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in form and adapted to general use. To the descriptions
of countries he added notices of the customs and former
history of the people, enlivened by the anecdotes, tra-
ditions, and comparisons which give interest to positive
geography. His work is highly prizea as an animated,
broadly conceived, and skilfully executed picture of the
world as known to the ancients. lie is rather deficient
in the department of physical geography. Died about
24 A.D.

See SIKMI.IS, " De Strabonis Patria. Genere, JEtmc." etc.. 1828
MEINECKB. " Vindicia Strabonianz," 1852; Vossius, " De His
toricis Grsecis;" FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grseca;" " Nouvelli
Biographic G^neVale."

Stra'bo, (CAius FANNIUS,) a Roman orator, was
consul in 122 B.C. He made a famous speech agains
C. Gracchus on the subject of giving the franchise to
the Latins.

Strabo, (CAius FANNIUS,) a Roman historian, was
a son-in-law of Laelius. He distinguished himself a
the capture of Carthage, 146 B.C. He wrote a work on
Roman history, which is lost.

Strabon. See STRABO.

Strack, stRak, (JOHANN HEINRICH,) a German
architect, and professor in the Academy at Berlin, was
born at Buckeburg in 1806. Among his best works
are the castle of Fredericksborg, built for the King o
Denmark, and Peter's Church at Berlin. Died in ib'So.

Strada, stRa'da, (FAMIANO,) [Lat. FAMIA'NUS,] ar

talian Jesuit and historian, born at Rome in 1572, was
>rofessor of rhetoric in the Gregorian College in that
ity. His principal work is entitled " De Bello Belgico
b Excessu Carli V. ad Annum 1590," or a history of
be revolt of the Netherlands against Spain, (2 vols.,
632-47.) He also wrote Latin essays, entitled " Pro-
usiones," (1617,) being commentaries on the classic*
.nd ancient literature. Died in 1649.
See TIRABOSCHI, "Storia della Letteratura Italiana."

Strada or Stradano, stRa-da'no, called also Stra
dan, [Lat. STRADA'NUS ; Fr. STRADAN, stRt'd6N',](jAN,)
a celebrated Flemish painter, born at Bruges in 1536.
ie studied in Italy, where he was patronized by the
Juke of Tuscany, Cosimo I. Among his master-pieces
we may name his " Crucifixion," in the Church of the
Annunciation at Bruges. He also excelled in painting
animals, hunting-scenes, etc. Died in 1605.

Strada, di, de stRa'da, (JACOPO,) an Italian anti-
quary, born at Mantua about 1515, was an expert con-
noisseur of art He published, besides other works,
'Epitome Thesauri Antiquitatum, hoc est Imperatorum
Romanorum Iconum," etc., (1553,) which treats of the
medals of the Roman emperors. Died in 1588.
Stradan or Stradano. See STRADA.
Stradanus. See STRADA.

Stradella, stRa-del'U, (ALESSANDRO.) a celebrated
'talian composer, born at Naples in 1645. His oratorio
of " San Giovanni Battista" is greatly admired ; and he
>roduced a number of cantatas, duets, etc. of remarkable
jeauty. He was assassinated about 1678 by the lover
of a Venetian lady whom he had married.

Stradivari, stRa-de-va're, (ANTONIO,) [Lat. AN-
TONIUS STRADIVARIUS,] an Italian maker of stringed
nstruments, born at Cremona about 1650 j died in 1737.
Straeten, van der, v8n der stRa'ten, sometimes
written Streten, (HENDRIK,) a Dutch landscape-painter,
jorn about 1665 or 1680. He worked in England.

English peer, was born in 1806. He was a Liberal
member of the House of Commons from 1831 to 1852,
and held several high civil offices. In 1860 he succeeded
to the earldom. Died in 1884.

Strafford, (JOHN BYNG,) EARL OF, a British general,
born in London about 1775, was the father of the pre-
ceding. He served with distinction as major-general
at the battles of Vitoria, Nivelle, and Orthez. He ob-
tained the rank of field-marshal. Died about 1860.

English politician, born in London in April, 1593, was
the eldest son of Sir William Wentworth, from whom
he inherited a large estate. He was educated at Saint
John's College, Cambridge, and married in 1611 a Miss
Clifford, a daughter of the Earl of Cumberland. In
1614 he was elected to Parliament for Yorkshire, which
he also represented in that which met in 1621. His
wife having died in 1622, he married Arabella Hollis, a
daughter of the Earl of Clare. He was appointed sheriff
of Yorkshire in 1625. In the Parliament which met in
1628, he acted with the popular party, and made able
speeches against the arbitrary measures of the court, in
order, perhaps, to give the king a proper idea of the
value of his services. Before the end of the year he
was created a baron, and on the death of the Duke of
Buckingham (1628) he was appointed lord president
of the North, and privy councillor. He was a political
and personal friend of Archbishop Laud. He was am-
bitious, energetic, haughty, and unscrupulous. He de-
clared that he would " lay any man by the heels" who
should appeal from his sentence to the courts at West-
minster. In 1631 or 1632 he was appointed lord deputy
of Ireland, which he governed in a tyrannical manner.
His cruelty to Lord Mountmorris and others excited
great indignation. He directed his highest energies to
the formation of a standing army, and boasted that in
Ireland "the king was as absolute as any prince in the
whole world could be." (Letter to Laud, 1634) He
was created Earl of Strafford in 1639 or 1640.

"He had been," says Macaulay, "one of the most dis-
tinguished members of the opposition, and felt towards
those whom he had deserted that peculiar malignity
which has in all ages been characteristic of apostates.

i, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; ?, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; mootu




He perfectly understood the feelings, the resources, and
the policy of the party to which he had lately belonged,
and had formed a vast and deeply-meditated scheme,
which very nearly confounded even the able tactics of
the statesmen by whom the House of Commons had
been directed. To this scheme, in his confidential cor-
respondence, he gave the expressive name of Thorough."
(" History of England," vol. i. p. 25.) His design was
to make the royal power as absolute in England as it
was in Ireland. The revolt of the Scotch, whom the
king foolishly provoked to fight for their re igious rights,
interfered with the success of Strafford's scheme. He
was summoned to London by Charles I. in 1639, and
appointed general-in-chief in 1640; but before he could
join the army it was driven from the border by the
insurgents, and the war was ended by a treaty. The
Long Parliament, which met in November, 1640, im-
peached Strafford of high treason. He was accused of
an attempt "to subvert the fundamental laws of the
country." John Pym was the principal speaker against
him. (See PYM.) The Commons abandoned the im-
peachment and passed a bill of attainder by a large
majority, of whom Falkland was one. He was beheaded
in May, 1641. Two volumes of his " Letters and De-
spatches" have been published.

of Hampden :" CLARENDON, " History of the Great Rebellion ;*'
LALLY-TOLLENDAL, " Essai sur la Vie du Comte de Strafford,"
1795; GUIZOT, "Histoire de la Revolution d'Angleterre ;" " Bio-
graphia Britannica."

Strahau, stri'an, (WILLIAM,) an eminent Scottish
printer, born in Edinburgh about 1715. He became
a resident of London, and was elected a member of
Parliament in 1775. Died in 1785.

Strahl, stRSl, (MoRrrz HERMANN,) a German phy-
sician and writer, born at Glogau in 1800. He became
in 1842 Sanitatsrath in Berlin. Among his works is
' Der Mensch nach seiner leiblichen und geistigen
Natur," (1835-38.) Died in 1860.

Strange, (Sir ROBERT,) an eminent Scottish engraver,
born in Pomona, one of the Orkney Islands, in 1721. He
studied under Le Bas in Paris, passed several years in
Italy, and settled in London, where he worked with great
success. Among his master-pieces are " Saint Jerome,"
after Correggio, " Saint Cecilia," after Raphael, " The
Death of Dido," after Guercino, and " Venus Reclining,"
after Titian. Died in 1792.

See J. DENNISTOUN, " Memoirs of Sir R. Strange and of his
Brother-in-Law A. Luraisden," 2 vols., 1854 : CHAMBERS, "Bio-
graphical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" C. L. BRIGHTWELL,
" Annals of Industry and Genius," 1863 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for
June, 1855.

VISCOUNT, an Irish diplomatist and scholar, born in
1780. He graduated at Trinity College, Dublin, and
became successively British ambassador to Stockholm
in 1817, to Constantinople in 1820, and to Saint Peters-
burg in 1825. He was vice-president of the Society of
Antiquaries, and knight grand cross of the Hanoverian
Guelphic Order. He made a translation of the poems
of Camoens, which was commended by Lord Byron.
In 1825 he was raised to the peerage of the United
Kingdom, as Lord Penshurst. Died in 1855.

See the " Edinburgh Review" for April, 1805 ; " Monthly R-
view" for September, 1804.

a son of the preceding, was born in Saint Petersburg in
1825. His " Selected Writings ; Political, Geographical,
and Social," were published in 2 vols., 1869. Died in 1869.

Straparola, stRa-pa-ro'li, (GiAN FRANCESCO,) an
Italian writer of tales, was born at Caravaggio before
1500. He published " Piacevole Notte," (2 vols., 1550-
54,) often reprinted. Died after 1557.

Strat'fprd, (NICHOLAS,) a learned English theolo-
gian, born'in Hertfordshire in 1633. He became Dean
of Saint Asaph in 1673, and chaplain to the king. In
1689 he was appointed Bishop of Chester. He wrote
several works against popery. Died in 1707.

Strat'fprd de Red'cllffe, (STRATFORD CANNING,)
first VISCOUNT, a cousin of George Canning, was born

in London in 1788. He studied at King's College, Cam-
bridge, and in 1810 succeeded Mr. Robert Adair as
minister-plenipotentiary at Constantinople. He became
envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to the
United States in 1820, and in 1825 was again sent as
minister to Constantinople, where he exerted himself to
procure from the Sultan some alleviation of the oppres-
sion under which the Greeks were then suffering. His
appeals being unheeded, the chief European powers
determined upon coercive measures, and the battle of
Navarino, in 1827, decided the fate of Greece. Mr.
Canning was soon after elected to Parliament for Old
Sarum, and in 1829 was created knight grand cross of the
Bath. In 1841 he was a third time appointed minister
to Constantinople, having on a previous mission taken a
prominent part in defining the boundaries of Greece. In
this post he continued till 1858, when he returned to
England. Through his influence with the Sultan, he pro-
moted many reforms, among which are the abolition of
torture, and the establishment of political and religious
freedom for Protestants in Turkey. Died Aug. 14, 1880.

StratlinairD, BARON. See ROSE, (Sir HUGH HENRY.)

Stratico, stRl'te-ko, (SlMONE,) COUNT, a celebrated
mathematician, born at Zara, in Dalmatia, about 1730.
He became professor of navigation and mathematics at
Padua, and in 1801 filled the chair of navigation at Pavia.
In 1803 he was made a senator by Napoleon, who also
bestowed upon him the orders of the legion of honour
and the iron crown. He was the author of a " Marine
Vocabulary," and several works on hydraulics, navi-
gation, etc., which have a high reputation. He also
prepared, conjointly with Poleni, a valuable edition of
Vitruvius, published after the death of Stratico, which
took place in 1824.

Strato. See STRATON.

Strat'o-clea, [ZrparoxAiyc,] an Athenian orator and
demagogue, lived about 325 B.C. He was a violent op-
ponent of Demosthenes.

Stra'ton [Gr. Srpdruv] or Stra'to, a Greek physi-
cian and medical writer, a pupil of Erasistratus, lived in
the third century B.C.

Straton (or Strato) OF LAMPSACUS, [Fr. STRATON
DE LAMPSAQUE, strJ'toN' deh loMp'stk',] a Greek Peri-
patetic philosopher, born at Lampsacus, succeeded
Theophrastus as chief of the school about 288 B.C. He
was the preceptor of Ptolemy Philadelphus. According
to some authorities, he taught that each particle of
matter has a principle of motion, or a plastic power.

See RITTER, " History of Philosophy ;" NAUWBRCK, " De Strm-
tone Philosopho," 1836.

Straton (or Strato) OF SARDIS, a Greek epigram-
matic poet, who probably lived in the second century
of our era. He compiled an anthology of licentious
epigrams, majiy of which he composed.

Strat-o-ni'9e, [Gr. Srparowio?,] a beautiful queen of
Syria, born about 316 B.C., was a daughter of Demetrius
Poliorcetes. She was married to Seleucus I. of Syria,
whose son, Antiochus I., became enamoured of her.
She had a daughter Stratonice, who was married to
Demetrius II. of Macedonia. Antiochus I. was the
father of the second Stratonice.

Strat'tis, [SrpaTTtf,] an Athenian comic poet of the
old comedy, nourished about 410-380 B.C. His works
are lost.

Strat'tpn, (CHARLES CARROLL,) 'D.D., an American
clergyman, born in Tioga county, Pennsylvania, January
4, 1833. He removed to Oregon, and graduated at Wil-
lamette University in 1868. He entered the Methodist
ministry, and in 1877 became president of the University
of the Pacific. He edited, and in part wrote, the " Auto-
biography" of Bishop E. O. Haven, (1883.)

Strauchiua, stRow'Ke-us, (^EciDius,) a German Lu-
theran theologian and mathematician, born at Wittenberg
in 1632, was the author of a " Breviarium Chronologicum"
and a number of controversial works. Died in 1682.

Strauss, stRowss, (DAVID FRIEDRICH,) a German
rationalistic theologian, the author of what is termed the
"mythical theory" of interpreting the Gospels, was born
at Ludwigsburg, in Wiirtemberg, in 1808. He studied
theology at Tubingen. In 1832 he became assistant
teacher (rcpctent) in the Theological Institute of Tubin-

first VISCOUNT, a cousin ot (jeorge Canning, was oorn er ( rcpcienij in

cas*; yass; ghard; gas/; G,H,K,gtittural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in //to. (JJ^See Explanations,?. 23.)




gen. He produced in 1835 his " Life of Jesus Critically
Treated," in which he attempts to prove that the New
Testament history is substantially a tissue of fables. He
was appointed professor of divinity at Zurich in 1839, but
the hostility of the people to his doctrines was so loudly
expressed that his position there became untenable.
He published several other works, among which are
" The Christian Dogmatics considered in its Historical
Development and its Conflict with Modern Science," (2
vols., 1840-41,) a "New Life of Jesus," (1864,) and "The
Old Faith and the New."

Strauss's idea of a God appears to be similar to that
of many other Hegelians, who regard the Deity not as a
conscious Being, but as an unconscious spirit or influ-
ence, or what might be termed a system of laws, mate-
rial and spiritual. This spirit first becomes conscious
in Humanity, which, according to Strauss and his fol-
lowers, is God manifest in the flesh.

"Thirty years ago," says a writer in the "Quarterly
Review," " ' The Life of Jesus' of Strauss startled the
world like a clap of thunder out of a calm sky. ... In
the name of criticism, he declared that the Gospels were
almost valueless as historical materials ; in the name of
science, he pronounced that miracles were impossible."
(See article on "The Life of our Lord," October, 1866.)
"The supposition that the healthiest, simplest, and
sanest form of religion the world has ever seen should
have taken its rise from such a hotbed of fatuity and
insanity as Strauss would have us believe, appears to
us to make greater demands by far upon our credulity
than the hypothesis it is invented to supersede." (See
" Edinburgh Review," article on " Strauss, Renan, and
'Ecce Homo,'" October, 1866.)

" Strauss declined," says Dorner, in his able work
entitled " History of Protestant Theology," " the rude
method of combating Christianity in the style of the
' Wolfenbiittel Fragments ;' as he likewise covered with
ridicule the naturalistic explanations of the miracles
by Dr. Paulus. To the biblical supernaturalism which
sought to found the truth of Christianity upon inspira-
tion, miracles, and prophecy, he opposed the mythical
theory ; according to whicn, the portrait of Christ in
the Gospels was the product of tradition, of which the
historic element was obscure, determined in its unin-
tentional fabrication by Old Testament images, par-
ticularly the Messianic. Christ, however, to whom the
Messianic predictions were transferred by the common
people, could not have been a supernatural phenomenon,
since a miracle includes an impossibility ; so also the
four Gospels could not have proceeded from apostles or
eye-witnesses, because, with their better knowledge, de-
signed fabrication must be imputed to them. He then
seeks for internal contradictions in the Gospels, in order
thereby to prove their unhistoric character. As, how-
ever, these contradictions do not extend to what is es-
sential, it is clear that they are not what really decided
him. He demands a historical criticism, free from pre-
assumptions,* and yet he makes (as we have seen) for
his mythical theory a twofold pre-assumption, the one
dogmatic,t the other historical. "\ He died February 8,

See " Straussiade in Zurich," 1840: "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nrf-
ale :" "Foreign Quarterly Review" for October, 1838; "British
Quarterly Review" for February, 1847.

Strauss, (FRIEDRICH ADOLF,) a Protestant minister,
a son of Gerhard Friedrich, noticed below, was born at
Elberfeld in 1817. He published " Sinai and Golgotha :
Travels in the East," (1847,) which has been translated
into several languages. Died April 16, 1888.

Strauss, (GERHARD FRIEDRICH,) professor of the-

* The expression in the original is " eine voraussetzungslose his-
tprische Kritik," that is, "a historical critique without pre-supposi-
tions or pre-assumptions."

t In assuming that a miracle is impossible.

\ In rejecting the historical character of the Gospels ; not on
account of the minute discrepancies found in them, but evidently
from a predetermination to make out his mythical theory at whatevef
cost. For if the minute discrepancies, not essentially affecting the
main narrative, destroy the historical character of the Gospels, simi-
lar or greater discrepancies would overthrow ALL history, ancient and
modem. A great historical critic, who will scarcely be accused of
any tendency to credulity, took a very different view of the Gospel
narratives. (See the article on NIEBUHR the historian, in this

ology at Berlin, was born at Iserlohn in 1786. He
published a number of popular religious works, of which
we may name " Helen's Pilgrimage to Jerusalem, "(1820,)
and "The Baptism in Jordan," (1822.) Died in 1863.

Strauss, (ISAAC,) a celebrated musician, born in
Strasburg, of a Jewish family, June 3, 1806. He became
a violinist and a distinguished musical director of Paris.
He also composed some light music

Strauss, (JoHANN,) a celebrated German composer,
born at Vienna in 1804. His works are principally
waltzes and other lively airs, in which department of
music he has never been surpassed. He was appointed
director of music for the court balls at Vienna. Died
in 1849.

Strauss, (JoHANN,) an Austrian composer, a son 01
the preceding, was born in Vienna in 1825. He attained
great fame by his waltzes, and composed several operet-
tas. Died in 1899. His brothers JOSEPH (1827-1870) and
EDUARD also won fame as composers of dance-music.

Streat'er, (ROBERT,) an English painter, born in
1624. His landscapes and historical pictures were
highly esteemed by his contemporaries. Died in 1680.

Streckfuss, stRek'foos, (ADOLF FRIEDRICH KARL,)
a German littlrateur, born at Gera in 1779. He wrote
a number of poems and tales, and translated into Ger-
man Tasso's "Gerusalemme Liberata," the "Orlando
Furioso" of Ariosto, and Dante's " Inferno," " Purga-
torio," and " Paradise." Died in 1844.

Streek, van, vin stRak, (JURIAN,) a Flemish or
Dutch painter of still life, born at Amsterdam in 1632;
died in 1678. His son HENRY, born in 1659, was a
painter of interiors of churches, etc. Died in 1713.

Street, (ALFRED BILLINGS,) an American poet and
miscellaneous writer, born at Poughkeepsie in i8lt.
Amdng his principal works are " Frontenac," a poem,
"The Burning of Schenectady, and other Poems,"
" Woods and Waters, or the Saranacs and Racket," an
account of the forests of Northern New York, and " The
Council of Revision," (in prose.) He practised law in
Albany, to which he removed in 1839. Died in 1881.

See R. W. GRISWOLD, "Poets and Poetry of America."

Street, (GEORGE EDMUND,) an English architect, born
at Woodford, in Essex, in 1824. He was a pupil of Sir
George Gilbert Scott, and became one of the most famous
builders of Gothic churches of his time. He published
"Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages," (1855,) and
"Gothic Architecture in Spain," (1865.) He built the
great Law Courts in London, i88t. Died December 18,

Streight, strat, (ABEL D.,) COLONEL, an American
officer, was a resident of Indiana. He commanded a
party of 1800 cavalry sent from Tennessee on a raid
into Northern Georgia in April, 1863. He was cap-
tured near Rome, and confined in a prison at Richmond,
from which he escaped in February, 1864. He was killed
at Dalton, Georgia, in August, 1864.

Strein, stRin, or Strinl-us, (RICHARD,) a German
baron and antiquary, born in Austria in 1538, was libra-
rian to the Emperor of Germany. Died in 1600 or 1601.

Stremonius. See AUSTREMOINE.

Streten. See STRAETEN.

Strick van Linschoten, strik vin lins'Ko'ten,
BARON, a Dutch poet, born at Utrecht in 1769. He
was appointed in 1795 ambassador to the court of Wiir-
temberg. Died in 1819.

Strickland, (AGNES,) an English historical writer*
born in Suffolk in 1806. Among her numerous works
are " Lives of the Queens of England, from the Nor-
man Conquest," etc., (12 vols., with portraits, 1849,)
" Lives of the Queens of Scotland and English Prin-
cesses connected with the Regal Succession of Great
Britain," (6 vols. 8vo, 1850,) both written conjointly with
her sister Elizabeth, "The Pilgrims of Walsingham, or
Tales of the Middle Ages," (1835,) "Worcester Field,
or the Cavalier ; a Poem, in Four Cantos," and "Tales
and Stories from History," (1836.) She brought out in
1842 " Letters of Mary Queen of Scots, now first pub-
lished from the Originals," etc. Miss Strickland's
productions have acquired an extensive popularity both
in Great Britain and America. Died July 13, 1874.

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long, i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, ?, i, 9, obscure; fir, fill, fat; m8t; not; good; moon:




Strickland, (CATHERINE PARR,) sister of the pre-
ceding, was married to Lieutenant Traill, of the twenty-
first British Fusileers. Having settled in Canada, she
published "The Canadian Crusoes, a Tale of the Rice-
Lake Plains," and " The Backwoods of America, being
Letters from the Wife of an Emigrant Officer," etc.

Strickland, (HUGH EDWIN,) an English naturalist,
born in Yorkshire in 1811. He visited Asia Minor in
1835, and published, after his return, a treatise " On the
Geology of the Thracian Bosphorus," and other similar
wcrks. He also wrote " Descriptions of New Species
of Birds from West Africa," and a volume " On the
Dodo and its Kindred, or the History and Affinities of
the Dodo, Solitaire, and other Extinct Birds," (1848.)
He was killed by a railroad-train in 1853.

Strickland, (SAMUEL,) a brother of Agnes, noticed
above, was born about 1810. He published "Twenty-
Seven Years in Canada West, or the Experience of an
Early Settler," (1853.) Died in 1867.

Strickland, (SUSANNA,) sister of Agnes Strickland,
was married to J. W. D. Moodie, of the British Fusi-
leers, and subsequently removed to Canada. She pub-

vols., 1854.) Died April 8, 1885.

Her sister, JANE MARGARET, published a work entitled
"Rome, Regal and Republican." Died June 14, 1888.

Strickland, (WILLIAM,) an eminent American ar-
chitect, borii in Philadelphia in 1787. He studied archi-
tecture under Latrobe. His first public work of any
importance was the old Masonic Hall in Chestnut
Street. This established his reputation as an architect,
and he was subsequently employed to prepare the
designs and superintend the erection of the United
States Bank, (now the Custom-House,) in Chestnut
Street, above Fourth, long regarded as the most mag-
nificent edifice in his native city. For many years he

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 328 of 425)