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and obtained the cross of Saint Michael, and other dis-
tinctions. He was a friend of Poussin, whose style
he imitated. Died in 1657.

See FBLIBIBN, " Entretiens :" FONTHNAY, " Dictionnaiie det
Artistes :" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Stellini, stel-lee'nee, (JACOPO or GIACOPO,) a learned
Italian ethical writer, born at Cividale di Friuli in 1699.
He was professor of moral philosophy at Padua, and
wrote several works. Died in 1770.

See CAHONELU. "Vita del J. Stellini," 1784; P. COSSALI,
" Elogio di G. Stellini," 1811 ; FABRONI, " Vitz Italorum doctrina
excellent! um."

Stelliola, stel-le-o'la, (NiccoL6 ANTONIO,) an Italian
natural philosopher, born at Nola in 1547. He became
professor of medicine in the University of Naples, and
wrote, besides other works, "II Telescopic," (1627.)
Died in 1623.

SteUuti, stel-loo'tee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian poet
*nd naturalist, born at Fabriano in 1577, was a member
of the Academy of Lincei. Among his works is " II
Parnasso," a canzone, (1631.) Died after 1651.

Stel'ter, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a German lyric poet,
born at Elberfeld, December 25, 1823. Bred a silk-
weaver, he afterwards was a newspaper-reporter and a
commercial traveller. He was a member of the group
of " Wupperthal poets," remarkable for the combination
of realism and idealistic pietism. His poems, in several
rolumes, are too full of truisms and moralizings, but
have much power and merit.

Stenbock, steVbok, or Steenbock, (MAGNUS,) a
Swedish commander under Charles XII., was born at
Stockholm in 1664. He distinguished himself at the
battle of Narva, and gained a signal victory over tb
Danes at Helsingborg in 1710. Being afterwards be-
sieged in the fortress of Tb'nningen by the Russian,
Danish, and Saxon army, he was forced to capitulate,
and was made prisoner by the King of Denmark. He
died in prison in 1717, leaving a narrative of his life.

See GEIJER, " History of Sweden ;" GEZHLIUS, " Biographiskt-
Lexicon;" LOENBOM, " M. Stenbocks Lefverue," 4 vols., 1757-65;
ENBBRG, "Areminne ofver M. Stenbock," 1817; OXENSTIHRNA.
" M. Stenbock och Villars Sammanstallde," 1790.

Stendahl or StendhaL See BEYLE.

Steno, sta'no, (MlCHELE,) a Venetian ruler, born In
1331. He was elected Doge of Venice in 1400. Verona,
Padua, and other places were added to the state during
his administration. Died in 1413.

See DARU, " Histoire de Venise."

Steuo, sta'no, (NICHOLAS,) an eminent Danish anat-
omist, born at Copenhagen in 1638. He studied three
years in the University of Leyden, which he entered in
1 66 1, and afterwards pursued his researches in Paris.
About 1662 he discovered and described the duct of the
parotid gland, called Steno's duct. He made other dis-
coveries, and published several works, (in Latin,) among
which are a "Treatise on the Muscles and Glands,"
(1664,) and one "On the Anatomy of the Brain," (1669.)
He became a Catholic priest in 1675, after which he
wrote works on theology. Haller called him " magnus
inventor." Died at Schwerin in 1687.

See MANNI, "Vita del litteratissimo Stenone,'* 1775; FABRONI,
"Vitas Italorum doctrina excellentium ;" HALLER, Bibliotheca
Bnatomtca ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Stfin'tor, [Srrvrup,] a Grecian warrior or herald,
who served in the Trojan war, and whose voice, accord-
ing to Homer, was as loud as the combined voices of
fiftv men.

Stenzel, stint'sel, (GusTAV ADOLF HARALD,) a Ger-
man historian, born at Zerbst in 1792. He wrote, among
other works, a " History of Germany under the Frank-
ish Emperors," (1827.) Died in 1854.

Stephani, sta'fl-nee, (HEINRICH,) a German educa
tional writer, born near Wiirzburg in 1761 ; died in 1850.

Stephanie, sta'fa-nee, (CHRISTIAN GOTTLOB,) a Ger-
man actor and dramatist, born at Breslau in 1733 ; died
in 1798.

Stephanus, the Latin of STEPHEN and ETIENNR
which see.

Steph'a-nus [Sre^avof] A-the-nl-en'sis, a Greek
physician, the time and place of whose birth are un-
known. Among his extant works are a commentary on
the " Prognostics" of Hippocrates, and a commentary on
one of the works of Galen.

Steph'anua By-zan-ti'nua, or Stephen of By-
zantium, [Fr. ETIENNE DE BYZANCE, a'te-eV deh
be'zoNss',] a Greek writer, supposed to have lived in the
fifth century. He was the author of a geographical dic-
tionary, entitled " Ethnica," of which only an abridgment
is extant, and which is supposed to have been the first
work of the kind ever written.

Stephen, stee'ven, [Fr. ETIENNE, a'te-eV ; It STE-
FANO, stef'l-no,] the first Christian martyr, was one of
the seven deacons of the Christian Church at Jerusalem.
Being charged by the Jews with blasphemy, he was
stoned to death. The time of this event is variously
estimated at from 35 to 37 A.D.

See Acts vi., vii.

Stephen [Lat. STEPH'ANUS] I. succeeded Lucius as
Bishop of Rome in 253 A.D. He was engaged in a con-
troversy with Cyprian on the baptism of heretics. He
died in 257 A.D.

Stephen n., chosen pope in 752 A.D., died three
days after his election, and is not generally mentioned in
the series of the popes.

Stephen m., sometimes called Stephen U., (see
preceding article,) was elected pope in 752 A.D. Astol-
phus, King of the Longobards, having threatened Rome,
Stephen solicited the aid of Pepin, King of the Franks,
who marched into Italy, defeated Astolphus, and com
pelled him to give up the district (Exarchate) of Ravenna,

S. e. i. o, u, y, long : 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; mocn:




tnd other provinces previously conquered by him. In
755 Astolphus, with a recruited army, again attacked
Rome, but was finally driven back by Pepin, who con-
ferred upon the Roman See Pentapolis and the Exarch-
ate of Ravenna Stephen died in 757, and was succeeded
by Paul I.

Stephen IV., a native of Sicily, became pope in 768
A.D. During his pontificate the Longobards again took
possession of portions of the Exarchate of Ravenna.
He died in 772, and was succeeded by Adrian I.

Stephen V. was elected pope in 816 A.D. His pon-
tifcate was marked by no important events, and he died
within a year after his consecration.

Stephen VI. succeeded Adrian III. as Pope of Rome
in 885. In the quarrel between Guido, Duke of Spoleto,
and Berengarius, Duke of Friuli, he espoused the cause
of the former, whom he crowned Kin;, of Italy in 891.

Stephen VII succeeded Benedict VI. in 896. He
annulled the acts and decrees of Formosus, one of his
predecessors, and a political opponent, and caused his
remains to be treated with dishonour. In 897 he was
thrown into prison, and strangled by the friends of

Stephen VllJ- succeeded Leo VI. in 928. He died
In 930, and was followed by John XI., son of Marozia,
Duchess of Tuscany. (See MAROZIA.)

Stephen IX. was elected pope in 939, and died in
942. He was succeeded by Martin III.

Stephen X., brother of Godfrey, Duke of Lorraine
was elected pope in 1057. Under his rule occurred the
schism between the Greek and Roman Churches, and a
long controversy was carried on concerning the celibacy
of the clergy. Died in 1058.

Stephen, SAINT, King of Hungary, born at Gran
about 979, was the son of a chief named Geysa. He
was instructed in the Christian faith, and in 995 married
the sister of the emperor Otho III. He was crowned
in looo first King of Hungary, with the sanction of the
pope. During his reign Christianity was firmly estab-
lished in his country. Died in 1038.

Stephen H., King of Hungary, was the son of Kolo-
man, and ascended the throne in 1114. He carried on
unsuccessful wars with Poland, Austria, and Russia, and
in 1131 abdicated his throne in favour of a relative
named Bela. He died in a monastery in the same year.

Stephen 111., son of the preceding, was crowned in
1161, but he was soon forced to resign in favour of his
uncle Ladislaus, whose claims were supported by the
Emperor of Constantinople.

Stephen IV. became King of Hungary on the death
of Ladislaus, in 1161. His subjects, however, soon re-
volted against him, and restored Stephen III. to the
throne. Stephen IV. died in 1163, and his nephew,
Stephen III., in 1173.

Stephen V. succeeded his father Bela in 1270 as
King of Hungary. He carried on war with the Bohe-
mians and Bulgarians, and died in 1272.

Stephen, stee'ven, [Lat. STEPH'ANUS; Fr. ETIENNK,
i'te-Sn',] King of England, born in France in 1 105, was
a son of Stephen, Count of Blois. His mother, Adela,
was a daughter of William the Conqueror. He ren-
dered himself popular in England by his martial courage,
and became a competitor for the crown at the death
of Henry I., in 1 135, although that king had designated
his daughter Matilda as his successor. Stephen was
recognized as king by a large portion of the people, and
a civil war began in 1139. In 1153 Prince Henry, a son
of Matilda, came from Normandy with an army. The
contest was decided by an agreement that Stephen
should retain the throne until his death, and that Henry
should succeed him. Died in 1154.

See HUMK, " History of England." chap. vii.


Ste'phen, (Sir GEORGE,) brother of Sir James, no-
ticed below, was born about 1794. He published " The
Jesuit at Cambridge," "Adventures of an Attorney,"
and several other works. Died June 20, 1879.

Stephen, (JAMES,) an English lawyer and philan-
thropist, born in Dorsetshire. He was an earnest advo-
cate of African emancipation, and he is said to have
planned the system of the continental blockade during

the French war. He published a treatise entitled " War
in Disguise, or the Frauds of Neutral Flags." He be-
came a member of Parliament for Tralee, and for many
years held the post of a master in chancery. Died in

Stephen, (Sir JAMES,) K.C.B., an English writer and
statesman, born in London about 1790. He studied at
Cambridge, and rose through various offices to be per-
manent under-secretary to the colonial department, which
post he filled with eminent ability. He was appointed

tures on the History of France," (1851,) etc. Died in

Ste'phen, (Sir JAMES FITZJAMES,) an English lawyer,
a son of Sir James Stephen, was born in London in
March, 1829, graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge,
in 1852, was called to the bar at the Inner Temple in
1854, was a law member of the government of India,
1870-72, became professor of common law to the inns
of court, 1875, and a judge of the high court of justice
in 1879. His principal works are ''Essays by a Barris-

(1877,) and a " History of the Criminal Law of England,"
(3 vols., 1883.) Died March n, 1894.

Stephen, (LESLIE,) an English author, a brother of
Sir J. F. Stephen, was born in London, November 28,

's College, Lon-
ted the " Corn-
The Playground
of Europe," (1871,) "Hours in a Library," (1874-
79,) " History of English Thought in the Eighteenth
Century," (1876,) "Science of Ethics," (1882,) "An
Agnostic's Apology," (1893,) "Social Rights and
Duties," (1896,) etc. In 1884 he began the publica-
tion of a "Dictionary of National Biography," of
which he edited the first twenty-six volumes, 1885-91.

Stephens, stee'vens, (ALEXANDER H.,) an American
statesman, born in Taliaferro county, Georgia, in 1812.
He was elected to Congress by the Whig party in 1843,
and continued in office till 1859. He was one of the
first advocates of the annexation of Texas, and was
active in promoting the passage of the Kansas and
Nebraska Act of 1854. He subsequently joined the
Democratic party. He opposed the secession of Georgia
in 1860, but, having subsequently joined the secession-
ists, was elected in 1861 Vice-President of the Confeder-
ate States. On the downfall of the Confederacy he was
arrested by the Federal government, and confined in
Fort Warren, near Boston, but soon afterwards was re-
leased. In 1865 he was elected United States Senator
by the Legislature of Georgia, but was not permitted to
take his seat. In 1874 he was elected representative in
Congress, where he served several terms, and in 1882
was chosen Governor of Georgia. He published "A
Constitutional View of the War between the States,"
(1870.) Died March 4, 1883.

Stephens, (Mrs. ANN SOPHIA W.,) a popular Ameri-
can novelist, born at Derby, Connecticut, in 1813. She
published many novels and tales, among which are
"The Heiress of Greenhurst," "The Old Homestead,"
"Fashion and Famine," etc., and contributed numerous
sketches to periodicals. Died August 20, 1886.

Stephens, (GEORGE,) an English archaeologist,
born at Liverpool in 1813. He settled at Stockholm
in 1833, and became professor of English at Copen-
hagen in 1855. His important works are "Old
Northern Runic Monuments," (1866-84,) an d "The
Runes, whence came they ?" (1894.) Died in 1895.

Stephens, (HENRY,) a Scottish writer on agriculture,
born in Bengal in 1795, was educated at Edinburgh.
He published "The Book of the Farm," (3 vols., 1844,)
and other works.

Stephens, stee'vens, (JAMES FRANCIS,) an English
entomologist, born in Sussex in 1792. He was the
author of "The Systematic Catalogue of British Insects,"

A Manual of the British Coleoptera," and "Illustra-

eas k: c as s: g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural: N. nasal; R. trilled; s as z; th as in this. (SySee Explanations, p. 23.)




tions of British Entomology," (tovols.) The last-named
is regarded as one of the most valuable works of the
kind. He was president of the Entomological Society,
and a Fellow of the Linnaean Society. Died in 1852.
Stephens, (JAMES,) an Irish patriot, born at
Kilkenny in 1824. He originated the Fenian party
in 1853, and as its " Head Centre" had great power
and influence. He was arrested in Dublin in 1864,
escaped, and went to New York. Deposed by the
Fenians, he sank into obscurity.

Stephens, (JEREMY,) an English theologian, born in
Shropshire in 1592. He became rector of Wotton, and
published several works. Died in 1665.

Stephens, (JOHN LLOYD,) an American traveller,
born at Shrewsbury, New Jersey, in 1805. He published
in 1837 "Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petr:ea,
and the Holy Land," which was followed in 1838 by
" Travels in Greece, Turkey, Russia," etc. Being ap-
pointed in 1839 ambassador to Central America, he
brought out, after his return, " Incidents of Travel in
Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan," (1841,) and
"Incidents of Travel in Yucatan," (1843,) illustrated by
Catherwood. These works obtained great popularity
both in this country and in Europe, and the two last-
named are esteemed among the most valuable contribu-
tions to American antiquities. Mr. Stephens was elected
president of the Panama Railroad Company about 1850.
Died in 1852.

Stephenson, stee'ven-spn, (GEORGE,) an eminent
English engineer, and inventor of the locomotive engine,
was born at Wylam, in Northumberland, June 9, 1781.
His father was a fireman of a colliery, and was unable
to give his children an education at school. At the age
of fourteen, George became an assistant fireman in the
colliery. He learned to read and write at a night-school.
Having been promoted to the office of brakesman, he
married Fanny Henderson about 1802. He exercised
his mechanical skill in mending clocks, studied me-
chanics, and acquired a knowledge of steam-engines.
In 1812 he became chief engineer of Killingworth Col-
liery. His first locomotive engine was completed in
July, 1814, and drew eight loaded cars four miles an
hour. He made another, with important improvements,
and applied the steam blast-pipe, in 1815, and soon after
that date improved the construction of the railway. In
1822 he was employed to construct a railway from Stock-
ton to Darlington, which was opened in 1825 and was
the first railway made for public use. About 1824 Mr.
Stephenson and Edward Pease, of Darlington, established
a manufactory of locomotives at Newcastle. He was
chief engineer of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway,
finished in 1830, not without violent opposition from
land-owners and others. A prize of five hundred pounds,
offered by the directors of this railway for the best loco-
motive, was awarded to the " Rocket," made by George
Stephenson and his son Robert, (1830.) This engine is
said to have run at the rate of thirty miles an hour, to
the great amazement of the public. He was employed
as engineer of the Grand Junction Railway, of that which
connects London with Birmingham, and of others. His
latter years were spent in the superintendence of exten-
sive coal-mines which he owned. Died at Tapton in
August, 1848.

Stephenson, (ROBERT,) a distinguished engineer, a
son of the preceding, was born at Willingtor. in October,
1803. He studied for one session at the University of
Edinburgh, (1820-21,) after which he assisted his father
in the construction of the Stockton and Darlington Rail-
way, and in the manufacture of locomotives. In 1824
he was employed in South America as inspector of gold-
and silver-mines. He returned to England in 1827, and
became associated with his father in the fabrication of
locomotives. He was engineer of the Leicester and
Swannington Railway, and of the London and Birming-
ham Railway which was opened in 1838. He acquired
a high reputation as a railway engineer, and was em-
ployed as such in various foreign countries. Among his
greatest works are the viaduct over the Tweed at Ber-
wick, the high level bridge at Newcastle, the Britannia
tubular bridge over Menai Straits, (1850,) the Victoria

tubular bridge at Montreal, finished about 1860, and a
railway connecting Cairo with Alexandria, in Egypt He
was elected a member of Parliament for Whitby in 1847.
Died in October, 1859.

See SMILES, "Lives of the Engineers:" J. C. JEAFPRKSON,
"Life of Robert Stephenson," 1864: " Eraser's Magazine" for
December, 1859.

Step'ney, (GEORGE,) an English diplomatist and
poet, born at Westminster in 1663. He was employed
in embassies to Germany, Poland, and the States-Gene-
ral, (Netherlands.) He was the author of several origi-
nal poems, and assisted Dryden in his translation of
Juvenal. " He is," says Johnson, " a very licentious
translator, and does not recompense the neglect of his
author by beauties of his own." Died in I77-

Step'niak, the nom-de-flume of SERGIUS MICHAEL
DRAGOMANOFF, a Russian revolutionist, born in the
Ukraine in 1841. In 1870 he became a professor in
Kieff, but was forced to flee in 1876 on account of his
free utterances. He afterwards resided in Geneva
and London, where he published "Underground
Russia," (1881,) "Nihilism as it is," (1894,) and
other works. He was killed by a railway train in 1895.

Sterbeeck, van, vin steVbak, (FRANCIS,) a Flemish
botanist and priest, born at Antwerp in 1631. He pub-
lished "Theatrum Fungorum." Died in 1693.

Ster'ling, ( JOHN,) a British poet and prose writer,
son of Edward, "(1773-1847,) was born in the island of
Bute in 1806. He finished his studies at Trinity College,
Cambridge, where he acquired the friendship of Mr.
(afterwards Archdeacon) Hare, Moncktun Milnes, and
other distinguished men. Having taken holy orders,
he became curate of Hurstmonceaux, in Sussex, in 1834.
He was the author of "Arthur Coningsby," a novel,
(1833,) "The Election; a Poem, in Seven Books," (1841,)
"Strafford," a tragedy, (1843,) and "Essays and Tales."
He numbered among his friends Coleridge and Thomas
Carlyle, and his Life has been written by the latter.
Died in 1844.

See T. CARLYLE, " Life of John Sterling," 185! : " Brief Biogra-
phies," by SAMUEL SMILBS: " Eraser's Magazine" for February,
1848 ; " British Quarterly Review" for August, 1848.

Stem, (DANIEL.) See AGOULT, D'.


Stemberg, steRn'beRG, (ALEXANDER,) BARON, a
celebrated novelist, born in Esthonia, in Russia, in 1806,
studied at Dorpat, and in 1830 settled in Germany.
Among his most popular works, which are written in
German, we may name "The Missionary," "Diana,"
and " Saint Sylvan." Died August 24, 1868.

See the " Foreign Quarterly Review" for January, 1837.
Steinberg, (GEORGE MILLER,) an American sur-
geon, born in Otsego county, New York, in 1838. He
was made an assistant surgeon in the United States
army in 1861, and reached the ranks of brigadier-
general and surgeon-general of the army in 1893.

Steinberg, i KASPAR MARIA,) COUNT, a German
naturalist, and president of the Bohemian National
Museum, born in 1761 ; died in 1838.

Sterne, stern, (LAURENCE,) a celebrated humorist,
born at Clonmel, Ireland, in 1713, was a great-grandson
of Richard Sterne, Archbishop of York. His father
was a lieutenant in the army. He was educated at
Cambridge, which he entered in 1733, took holy orders,
and became vicar of Sutton about 1738. He wasmarrned
in 1741. Through the influence of an uncle, he obtained
a prebend in York Cathedral. He remained nearly
twenty years at Sutton, and acquired a sudden celebrity
by the publication of two volumes of " Tristram Shandy, '
(1759,) a humorous story, which had a great success. In
1760 he published two volumes of sermons, and was
appointed curate of Coxwold, Yorkshire. The poet
Gray praises his sermons, as showing "a strog imagi
nation and a sensible heart," but adds, "you see him
[the preacher] often tottering on the verge of laughter,
and ready to throw his periwig in the face of his audi-
ence." (See Gray's " Letters.") Sterne's promotion in
the Church was hindered by his dissipated or irregular
habits. He visited Paris and other parts of France in
1762-63, and published the ninth volume of "Tristram

a, e, I, o, u, y, long: a, e. A, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, o, u, y, short; a. e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon-




Shandy" in 1767. Having made another tour in France
and Italy, he produced in 1768 his "Sentimental Jour-
ney," which enjoyed a great popularity. He died in
London in 1768, leaving one child, a daughter.

Sterne is considered one of the most humorous and
original writers in the language. " His wit," says Haz-
lift, "is poignant, though artificial; and his characters
('hough the groundwork of some of them had been laid
before) have yet invaluable original differences; and the
spirit of the execution, the master-strokes constantly
thrown into them, are not to be surpassed." (" Lectures
on the English Comic Writers.")

See MHDALLE, "Letters of Lauience Steme, to which are pre-
5xed Memoirs of his Life, written by himself," 3 vols., 1775; SIR
WALTER SCOTT, " Memoirs of Eminent Novelists:" THACKERAY,
" Lectures on the English Humourists;" PERCY FITZGERALD, " Life
of Laurence Sterne," 2 vols., 1864; JOHN FERRIAR, "Illustrations
of Laurence Sterne, with other Essays," 1798; ALLIBONE, "Dic-
tionary of Author!."

Stern'hold, (THOMAS,) an English writer, born in
Hampshire, was groom of the robes to Henry VIII.
and his successor Edward VI. He is chiefly known
from his English version of the Psalms, of which he
translated fifty-one. The principal part of the remainder
were translated by John Hopkins, the whole being pub-
lished in 1562, and annexed to the Book of Common
Prayer, under the title of " The Whole Booke of Psalmes,
collected into English Metre, by T. Sternhold, J. Hop-
kins, and others," etc. Died in 1549.

Stesichore. See STESICHORUS.

Ste-sih'p-rus, [Gr. Srj/o-i^opoc; Fr. STESICHORE,
sti'ze'koR' ; It. STESICORO, sta-se-ko'ro,] a celebrated
Greek poet, born at Himera, in Sicily, is supposed to
have flourished about 600 B.C. He is styled the inventor
of choral songs, and his original name of Tisias was
changed to Stesichorus on account of his directing the
choruses at religious festivals. His works, of which only
fragments remain, were composed in the language of the
epic poets, with a mixture of Doricisms, and combine
the material of the epic poem with the lyric form. They
are warmly eulogized by Cicero, Quintilian, and other
eminent writers of antiquity. He died about 555 B.C.,
aged about 85.

Stet/son, (CHARLOTTE PERKINS,) an American
author, born (Perkins) at Hartford, Connecticut, in
1860, the granddaughter of Lyman Beecher. She
wrote humourous and satirical verses, stories, women's
rights papers, etc. She published " Women and Eco-
nomics," and" Is this Our World?" (verse.)

Steuart See STEWART, (Sir JAMES.)

S'teuben, stu'ben, [Ger. pron. stoi'ben,] (FREDERICK
WILLIAM AUGUSTUS,) BARON, a celebrated general
of the American Revolution, was born at Magdeburg,
Prussia, in 1730. He served with distinction in the
Seven Years' war, and rose to be adjutant-general in
the king's staff in 1762. In 1777 he offered his services

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 324 of 425)