidst great hardships and dangers, and returning to
England in 1878. He went again to the Congo Basin
;t879-82) under the auspices of the African International
Association and of the King of the Belgians, and in 1887
started for the relief of Emin Pasha, whom he reached
and rescued after a remarkable journey through a
tropical African forest. In 1895 he was elected to
Parliament. He has published " How I found Liv-
.ngstone," (1872,) "Through the Dark Continent,"
(1878,) "The Congo," (1885,) " In Darkest Africa,"
(1890,) "My Early Travels in America and Asia,"
(1895,) etc.

Stanley, (JOHN,) an English musician and composet,
born in 1713. He became blind at the age of two, but
made such progress in music, under the tuition of Dr.
Greene, that he was appointed organist of Saint An-
drew's, Holborn, London, at the age of thirteen. He
was appointed master of the king's band in 1779. His
compositions are chiefly voluntaries for the organ, songs,
cantatas, etc. Died in 1786.

Stanley, (THOMAS,) an eminent English scholar and
writer, born at Cumberlow, in Herts, in 1625, was a son
of Sir Thomas Stanley, a poet of some note. He was
educated at Cambridge. His reputation is founded on a
" History of Philosophy, containing the Lives, Opinions,
Actions, and Discourses of the Philosophers of every
Sect, 1

Stan'nard, (Mrs. ARTHUR,) an English novelist,
who wrote under the nom-de-plumc of John Strange
Winter, was born at York in 1856. Her first work
appeared in 1874, her stories being chiefly of army
life. They include " Bootle's Baby," " Only Human,"
" Everybody's Favourite," and more than forty others.

Stannina. See STARNINA.

Stansel. See STANCEU

Stans'feld, (JAMES,) an English lawyer and radical,
born at Halifax in 1820. He was elected a member of
Parliament for Halifax in 1859, was appointed a lord of
the admiralty in April, 1863, and resigned in April, 1864.
He was under-secretary of state from February to July,
1866, and became third lord of the treasury in 1868, and
financial secretary in October, 1869. In 1886 he was
made president of the local government board. Died
in 1898.

Stan'tpn, (EDWIN M.,) an American statesman and
lawyer, burn at Steubenville, Ohio, December 19, 1814.
He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1836, and
practised for some time at Steubenville with success. In
1847 he removed to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, where he
became the leader of the bar. He was frequently em-
ployed in the supreme court at Washington, of which
city he became a resident about 1857. In 1858 he was
engaged by the government to conduct an impor

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xplana ns, p. 23.)




ease in relation to some land in California. He was
appointed attorney-general of the United States in De
cember, 1860, and in the great crisis that ensued op
posed the designs of the disunionists with energy and
efficiency. He retired from office on the 4th of Starch,
1 36i, and was appointed secretary of war about the I2th
of January, 1862. In this position, which he occupied
through al 1 the subsequent portion of the civil war. he
displayed great administrative abilities and rendered
important services to the cause of the Union. After
the death of President Lincoln, Mr. Stanton continued
to conduct the department of war. In the controversy
which arose about the reconstruction of the seceded
States between President Johnson and Congress, he
took no prominent part. During the years 1865 and
1866 he did not appear as a decided partisan or oppo-
nent of the policy of Johnson. To prevent the removal
of Mr. Stanton and others, the Senate passed the Tenure-
of-Office Bill. He was invited to resign by the Presi-
dent, August 5, 1867, but he refused to comply, assigning
as his motive important public considerations. About
the I2th of August, 1867, he was suspended by the
President, who appointed General Grant secretary of
war ad interim. The President expected, with the co-
operation of General Grant, to render his suspension
permanent ; but that general defeated his design by
surrendering the office on the I4th of January, 1868, to
Mr. Stanton, who had been reinstated by the Senate on
the I3th. Great excitement was produced by the pub-
lication, in February, 1868, of the letters exchanged on
this subject between the President and General Grant
The public then learned that the general-in-chief recog-
nized Mr. Stanton as secretary of war, although he was
directed by the President to disobey his orders. On the
2 1st of February, General LorenzoThomas was appointed
secretary of war ad interim, and attempted to get pos-
session of the department of war, but was not successful.
Mr. Stanton retired from the office of secretary of war
on the 26th of May, 1868, in consequence of the decision
of the Senate that Johnson was not guilty of the crimes
for which he had been impeached. In December, 1869,
he was appointed an associate justice of the supreme
court of the United States. Died in December, 1869.

Stautou, (Mrs. ELIZABETH CADY,) distinguished
as an advocate of " Women's Rights," was born at
Johnstown, Fulton county, New York, in 1816. Her
father, Daniel Cady, was for many years an able and
prominent lawyer, and afterwards judge, in Fulton
county. In her early years she was accustomed to
spend much time in her father's office, and her attention
was first drawn to the wrongs of women by hearing the
complaints which they made to her father of the injus-
tice of the laws towards their sex. She had been deeply
mortified to notice how little regard was shown to girls
compared with boys, and she formed a resolution to
prove herself not inferior in courage and ability to the
more favoured half of the human family, to whom an
unjust and arbitrary usage had given a monopoly of
privilege and power. She studied mathematics, Latin,
and Greek. In the last-named study she strove for and
won, as her first prize, a Greek Testament. She after-
wards, we are told, graduated at the academy in her
native place at the head of her class. But, though boys
who were far behind her in ability, or at least in appli-
cation, could be sent to college, no such privilege existed
for her. This excited her utmost indignation. In 1839
she was married to Mr. Henry B. Stanton, then a popu-
lar and eloquent anti-slavery lecturer, and soon after
set out with him for Europe to attend the " World's
Anti-Slavery Convention," (held in London in 1840,) to
which Mr. Stanton was a delegate. Many female dele-
gates also left their homes in America to attend the
convention ; but they were not admitted, because they
were women. In the number of these was Lucretia
Mott, with whom Mrs. Stanton formed an intimate
friendship. After her return to her native country, she
resolved to devote the energies of her life to resisting,
in all its forms, the time-honoured tyranny against her
sex. In July, 1848, chiefly through Mrs. Stanton's in-
fluence, "the first ' Women's Rights Convention,' (known
to history by that name,)" says Mr. Tilton, " was held

at Seneca Falls, in New York." She was president
of the National Woman Suffrage Association 1865-93,
and was one of the editors of "The Revolution."
In 1895 her eightieth birthday was celebrated at New
York by three thousand delegates from women's so-

Stanton, (HENRY B.,) an American lawyer, distin-
guished as an opponent of slavery, was born in Gris-
wold, Connecticut, June 27, 1805. In 1839 he mar-
ried Miss Elizabeth Cady. He published " Sketches of
Reforms and Reformers of Great Britain and Ireland,"
and other works. Died January 14, 1887.

Stan'jr-hurst, (RICHARD,) an Irish poet, historian,
and Roman Catholic priest, born in Dublin in 1545 or
1546, was an uncle of Archbishop Usher. Died in 1618.

Stanzioni, stan-ze-o'nee, (MASSIMO,) a Neapolitan
painter, sometimes called "the Guido of Naples," was
born in 1585. His works are principally frescos and
portraits. Died in 1650.

Stapel, stl'pel, (JOHN BOD^EUS,) a Dutch botanist
and physician, born at Amsterdam in the seventeenth
century. He studied at Leyden under Vorstius. His
principal work is an edition of the botanical writings of
Theophrastus, which, however, he did not live to com-
plete, dying in 1636. An edition of the ten books of
Theophrastus, entitled " De Historia Plantarum," was
published m 1644. The genus Stapelia was named in
his honour by Linnaeus.

Stapfer, stip'fer, (JEAN.) a Swiss preacher and
writer, born in 1719. He produced a metrical version,
of the Psalms, which was used in the churches of
Berno; also several volumes of sermons. Died in iSoi.

Stapfer, (JEAN FREDERIC,) a theologian, born at
Brugg in 1708, was a brother of the preceding. He
preached at Diesbach, and published, besides other
works, "The Principles of True Religion," (12 vols.,
1746-53.) Died in 1775.

Stapfer, stip'feV, (PAUL,) a French author, born in
Paris, May 14, 1840. He held professorships of the French
language in Elizabeth College, Guernsey, and of foreign
literature at Grenoble. His best-known works are a
Life of Laurence Sterne, (1870,) and the excellent
"Shakespeare et I'AntiquiteY' (1879-80.)

Stapfer, (PHILIP ALBERT,) a Swiss litterateur, born
at Berne in 1766. He published, besides other works,.
" De Philosophia Socratis," (1786,) and"De Republica
Ethica," (1797.) lie was professcr of philosophy and
theology at Berne. Died in Paris in 1840.

Stapleaux, sti'plo', (MICHEL GHISLAIN,) a Belgian,
painter, born in Brussels in 1798, was a pupil of Davji
He gained the grand prize at Antwerp and Brussels in
1822 and 1823. His works are mostly portraits and
historical pictures. Died October 28, 1881.

Sta'ple-don, (WALTER,) an English prelate, founded
Exeter College, Oxford, and became Bishop of Exeter
in 1307 ; died in 1326.

Sta'ple-tpn, (Sir ROBERT,) an English officer, of the
royalist party, served with distinction in the army of
Charles I. He published several dramas, and a trans-
lation of Juvenal. Died in 1669.

Stapleton, (THOMAS,) an English controversialist,
born in Sussex in 1535, was a Roman Catholic priest.
Died at Louvain in 1598.

Starck or Stark, staRk, (JOHANN AUGUST,) BARON,
a German divine and scholar, born in Mecklenburg in
1741. He became professor of Oriental languages at
Kbnigsberg in 1769, and in 1781 chief court preacher al
Darmstadt. He published several theological works.
Died in 1816.

Starhemberg or Stahremberg, sta'rem-b?RG',
(ERNST KUDIGEK,) COUNT, an Austrian field-marshal,
born in 1635, distinguished himself in the defence of
Vienna against the Turks in 1683. For his services on
that occasion he was made a marshal and a minister of
state by the emperor Leopold, who also gave him a ring
worth 100,000 thalers. Died in 1701.

Btarhemberg or Stahremberg, (Guioo,) COUNT.
an Austrian field-marshal, born in 1657, was a cousin of
the preceding. He assisted in the defence of Vienna in
1683, and served in the subsequent campaigns against
the Turks. He afterwards took part in the war of the

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, d, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 5, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; fir, fall, fit; met; n8t; g56d;



Spanish succession, and gained a signal victory over
the French at Almenara in 1710. He became, in the
bsence of Prince Eugene, president of the imperial
Council of war a). Vienna. Died in 1737.

See ALFRED ARNETM, " Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen G.
Starliembers," 1853; " Nouvclle biographic Generale."

Staring, sta'ring, (ANTONI CHRISTIAAN WINAND,) a
Dutch poet, born in 1 767, and noted for his spirited lyrics,
chiefly amorous and mirthful. Died in 1840.

Stark, (JOHN,) an American general of the Revolu-
tion, born at Londonderry, New Hampshire, in 1728.
] Ie served with distinction in the war against the French
in 1754, and subsequently fought at Hunker Hill, Tren-
ton, and Princeton. In August, 1777, he gained a signal
victory over the British at Bennington, for which he was
made a brigadier-general and received the thanks of
Congress. He joined the army of General Gates in
September, 1777, served in Rhode Island in 1779, and
in New Jersey in 1780. lie had the command of the
Northern department, with his head-quarters at Saratoga,
in 1781. Died in 1822.

See the "Life of General Stark," by EDWARD EVERETT, in
SPARKS'S "American liioprapliy," vol. i. of st-c^nd series; "Me-
moirs, etc. of General John Slark, 1 * by CALEO STARK, lS6o.

Stark, (WILLIAM,) M.D., an English physician, born
at Birmingham in 1740. He graduated at Leyden in
1767, and after his return made a series of experiments
on diet for the purpose of ascertaining the effect of dif-
ferent kinds of food on the human body. He died in
1 769, in consequence of illness brought on by his experi-
ments. He was the author of several medical works.

Starke, stan'keh, (GoTTHELF WILHELM CHRIS-
TOPH,) a German theologian, bom at Bernburg in 1762.
He published a number of hymns, and other poems.
Died in 1830.

Star'key, (THOMAS ALFRED,) D.D., an American
bishop, born in Philadelphia. He became a civil engi-
neer, but took deacon's orders in the Episcopal Church
in 1847, and priest's orders in 1848. After holding
several important pastorales, he was in iSSo consecrated
Bishop of Northern New Jersey.

Stamina, staR-nee'na, or Stannina, stin-nee'na,
(GilERARDo,) a Florentine painter, born about 1350.
lie acquired a high reputation in art. Died about 1405.

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters."

Starowolski, stl-ro-wol'skee, |Lat. STAROVOL'-

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 322 of 425)