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president of the Tribunate. In 1806 he was appointed
councillor of state. Died in 1822.

Jaubert, (HIPPOLYTE FRANC.OIS,) a French minister
of state, and naturalist, a nephew of the preceding, was
born in Paris in 1798. He became minister of public
works in 1840. He published " Illustrationes Plantarum
Orientalium," (2 vols., 1842-46.) Died Dec. 5, 1874.

See " NouveUe Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Orientalist, born in Provence in 1779, accompanied Na-
poleon to Egypt as first secretary-interpreter in 1799.
He was appointed, after his return, professor of Persian
in the College of France, was elected to the Academy
of Inscriptions in 1830, and made a peer of France in
1841. He contributed to the "Journal Asiatique," and
wrote a number of learned works. Died in 1847.

See E. BIOT, "Notice biographique sur M. Jaubert ;" QUBRARD,
"La France Litteraire."

Jaucourt, de, deh zho'kooR', (ARNAIL FRANCOIS,)
MARQUIS, a French politician, born in Paris in 1757,
was a moderate member of the Legislative Assembly

t; 9 as*; ghard; gas/;G, H, K., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (JEg^See Explanations, p. 23.)




in 1791. In Jane, 1814, he acted as minister of foreign
affairs in the absence of Talleyrand. He founded the
Protestant Bible Society of Paris. Died in 1852.

Jauoourt, de, (Louis,) CHEVALIER, an accomplished
French writer and scholar, born in Paris in 1704. He
studied at Geneva, Cambridge, and Leyden, and was a
pupil of Boerhaave in medicine. He published in 1734
a " History of the Life and Works of Leibnitz," which
is much admired. He wrote many articles on natural
philosophy, natural history, literature, etc. for the great
French Encyclopaedia of Diderot His principles were
more consistent with the Christian religion than those
of the other Encyclopaedists. He wrote a voluminous
Medical Lexicon, but lost the manuscript at sea, and
contributed largely to the " Bibliotheque raisonne'e des
Ouvrages des Savants de 1'Europe," (1728-40.) Died
at Compiegne in 1779.

See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale;" MM. HAAG, "La France

JaufEret, zho'fi4', (GASPARD JEAN ANDRE JOSEPH,)
a French writer on theology, born in Provence in 1759,
became chaplain to Napoleon about 1804, Bishop of Metz
in 1806, and Archbishop of Aix in 1811. Died in 1823.

Jauflret, (Louis FRANCOIS,) a brother of the pre-
ceding, was born in Paris in 1770. He was secretary of
the Academy of Marseilles, and wrote several valuable
juvenile books. Died about 1850.

Jaugeon, zho'zh6N', (N.,) an able French mechani-
cian, who wrote several works on natural history and
physiology. Died in 1725.

Jault, zho, (AUGUSTIN FRANCOIS,) a physician and
Orientalist, born in Franche-Comte^ in 1700, became
professor of Greek and Syriac in the Royal College at
Paris. He translated Ockley's " History of the Sara-
cens" (1748) from the English, and several medical works
from the Latin. Died in 1757.

Jauregui y Aguilar, de, di How-ra'gee e 1-ge-laR',
(JUAN,) Chevalier de Calatrava, a Spanish poet and
painter, born at Toledo about 1570. In 1607 he visited
Rome, where he studied Italian and improved himself
in the art of painting. He translated into his native
tongue the "Pharsalia" of Lucan and the "Aminta" of
Tasso, (1607.) The latter is an excellent version. He
introduced a superior style among the Spanish painters.
Died in 1650, or, according to some, in 1640.

See TICKNOR, " History of Spanish Literature ;" QUILLJET, " Dic-
tionnaire des Peintres Espagnols."

Javello, ya-vel'lo, (CRISOSTOMO,) a learned philoso-
pher and theologian of the Dominican order, was born
near Milan about 1471.

Jav-o-le'nus, (PRiscus,) a Roman jurist, supposed to
have lived under the reigns of Nerva and Hadrian. He
wrote an " Epitome of the Libri Posteriores of Labeo,"
and several treatises on law.

Jay, zr4, (ANTOINE,) a French journalist and littira-
teur, born in the Gironde in 1770. He was for many
years chief editor of the " Constitutionnel," a daily paper
of Paris, and the " Minerve." In politics he was liberal.
He spent seven years in the United States, 1795-1802.
In 1832 he was chosen a member of the French Academy.
His most important work is a " History of the Ministry
of Cardinal Richelieu," (1815,) which is highly praised
by Henri Martin. Died in 1854.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jay, (HARRIETT,) an English novelist and actress,
born near London, September 22, 1857. She published
"The Queen of Connaught," (1875,) "Dark Colleen,"
(1876,) "Two Men and a Maid," (1881,) and other
works. She went upon the stage in 1881. She was a
sister-in-law ol Robert Buchanan, and became his second
wife in 1884.

Jay, (JOHN,) an illustrious American statesman, first
chief justice of the United States, was born in New York,
December 12, 1745. He was descended on his father's
side from Pierre Jay, a Huguenot merchant of La Ro-
chelle, who fled to England on the revocation of the
edict of Nantes. Jay graduated at King's (now Columbia)
College in 1764, and was admitted to the bar of New
York in 1 768. At this period he combined in a remark-
able degree the dignity and gravity of manhood with the
ardour of youth. His talents soon procured for him

both an extensive legal practice and great influence in
the political assemblies called to consider the aggressive
policy of the British government Elected to the first
Continental Congress at Philadelphia in 1774, he took
a leading part in all its proceedings, and, as one of a
committee of three, drew up the address to the people
of Great Britain, which at once procured for its author
the reputation of being one of the ablest and most elo-
quent writers in America. He also prepared the address
issued by Congress in 1775 to the people of Canada. In
the general debates he took strong ground in favour of
the central authority and against separate colonial action.
Having been recalled from Philadelphia in May, 1776,
to take part in the deliberations of the New York pro-
vincial Congress, his name does not appear on the
Declaration of Independence, which, however, received
his cordial support He exerted great influence in the
convention which met in August of the same year to
frame a State government for New York. To arouse
the people from the despondency occasioned by the
disasters to our arms, he prepared, in December, an
address to the country, which was issued by the con-
vention and ordered by Congress to be translated into
German. He also reported to the New York conven-
tion, in March, 1777, a bill of rights, and had a chief
share in framing the Constitution. Before its adjourn-
ment, May, 1777, the convention appointed Jay chief
justice of New York.

In December, 1778, he again took his seat in Congress,
and a few days after was chosen its president His dig-
nified and impartial discharge of the duties of this posi-
tion won the esteem of all parties. In September, 1779,
he resigned the offices both of president and chief justice,
to accept the appointment of minister to Spain to nego-
tiate for a loan of $5,000,000 and for the free navigation
of the Mississippi. After many months of vexatious
and fruitless labours at Madrid, he proceeded to Paris,
and took part with Adams, Franklin, and others in ne-
gotiating the treaty of peace between the United States
and Great Britain, signed September 3, 1783. Jay re-
turned to New York in July, 1784, and, learning that
Congress had already appointed him secretary of foreign
affairs, then probably the most important office in the
government, he accepted this position in December
following, and discharged its duties until the election of
Washington as President of the United States in 1789.
To answer the objections of the opponents to the Federal
Constitution as it came from the General Convention of
1787, Jay united with Hamilton and Madison in writing
"The Federalist" "No constitution of government,"
says Chancellor Kent, " ever received a more masterly
and successful vindication." Jay contributed greatly
towards overcoming the majority against the Constitution
in the New York convention called to adopt or rejec*
it in 1788, (at first the vote stood only eleven for, to
forty-six against it ; afterwards thirty for, to twenty-seven
against,) and on the reorganization of the government
under it in 1789 he was offered by Washington, it is said,
the choice of the offices in his gift He accepted that of
chief justice of the supreme court " His general learn-
ing and ability," says Daniel Webster, " and especially
the prudence, the mildness, and the firmness of his char-
acter, eminently fitted Mr. Jay to be at the head of such
a court" In 1792 Jay received a majority of the votes
for Governor of New York ; but, on some technical
grounds, George Clinton, the Republican candidate, was
declared elected. In writing of this result to his wife, he
said, " A few years will put us all in the dust ; and then
it will be of more importance to me to have governed
myself than to have governed a State." In 1794 Jay
accepted with reluctance the appointment of special
minister to England to negotiate a settlement of the dif-
ficulties between the two countries, well knowing that
in the state of public feeling no adjustment that could be
effected would give satisfaction to all parties. He con-
cluded a treaty on the igth of November of the same year.
It provided, among other things, that pre-revolutionary
debts owed to British subjects should be paid by the
United States, that the British government should indem-
nify Americans for losses sustained by illegal captures, etc.
(About $10,000,000 were afterwards paid on this account)

a, e,T, 5, u, y,long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon;




This treaty was at once assailed with almost unexampled
violence by the party favourable to France. Mobs lighted
bonfires with it in the principal cities, and in Boston Jay
himself was burned in effigy. On the other hand, Ham-
ilton defended the treaty with an ability that extorted
the admiration even of its opponents, and Fisher Ames,
in one of the greatest efforts of American eloquence,
declared that the " treaty had justly raised the character
of the nation." It was finally carried into effect by a
vote of fifty-eight to fifty-one. While Jay was absent
in England, he was elected, without his knowledge or
consent, Governor of New York, an office which he
held for six years. It was under his administration that
slavery in that State was abolished. In writing to a
friend, in 1780, he had declared, "Till America comes
into this measure, [the abolition of slavery,] her prayers
to Heaven for liberty will be impious." Five years later
(1785) he was made president of a society in New York
"to promote the manumission of slaves." Having de-
clined a re-election at the close of his second guberna-
torial term, Jay was nominated and confirmed by the
Senate to succeed Oliver Ellsworth in his former office
of chief justice of the United States; but this honour he
also declined, and for the remainder of his life resided
on his estate at Bedford, Westchester county, New York.
He died May 17, 1829. "In lofty disinterestedness,"
says Hildreth, " in unyielding integrity, in superiority
to the illusions of passion, no one of the great men of
the Revolution approached so near to Washington,"
(as Jay.) Jay was a member of the Episcopal Church,
and was a man of deep religious as well as earnest moral
convictions ; the Bible is said to have been his con-
stant study. In stature he was somewhat less than six
feet in height ; he was well formed, but rather thin, face
colourless, with deep-blue eyes, and aquiline nose.

See a " Life of John Jay, with Selections from his Writings," by
his son, WILLIAM JAY, 2 vols., 1833; JAMES RENWICK, " Lives of
John Jay and Alexander Hamilton," 1840; HENRY FLANDERS,
Lives and Times of the Chief Justices of the United States,"
1855 ; " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans," voL
u. ; " North American Review" for July, 1823, and October, 1833.

Jay, (JOHN,) an eminent lawyer, a grandson of the
preceding, and a son of Judge William Jay, was born in
New York in 1817. He graduated at Columbia College
in 1836, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1839.
He distinguished himself as an opponent of slavery, and
was counsel for several fugitive slaves in the courts of
law. From 1869 to 1875 he was minister to Austria,
and from 1883 to 1888 president of the New York
State Civil Service Commission. He was twice chosen
president of the Union League of New York. Died
May 5, 1894.

Jay, (WILLIAM,) a popular English dissenting minis-
ter and writer, born at Tisbury, Wiltshire, in 1769. He
was the pupil and protege of the Rev. Cornelius Winter.
He began to preach about the age of sixteen, and be-
came in 1791 minister of Argyle Chapel, Bath, where
he continued to preach for sixty-two years. He was
called the "prince of preachers" by the eminent John
Foster. Among his works are " Morning and Evening
Exercises," (1842,) "Lectures on Female Scripture
Characters," (1854,) a "Life of Cornelius Winter,"
"Mornings with Jesus," (1854,) and "Evenings with
Jesus," (1854.) Died in December, 1853.

Jay, (WILLIAM,) an American philanthropist, second
son of Chief- Justice Jay, was born in New York in 1789.
He graduated at Yale in 1807, and on the death of his
father, in 1829, succeeded to the family estate at Bedford.
He had previously, in 1820, been appointed first judge
of Westchester county, in which office he was continued
till superseded, in 1842, on account of his anti-slavery
opinions. He early entered upon his philanthropic
labours, and continued to exert himself in behalf of
the temperance reform, the abolition of slavery, educa-
tional and missionary enterprises, Sunday-schools, tract
and Bible societies, etc., for the remainder of his life. He
was for several years the president of the American
Peace Society, and was one of the chief founders of the
American Bible Society. His principal works are the
" Life of John Jay, with Selections from his Writings,"
(2 vols., 1833,) "An Inquiry into the Character and

Tendency of the American Colonization and American
Anti-Slavery Societies," (1835,) "A View of the Action
of the Federal Government in Behalf of Slavery," (1839,)
" War and Peace," (1848,) and " A Review of the Causes
and Consequences of the Mexican War," (1849.) Died
at Bedford, New York, in 1858.

Jay, le, (Gui MICHEL.) See LE JAY.

Jayadeva or Djayadeva, jl-a-da'va, a celebrated
Hindu poet, known as the author of the " Gita Govinda,"
("Song of Krishna,") a famous Sanscrit poem in honour
of Krishna. The time and circumstances of his life are
unknown. An Oriental critic refers to Jayadeva as a
poet in the following terms : " Whatever is delightful
in the modes of music, . . . whatever is exquisite in
the sweet art of love, whatever is graceful in the strains
of poetry, all thit let the happy and wise learn from
the songs of Jayadeva."

See MOOR, "Hindu Pantheon;" "Asiatic Researches," vol. iii
p. 207.

Jazet, zhjPzi', (JEAN PIERRE MARIE,) a French en-
graver, born in Paris in 1788. He perfected the art of
engraving in aquatint, and reproduced the works of
Horace Vernet and other masters. Died in 1871.

Jeacocke, ja'kok, ? (CALEB,) a baker of London,
known as the author of the " Vindication of the Moral
Character of the Apostle Paul against the Charges of
Hypocrisy and Insincerity brought by Bolingbroke, Mid-
dleton, and Others," (1765.) Died in 1786.

Jeaffreson, jef'fer-sn, (JOHN CORDY,) an English
author, born at Framlingham, in Suffolk, January 14,
1831. He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford,
where he graduated in 1852. In 1859 he was called to
the bar at the Middle Temple. He has published
"Crewe Rise," (1854,) "The Rapier of Regent's Park,"
(1882,) and a dozen other novels, "Novels and Novel-
ists," (1858,) " A Book about Doctors," (1860,) " A Book
about Lawyers," (1866,) "The Real Lord Byron,"
(1883,) " Lady Hamilton and Lord Nelson," (1889,)
"Victoria, Queen and Empress," (1893,) etc.


Jean Bon Saint-Andr6, zh8N b6N saN'toN'dRi',
BARON, a French revolutionist, born at Montauban in
1749. He studied theology, and became a Protestant
minister. He was chosen deputy to the National Con-
vention in 1792, joined the Jacobins, voted for the death
of the king, and was elected one of the committee of
public safety. He was appointed prefect of Mayence,
(Mentz,) where he won great esteem by the firmness, in
tegrity, and wisdom of his administration. Died in 1815.

Jean Jacques. See ROUSSEAU.

Jean de Matha. See JOHN OF MATHA, SAINT.

Jean de Paris, zhoN de pt're', a French Dominican,
and professor of theology at Paris, wrote " De Regia
Potestate et Papali," in which he maintained the caus?
of King Philip against the pope. Died in 1304.

Jean Paul. See RICHTER.

Jeanes, jeenz, (HENRY,) an English divine, born at
Allensay, in Somersetshire, in 1611. He wrote a treatise
on "Abstinence from Evil," one entitled "The Image
Unbroken," (1651,) in defence of Charles I., and a work
in reply to the " Iconoclastes" of Milton. Died in 1662.

Jeanne d'Albret, zhtn dil'bRi', or Joan, Queen of
Navarre, born in 1528, was the only child of Henri
d'Albret, King of Navarre, and Marguerite, sister of the
French monarch Francis I. Her earliest suitor was Philip,
the son of Charles V. of Germany ; but Francis I. opposed
the union, and gave her in marriage to Antoine de Bour-
bon, Duke of Vendome, in 1548. Through her husband's
influence she embraced the Calvinistic faith, caused it to
be introduced into Navarre, and in a short time was re-
garded as one of the chief supporters of Protestantism in
France. On the I3th of December, 1553, she gave birth to
a son, afterwards known as the illustrious Henry IV. In
I 555> w i'h ner husband, she succeeded to the sovereignty
of Navarre. Two years later, her husband, having been
appointed lieutenant-general of France, was killed at
the siege of Rouen. Jeanne died at Paris in 1572. She
was distinguished for her talents, virtues, and heroic

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des Francais :" DB THOO, " Historil
sui Temporis;" D'AuBlGNB, " Me"moire."

eas.4,- 9asj; ghard; gas/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in Mil.

Explanations, p. 23.)




Jeanne d'Arc. See JOAN OF ARC.

Jeanne of Naples. See JOAN OF NAPLES.

Jeanne of Navarre. See JOAN OP NAVARRE.

Jeauiiin, zhJ'naN', (PIERRE,) a French statesman and
diplomatist of high reputation, born at Autun in 1540.
He held an office at Dijon in 1572, when a royal order
came for the massacre of the Protestants. Although he
was a zealous Catholic, he persuaded the local authori-
ties to disobey or suspend the execution of the order,
which in a few days was countermanded. He afterwards
became president of the Parliament of Dijon. In 1594
he gave his adhesion to Henry IV., who employed him
on important foreign missions. He gained the confidence
ofthe king in a high degree. After the death of Henry
IV., (1610,) the queen, Marie de Me'dicis, appointed
Jeannin controller of the finances, and confided to him
the chief direction of affairs. He died in 1622, leaving
" Memoirs of his Negotiations," (1656.)

Jeanron, zh8N'r6N', (PHILIPPE AUGUSTS,) a French
painter, born at Boulogne-sur-Mer in 1809. Died 1877.

Jeaurat, zh5'rt', (EoME SEBASTIEN,) a French as-
tronomer, born in Paris in 1724. He published in 1750
a valuable "Treatise on Perspective." In 1753 he was
appointed professor of mathematics in the Military School
of Paris, where he caused an observatory to be estab-
lished. Among his works is " Observations on the Solai
Eclipse of 1793." He became a member ofthe Institute
in 1796. Died in 1803.

Jebb, (JOHN,) M.D., a celebrated divine, born in Lon-
don in 1736. In 1768 he delivered a course of lectures
on the Greek Testament at Cambridge. He obtained
the living of Ovington, in Norfolk, in 1764, and became
chaplain to the Earl of Harborough. Having subse-
quently embraced Socinian views, he resigned all his
ecclesiastical appointments and commenced the study
of medicine. He obtained his degree at Saint Andrew's,
and practised with success. He was much engaged in
political controversy, and earnestly advocated the Amer-
ican cause during the Revolutionary war. Died in 1786.

Jebb, (JOHN,) an Irish Protestant bishop and clas-
sical scholar, born at Drogheda in 1775, was educated
at Trinity College, Dublin. He published, in 1819 or
1820, an important work on "Sacred Literature," which
is highly praised by several critics. " It has the highest
claims," says T. H. Home, " to the attention of every
biblical student." In 1823 he was appointed Bishop of
Limerick. Among his works is " Practical Theology,"
(2 vols., 1830.) Died in 1833.

Jebb, (Sir RICHARD,) BART., son of Dr. Samuel Jebb,
noticed below, was born at Stratford, in Essex, in 1 729.
He studied medicine in London, and afterwards at the
University of Leyden, where he obtained the degree of
M.D. He became physician-extraordinary to George
III. about 1777, and physician-in-ordinary to the Prince
of Wales in 1780. Died in 1787.

Jebb, (RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE,) a British scholar,
born at Dundee, August 27, 1841. He was educated at
the Charterhouse, and at Trinity College, Cambridge,
where he graduated in 1862 and received a Fellowship.
In 1875 he was made Greek professor in Glasgow Univer-
sity, in 1889 regius professor of Greek at Cambridge,
and in 1891 was elected to Parliament for Cambridge.
Among his works are " The Attic Orators," " Modern
Greece," " Growth and Influence of Classical Greek
Poetry," (1893,) etc. His greatest work is his edition
of Sophocles, (6 vols., 1883-97.)

Jebb, (SAMUEL,) M.D., a noted English physician
and classical scholar, born in Nottinghamshire, was an
uncle of John Jebb, M.D., noticed above. He embraced
the principles of the nonjurors, and became librarian to
the celebrated Jeremy Collier. He edited the "Dialogue
of Justin Martyr with Trypho the Jew, in Greek and
Latin," the " Opus Majus" of Roger Bacon, and several
other works. Died in 1772.

Jee-jeeb-hoy', (Sir JAMSETJEE,) BART., a Parsee mer-
chant, born in Bombay, July 15, 1783. He acquired great
wealth as a merchant, and was distinguished for his re-
markable benevolence and large charities. He was made
a baronet in 1857, and died April 15, 1859. His son, of

the same name and titles, (born i8n,died July n, 1877,)
was also distinguished for his charities and public spirit
The third baronet of this name was born March 3, 1851,
and before his succession to the title bore the name of
Manockjee Cursetjee.

Jef fer-spn, (JOSEPH,) a distinguished comedian, born
in Philadelphia, of a family of actors, February 20, 1829.
In early youth he went upon the stage, and rapidly rose
to a very high rank in his profession. The characters
of " Rip Van Winkle" and " Bob Eccles" are those in
which he has attained the greatest celebrity.

Jefferson, (THOMAS,) an eminent American statesman,
and the third President of the United States, was born,
April 2, 1743, at Shadwell, Virginia, near the spot which
afterwards became his residence with the name of Mon-
ticello. He was the oldest son in a family of eight
children. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a man of
great force of character and of extraordinary physical
strength. His mother, Jane Randolph, of Goochland,
was descended from an English family of great respecta-
bility. Young Jefferson began his classical studies at
the age of nine, and at seventeen he entered an advanced
class at William and Mary College. On his way thither
he formed the acquaintance of Patrick Henry, who was
then a bankrupt merchant, but who afterwards became
the great orator of the Revolution. At college Jefferson
was distinguished by his close application, and devoted,
it is said, from twelve to fifteen hours a day to study.
He became well versed, we are told, in Latin, Greek,
Italian, French, and Spanish, making at the same time
a respectable proficiency in his mathematical studies.
After a five years' course of law under Judge Wythe,
he was admitted to the bar in 1767. His success in the
legal profession was remarkable ; his fees for the first
year amounted to nearly three thousand dollars. In
1769 Jefferson commenced his public career as a member
of the Virginia House of Burgesses, in which he had,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 33 of 425)