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to General Washington as a volunteer in the American
army. He was appointed major-general in 1778, and
subsequently took an active part in the battle of Mon-
mouth and the siege of Yorktown. A life-annuity of
$2500 was voted him by Congress in 1790, and he also
received 16,000 acres of land in Oneida county, New
York, where he died in 1794. His life, written by
Francis Bowen, is included in Sparks's " American

See the "North American Review" for October, 1864.

Steuben, von, fon stoi'ben, (KARL WILHELM AU-
GUST,) BARON, a German historical painter, born near
Mannheim about 1 790, worked in Paris and in Russia,
where he was patronized by the emperor Nicholas.
Among his works are " Napoleon's Return from Elba,"
and " Esmeralda and Quasimodo." Died in Paris in 1856.

Ste'veni, (ABEL,) an American Methodist divine,
born at Philadelphia in 1815. He edited successively
several religious journals, and published, among other
works, "Memorials of the Introduction of Methodism
into New England," and " History of the Religious
Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Method-
ism," (1859.) Died September 12, 1897.

Ste'veni, (ALEXANDER,) an English architect, con-
structed the bridge over the Liffey at Dublin, and other
important works. Died in 1796.

Ste'veua, [Belgian pron. sta'vens,] (ALFRED,) a Bel-
gian painter, born at Brussels, May n, 1828. He gained
a medal of the first class in 1851.

Stevens, (ALFRED GEORGE,) an English artist, born
at Blandford, Dorsetshire, in December, 1817. His
principal work is the Wellington memorial under the
dome of Saint Paul's Cathedral. His portrait-busts and
his designs for decorative metal-work are specially note-
worthy. Died January 7, 1878.

Stevens, (EDWIN AUGUSTUS,) an American inventor,
a son of John Stevens, was born at Hoboken, New
Jersey, in 1795. He made improvements in naval con-
struction and in machinery, built the iron-clad Nauga-
tuck for service in the war of 1861-65, ano " g av e one
million dollars towards the construction of the iron-clad
battery of his brother, R. L. Stevens. He founded the
Stevens Institute of Technology, and the Stevens High
School, both at Hoboken, New Jersey. Died in Paris,
France, August 7, 1868.

Stevens, (GEORGE ALEXANDER,) an English actor
and dramatic writer, born in London, was the author of
a novel entitled " Tom Fool," and other works of a
comic and satirical character. Among these may be
named a " Lecture on Heads," " Distress upon Dis-
tress," a burlesque tragedy, and " The Adventures of a
Speculist." He also wrote a number of popular songs.
Died in 1784.

Stevens, (ISAAC INGALLS,) an American general,
born in or near Andover, Massachusetts, in 1818, gradu-
ated at West Point in 1839, at the head of his class.
He was appointed Governor of Washington Territory
in 1853, and resigned in 1857. In September, 1861, he
became a brigadier-general of Union volunteers. He
served in the army which captured Port Royal, South
Carolina, in November, 1861, was raised to the rank of
major-general in the ensuing summer, and was killed
at the battle of Chantilly, September I, 1862.

Stevens, (JOHN,) an American mechanician, born
at New York in 1749, was the inventor of a steamboat,
which he exhibited in 1804. He also wrote a pamphlet
giving plans for a railway and steam-carriages. Died
in 1838.

1788, also distinguished himself as an inventor, and
made numerous improvements in steamboats. Died
in 1856.

Stevens, (JOHN AUSTIN,) an American historian,
born at New York in 1827. He founded and for
many years edited the " Magazine of American His-
tory," and founded the societies of Sons of the Revo-
lution and Loyal League. Among his writings are
" The Burgoyne Campaign," " The French in Rhode
Island," etc.

Stevens, (RICHARD JAMES SAMUEL,) an English
composer, born at London about 1750, published nu-
merous songs and glees, which are ranked among the
masterpieces of their kind. Died in 1837.

Stevens, (ROBERT NIELSON,) an American
novelist and dramatist, was born at New Bloomfield,
Pennsylvania, in 1867. He became an editorial
writer on the Philadelphia "Press" in 1886, and a
theatrical agent in New York in 1893. He wrote,
plays, "An Enemy to the King," (1896,) "The
Ragged Regiment," (1898,) novels, " The Continental
Dragoon," (1898,) "Philip Winwood," (1900,) etc.

Stevens, (THADDEUS,) an eminent American legis-
lator, distinguished as an opponent of slavery, was born
in Caledonia county, Vermont, on the 4th of April,
1793. He graduated at Dartmouth College in 1814,
removed to Pennsylvania, and studied law. He was
elected to the legislature of Pennsylvania in 1833, and
re-elected four times between that date and 1841. In
April, 1835, he made a powerful speech for common
schools, and secured the triumph of a system to which
the majority of the legislature had been hostile. _ In
1836 he was a member of the Convention which revised
the Constitution of the State. He settled at Lancaster
about 1842, and was elected a member of Congress by

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the voter* of the ninth district in 1848. He acted with
the Whig party while that party survived, and was re-
elected to Congress in 1850. About 1855 he joined the
Republican party, which was at first called in Pennsyl-
vania the People's party. He represented the ninth dis-
trict, i.e. Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in Congress
from 1858 to 1868. He was chairman of the committee
of ways and means in the Thirty-seventh Congress,
1861-63, and in several subsequent terms. In Decem-
ber, 1861, he offered a resolution that all slaves who
shall leave their masters or aid in quelling the rebellion
shall be declared free. After the end of the civil war
he became the most prominent and influential member of
the House of Representatives, and a strenuous opponent
of President Johnson's policy. He advocated the exten-
sion of the right of suffrage to the freedmen, and other
measures of the Radical party. Mr. Stevens and Sena-
tor Sherman were the authors of the bill for the recon-
struction of the seceded States which was passed by
Congress in the session of 1866-67 and became a law
notwithstanding the veto of the President By this act,
ten of the Southern States were divided into five mili-
tary districts, and each district was subjected to the
authority of a military commander until the people of
those districts should adopt new Constitutions conceding
impartial suffrage. Mr. Stevens, who was chairman of
the joint committee on reconstruction, reported in Feb-
ruary, 1867, the original bill, which Senator Sherman
modified by an important amendment. He advocated
the impeachment of Andrew Johnson in a speech on the
24th of February, 1868, and was a member of the com-
mittee of seven then appointed to prepare and report
articles of impeachment. He was also one of the seven
members elected March 2, 1868, as managers to conduct
the impeachment of President Johnson. He was never
married. Died at Washington in August, 1868.

Stevens, (WILLIAM BACON,) D.D., LL.D., an Amer-
ican bishop, born at Bath, Maine, July 13, 1815, gradu-
ated as M.D. at Dartmouth College in 1837, practised
medicine in Savannah, Georgia, took priest's orders in
the Episcopal Church, in 1844 was chosen professor of
belles-lettres, moral philosophy, and history in the Uni-
versity of Georgia, and held a rectorship in Philadelphia,
1848-62. In 1862 he was consecrated as assistant Bishop
of Pennsylvania, succeeding as diocesan in 1865. Among
his publications are " Georgia Historical Collections,"
1841-42,) a " History of Georgia," (2 vols., 1847,) and
a number of religious and other works. He was distin-
guished as a pulpit orator. Died June II, 1887.

Ste'venson, (ADLAI EWING, ) Vice-President of
the United States 1893-97, was born in Christian county,
Kentucky, in 1835. He studied law, and was ad-
mitted to the bar of Illinois in 1857, was a member of
Congress 1875-77, first assistant postmaster-general
1885-89, and was elected Vice-President in 1892. In
1897 he was a member of the international bimetallic
commission to Europe. He was again nominated for
Vice-President by the Democratic and Populist parties
in 1900, but failed to be elected.

Ste'ven-son, (ANDREW,) an American statesman,
born in Culpepper county, Virginia, in 1784. He studied
law, became eminent as a pleader, and represented a
district of Virginia in Congress from 1821 to 1834.
During this period he was thrice elected Speaker of
the House of Representatives, in 1827, 1829, and 1831.
He was minister to England from 1836 to 1841. He
acted with the Democratic party. Died in 1857.

Ste'ven-son, (Sir JOHN ANDREW,) an Irish composer
oorn in Dublin in 1761. He produced numerous duets,
songs, and anthems, and an oratorio, entitled " The
Thanksgiving." Died in 1833.

Ste'ven-spn, (JOHN HALL,) an English satiric poet,
oorn in Yorkshire in 1718, was a friend of Laurence
Sterne, who has described him in his " Tristram Shandy"
under the name of " Eugenius." He published " Lyric
Epistles," " Fables for Grown Gentlemen," and other
works. Died in 1785.

Ste'ven-spn,(RoBERT,)an eminent Scottish engineer,
born at Glasgow in 1772. About 1796 he became engi-
neer to the Northern Light-House Commissioners. He

in 1807 the construction of the Bell Rock Light-
House, off Arbroath, in Forfarshire, which was completed
n 1811. He built upwards of twenty light-houses, and
was employed in various other important works in Scot-
and and England. To him is ascribed the suggestion
of malleable iron instead of cast-iron rails. Died in 1850.

Stevenson, (ROBERT Louis BALFOUR,) a Scottish
author, grandson of the preceding, was born in Edin-
burgh, November 13, 1850. He was bred an engineer,
but studied law, and afterwards adopted literature as a
pursuit. Among his works are " Edinburgh : Pictu-
resque Notes" and "An Inland Voyage," (1878,) "Travels
with a Donkey," (1879,) " Virginibus Puerisque," (1881,)
" Familiar Studies on Men and Books" and " New Ara-
bian Nights," (1882,) "Treasure Island," (1883,) "Kid-
napped" and "Dr. jekyll and Mr. Hyde," (1886,) "The
Merry Men, etc.," (1887,) "Across the Plains," (1892,)
and several volumes of verse. Died in 1894.

Stevenson, (SARAH YORKE,) an American archae-
ologist, was born at Paris, France, in 1847. She was
educated there, lived in Mexico 1862-67, afterwards
in Philadelphia. Married Cornelius Stevenson in
1870. She became an authority on Egyptian archae-
ology, and was connected with the department of
archseology of the University of Pennsylvania, which
conferred on her the degree of Sc.D. She was presi-
dent of the Civic Club and the Acorn Club, and a
member of several learned societies of Philadelphia.

Stevenson, (THOMAS G.,) an American general, born
about 1836, was a son of the Hon. J. Thomas Stevenson,
of Boston. He was appointed a brigadier-general about
the end of 1862. He was in command of a division when
he was killed, near Spottsylvania, May 10, 1864.

StSv'in [Fr. pron. sti'viN'] or Stevinus, sta-vee'-
nus, (SlMON,) an able Flemish engineer and mathema-
tician, born at Bruges about 1550. He was employed as
civil engineer and inspector of dykes by the government
of Holland. He made important improvements in
arithmetic, algebra, and mechanics. Among his works
are a "Treatise on Arithmetic," (1585,) a "Treatise on
Statics and Hydrostatics," (1586,) and a "Treatise on
Navigation," (1599.) Died about 1620.

See GOETHALS, " Notice historique sur la Vie de S. Stevin," 1841 ;

UKTELHT, "Simon Stevin," 1845; STEICHEN. " Me'moire snr 1>

ie de Stevin," 1846; " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Stevinus. See STEVIN.

Stew'art, (ALEXANDER TURNEY,) a celebrated mer-
chant, born near Belfast, Ireland, October 27, 1802. He
studied in Dublin University, and in 1823 went to New
York and became a teacher. In 1825 he became a dry-
goods merchant. His success in business was very great
Died in New York, April 10, 1876.

Stewart, (BALFOUR,) LL.D., a Scottish physicist,
born in Edinburgh, November I, 1828. He studied at
the Universities of Saint Andrew's and Edinburgh, and
in 1859 was made director of Kew Observatory. In
1870 he was appointed professor of natural philosophy
in Owens College, Manchester. He published treatises
on "Heat," "Elementary Physics," (1871,) "Physics,"
(1872,) the "Conservation of Energy," (1874,) etc., be-
sides important papers on solar physics. Died in 1887.

Stew'art, (CHARLES,) a distinguished American
naval officer, born in Philadelphia in 1778. He served
as lieutenant in the operations against Tripoli in 1804,
and obtained the rank of captain in 1806. In 1812 the
government of the United States adopted the over-
cautious policy of withdrawing all their vessels of war
from the ocean, but Captain Stewart and W. Bainbridge
induced them to abandon that policy. The former,
in the summer of 1813, took command of the frigate
Constitution, which carried fifty-two guns. He cap-
tured in February, 1815, the British ship Cyane and
the sloop Levant, for which service he received a gold
medal from Congress. He afterwards rendered impor-
tant services in the organization of the navy, and during
the civil war was raised to the rank of rear-admiral.
Died in 1869.


Stew'art, (DuGALD,) an eminent Scottish professor
of moral philosophy, was born in Edinburgh on the 22d

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of November, 1753. He was a son of Matthew, noticed
below, was educated at the High School of Edinburgh,
and attended the lectures of Reid at Glasgow. In 1772
he wrote an "Essay on Dreaming," and became an as-
sistant or substitute of his father in the chair of mathe-
matics. He was appointed joint professor of mathematics
at Edinburgh in 1775, and succeeded Dr. Ferguson as
professor of moral philosophy in the same university in
1785. He acquired a high reputation as a didactic orator,
and his lectures were attended by many students from
England, and even from the continent. He promoted
the triumph of liberal opinions in politics by his influ-
ence over such men as Lord Brougham, Lord Jeffrey,
and Lord John Russell, who were his pupils. In 1792
he published the first volume of his " Elements of the
Philosophy of the Human Mind," which, being written
in an elegant and attractive style, enjoyed a great popu-
larity. The second volume appeared in 1814, and the

feeble health, he resigned the active duties of his pro-
fessorship in 1810. Among his chief works are a " Phi-
losophical Essay," (I vol., 1810,) and his preliminary
dissertation to the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," entitled
a ' General View of the Progress of Metaphysical,
Ethical, and Political Science since the Revival of Let-
ters," which is highly esteemed. He married Helen
Bannatyne about 1783, and after her death a Miss Crans-
toun. Died at Edinburgh in June, 1828.

Referring to Stewart as a lecturer, Sir Walter Scott
lays, his " striking and impressive eloquence riveted the
attention even of the most volatile student." "Perhaps
few men ever lived," says Mackintosh, "who poured
into the breasts of youth a more fervid and yet reason-
able love of liberty, of truth, and of virtue. How many
are still alive in different countries, and in every rank
to which education reaches, who, if they accurately
examined their own minds and lives, would not ascribe
much of whatever goodness and happiness they possess
to the early impressions of his gentle and persuasive
eloquence ! . . . Without derogation from his writings,
it may be said that his disciples were among his best

See "General Review of the Progress of Ethical Philosophy;"
CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;"
COUSIN, "Cours de Philosophic et Fragments philosophiques," also
the same writer in the "Journal des Savants," 1817.

Stewart, (ELIZA D.,) an American temperance
advocate, born at Piketon, Ohio, in 1816. She was
active in relief work during the civil war, being called
"Mother Stewart" by the soldiers. She was after-
wards a leader in the "Woman's Crusade" against
the Ohio liquor saloons. She introduced the Woman's
Christian Temperance Union work into Great Britain
and the South.

Stewart or Steuart, (Sir JAMES,) a Scottish political
economist, born in Edinburgh in 1713, was a Jacobite.
He married a daughter of the Earl of Wemyss. Having
joined the army of the Pretender in 1745, he was exiled
for many years. He returned about 1763, and published,
besides other works, an " Inquiry into the Principles ol
Political Economy," (1767.) Died in 1780.

Stew'art, (JAMES HALDANE,) an English theologian,
born in 1775, was rector of Limpsfield, in Surrey. He
published several religious works. Died in 1854.
See a " Life of J. H. Stewart," by his son, 1856.
Stewart, (JOHN,) called WALKING STEWART, an
English traveller, born in London before 1750. He per-
formed journeys on foot through Hindostan, Persia,
Nubia, etc., and walked back to England. Died in Lon-
don in 1822.

See DeQuiNCEv's interesting account of Stewart in his " Literary
Reminiscences," voL ii.

Stewart, (MATTHEW,) a Scottish mathematician
born at Rothsay, in the Isle of Bute, in 1717, was the
father of Dugald Stewart. He was minister of the parish
of Rosneath, in the west of Scotland, in his early life
In 1747 he succeeded Maclaurin as professor of mathe
matics in the University of Edinburgh. He publishec
"General Theorems," etc., (1746,) "Tracts, Physica

and Mathematical," (1761,) and "Propositions demon-
strated by the Method of the Ancients," (1762.) He
was well versed in Greek geometry. Died in 1785.
See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen."


Stewart, (Sir ROBERT PRKSCOTT,) an Irish musician
ind author, born in Dublin in 1825. He graduated at
;he University of Dublin in 1851, and became professor
of music there in 1862. Besides some successful music,

published a " Life of Handel," and other works. He
was knighted in 1872. Died March 25, 1894.

Stewart, (THOMAS Grainger-,) a Scottish physician,
born in Edinburgh, September 23, 1837. He studied at
the universities of Edinburgh, Berlin, Prague, and Vi-
enna. In 1876 he was appointed professor of the prac-
tice of physic in the University of Edinburgh, and in
1882 he was chosen a court physician to the Queen.
His principal published work is a standard treatise p
" Bright's Diseases of the Kidneys." Died in

Stewart (or Steward) Family. See STUART.

Steyn, (MARTINUS THEUNIS,) President of the
Orange Free State, was born at Winbury, in that
State, in 1857. He studied law, became State attorney
in 1889, and soon afterwards a judge. He was elected
President in 1896, and was intimately connected with
the negotiations which ended in the Transvaal war, in
which he and his people joined the Transvaal forces,
with the result of losing their independence.

Sthen'e-lua, [Gr. 29o-e^of ; Fr. STHENELE, sta'njl',]
a king of Mycenae, was a son of Perseus and Andromeda,
and the father of Eurystheus.

Sthenelua, a son of Capaneus, was one of the Epi-
oni, (i.e. the sons of the seven chiefs who led the expe-
ition against Thebes.) He was a friend of Diomede,
under whom he served in the Trojan war, and was one
of the band inclosed in the wooden horse.

Stiefel or Stifel, stee'fel, [Lat. STIFE'LIUS,] (Ml-
CHAEL,) a German mathematician, born at Esslingen, in
Saxony, in 1486. He was a Lutheran minister, and
preached at various places, including Lochau and Holts-
dorf, near Wittenberg. He made discoveries in algebra.
His principal work is "Arithmetica Integra," (1544.)
Died in 1567.

See BAYLK, "Historical and Critical Dictionary."

Stieglitz, steeo'lits, (CHRISTIAN LUDWIG,) a German
writer upon art, born at Leipsic in 1756, published,
among other works, a " History of Architecture from
the Earliest Antiquity to Modern Times," (1827,)
"Archaeology of the Architecture of the Greeks and
Romans," and "On the Pigments used by Ancient
Artists." He also wrote a number of war lyrics. Died
in 1836.

Stieglitz, (HEINRICH,) a German litterateur, born at
Arolsen, in Waldeck, in 1803, was the author of poem*
and dramatic works. Died in 1849.

Stieler, stee'ler, (ADOLF,) a German geographer,
born at Gotha in 1775 ; died in 1836.

Stier, steeR, (WlLHELM,) a German architect, born
near Warsaw in 1799. He became professor at the
Academy of Architecture at Berlin, and the founder of
a new school of architects. He designed the cathedra]
of Berlin and the Athenaeum of Munich. Died in 1856.

Stiernhielm. See STJERNHJELM.

Stifel. See STIEFEL.

Stifelius. See STIEFEL.

Stifter, stifter, (ADALBERT,) a German litterateur,
born in Southern Bohemia in 1806, wrote novels, poems,
and prose essays. " He is," says Vapereau, " one of the
best prose-writers of his country." Died in 1868.

Stig'and, a Saxon prelate under the reigns of Ed-
ward the Confessor and William the Conqueror, be-
came Archbishop of Canterbury in 1052. Having been
convicted of several misdemeanours, he was deprived of
his office and condemned to perpetual imprisonment,
but he died soon after the sentence was passed.

See W. F. HOOK, " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury."

Stig'and, (WILLIAM,) an English writer and lawyer,
born in 1827. He contributed to the "Edinburgh Re-

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riew," and published a collection of poems, including the
"Vision of Barbarossa," (1860.)

Stigliani, stel-ya'nee, (ToMMASO,) an Italian poet,
born at Matera in 1545. Among his works is "The
New World," ("II Mondo nuovo," 1617.) Died at
Rome in 1625.

Stiglmaier or Stiglmayer, stlgl'mi'er, (JOHANN
BAPTIST,) a celebrated German brass-founder, born near
Munich in 1791. He visited Italy in 1819, with a view
of perfecting his knowledge of the art, and soon es-
tablished his reputation by his bust of Lewis, King of
Bavaria, after Thorwaldsen's model. After his return
he was appointed, in 1824, superintendent of the bronze-
foundry at Munich. Among the numerous works which
he executed during the twenty years following, are the
monument of Schiller at Stuttgart, after Thorwaldsen,
the fourteen colossal statues of the Bavarian princes in
the new palace at Munich, after Schwanthaler, the eques-
trian statue of the Elector Maximilian, after Thorwald-
sen, and Schwanthaler's colossal statue of " Bavaria," in
front of the Ruhmeshalle at Munich. Died in 1844.

Stiles, (EZRA,) D.D., an American theologian and
scholar, born at North Haven, Connecticut, in 1727.
He graduated at Yale College, and in 1756 became
pastor of the Second Congregational Church at Newport,
Rhode Island. He was elected in 1777 president of
Yale College, and subsequently professor of ecclesias-
tical history. He was well versed in the Hebrew, Greek,
and Oriental tongues, and was esteemed one of the most
learned of American divines. He was an intimate friend
of Dr. Franklin, and was the first one in New England
who made experiments in electricity. He published an
"Account of the Settlement of Bristol," (1785,) "His-
tory of Three of the Judges of Charles I.," and a num-
ber of sermons and orations. Died in 1795.

StUI-eho, [Gr. Itdi-iav ; Fr. STILICON, steHe'koN',]
(FLAVius,) an eminent commander of the Roman armies,
was a son of a Vandal officer. He rose rapidly in the
reign of Theodosius, and was sent as ambassador to
Persia in 384 A.D., at which date he was a young man.
On his return he married Serena, a niece of Theodosius
I., and became commander-in-chief of the army. He
found a rival and dangerous enemy in Rufinus, the chief
minister of Theodosius. In 394 Theodosius appointed
Stilicho guardian of his young son Honorius, to whom
he gave the Western Empire. Rufinus at the same time
was chief minister of Arcadius, Emperor of the East
After the death of Theodosius, (395,) Stilicho ruled
with unlimited authority at Rome. He marched against
the Goths, who had invaded Thrace, and who were
aided by the treacherous intrigues of Rufinus. This
rival was removed by assassination in 395 A.D. Stilicho
drove Alaric out of the Peloponnesus in 396 A.D. ; but
his victorious progress was checked by the jealousy of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 325 of 425)