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at Rome, and became a cardinal in 1747. Died in 1807.

Stuart, (JAMES,) an English antiquary and architect,
commonly known as " Athenian Stuart," was born in
London in 1713. He resided many years at Rome,
where he studied antiquities and the ancient languages,
and in 1750 visited Athens in company with Nicholas
Revett, also an artist. In 1762 he brought out the first
volume of the "Antiquities of Athens," in which he
was assisted by Mr. Revett It was received with great
favour, and a second and a third volume were published
after his death, which took place in 1788. Among his
architectural works may be named the chapel of Green-
wich Hospital.

Stuart, (JAMES E. B.,) an American general, born in
Patrick county, Virginia, about 1833, graduated at West
Point in 1854. He became a brigadier-general of the
insurgents in September, 1861, and obtained command
of a body of cavalry. In August, 1862, he surprised
General Pope's head-quarters at Catlett's Station and
captured some of his private papers. In October of
that year he conducted a daring and successful raid to
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. His cavalry covered the
retreat of General Lee after the battle of Gettysburg, July,
1863. He commanded the cavalry at the battle of the
Wilderness, in May, 1864, and was mortally wounded in a
battle against General Sheridan, at Yellow Tavern, on
the I2th of May in that year.

See a notice of General Stuart in " Southern Generals," 1865
TENNEY'S " Military History of the Rebellion," p. 770,


Stuart, (JAMES,) LL.D., a British scientist, born ai
Markinch, Scotland, January 2, 1843. He was educatec
at Saint Andrew's, and at Trinity College, Cambridge
graduating as third wrangler in 1866. In 1875 ne was
made professor of applied mechanics at Cambridge. He
has written much on education and social subjects.

Stuart, (JOHN.) See BUTE, LORD.

Stuart, (JoHN.) a Scottish antiquary, born in 1751
was professor of Greek at Aberdeen. Died in 1827.

Stuart, (MosES,) an American theologian and Con-
regational divine, born at Wilton, Connecticut, in 1780.
le was appointed in 1809 professor of sacred literature
t Andover Theological Seminary, which post he held
or more than thirty years. He was the author of a

Grammar of the Hebrew Language, without Points,"

ural View ol tne \vine Qu , ....

jf commentaries on the Scriptures. He published in
827 a " Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews,"
which, says R. W. Griswold, "continues in all countries
o be regarded as one of the noblest examples of philo-
ogical theology and exegetical criticism." (" Prose
Writers of America.") Died in 1852.

Stuart, (RUTH McENERY,) an American author,
iorn in Louisiana, and educated in New Orleans till
.865. She wrote " Carlotta's Intended," " The Story
of Babette," etc., and many humourous dialect stories.

Stu'art or Stew'art Family, a famous and unfor-
tunate royal family w'hich reigned in Scotland several
centuries and in England for more than a century. The
Jrst member of this family that became king was Robert
[I., whose father was Walter, high steward of Scotland,
and whose mother was a daughter of Robert Bruce. (See
ROBERT II.) The last king of this dynasty was James II.,
who was deposed in 1688, after which two of his descend-
ants, styled Pretenders, attempted to ascend the throne.

"The name of the family," says Burton, "was Allan
or Fitz-Allan ; but it had become habitual to call them
by the name of the feudal office held by them in Scot-
land, and hence Robert II. was the first of the Steward
or, as it came to be written, the Stewart dynasty."
(" History of Scotland," vol. iii. chap, xxvi.)

See C. D. Voss, " Geschichte der Stuarts auf (Jem Englischen
Throne," 4 vols., 1794-97.

Stu'art de Rothe'say, (roth'sa,) (CHARLES STU-
ART,) LORD, a distinguished British diplomatist, grandson
of Lord Bute, was born in 1779. He was sent in 1810
as minister-plenipotentiary to Portugal, and for his ser-
vices on this occasion obtained from the prince-regent the
grand cross of the order of the Bath. The King of Por-
tugal also made him a grandee of that kingdom. He was
afterwards successively minister at Paris, the Hague,
and Saint Petersburg. In 1828 he was raised to the peer-
age, with the title of Stuart de Rothesay. Died in 1845.
"Stubbe, stub, (HENRY,) an English writer and
scholar, born in Lincolnshire in 1631. He joined the
party of Cromwell during the civil war, and wrote " A
Vindication of Sir Harry Vane," " Light shining out
of Darkness, with an Apology for the Quakers," and
other works. After the restoration he went over to the
royalists, and published numerous attacks on his former
friends. He was accidentally drowned in 1676.
Stubbe, (JOHN.) See STUBBS, (JOHN.)
Stubbs, (GEORGE,) an English painter, born at Livei
pool in 1724, was distinguished for his knowledge of
anatomy. He excelled in delineating animals, par-
ticularly horses. He published in 1766 a treatise " On
the Anatomy of the Horse." His picture of "The
Grosvenor Hunt" is esteemed one of his master-pieces.
Died in 1806.

Stubbs or Stubbe, (JOHN,) an English lawyer and
Puritan, born about 1540. Having written a pamphlet
against Queen Elizabeth's marriage with the Duke of
Anjou, entitled "The Discovery of a Gaping Gulph,
wherein England is like to be swallowed by anothei
French Marriage," his right hand was amputated by
order of the queen.

Stubba, (WILLIAM,) D.D., LL.D., an English his-
torian, born at Knaresborough, June 21, 1825. He
graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, became a Fellow
of Trinity, was ordained in 1848, became regius professor
of history at Oxford in 1866, curator of the Bodleian
Library in 1869, a canon of Saint Paul's in 1879,
Bishop of Chester in 1884, and of Oxford in 1889.
He published many old Latin and other texts illus-
trating English history, and was author of "The Con-
stitutional History of England," (1874-78,) etc. ,

a, e, 1,5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, i, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; nit; good; moon;






Stuck, stock, [Lat. STUCK'IUS,] (JoHANN WILHELM,)
a Swiss scholar and antiquary, born at Zurich about
1550. He published a "Treatise on the Feasts of the
Ancients, and their Sacrifices," (1591.) Died in 1607.

Studer, stou'iler, (BERNARD,) a Swiss savant and
author, born at Buren-on-the-Aar in 1794, became pro-
fessor of geology at Berne. Died in 1887.

Studley, (WILLIAM SPRAGUE,) D.D., a Methodist
clergyman, born in Boston, Massachusetts, May 26, 1823.
He graduated at Wesleyan University in 1850, and held
various important pastorates. His principal published
work is a biography of S. W. Paine, (1865.)

Stuerbout, stu'er-bovvt',(DiERiCK,) one of the earliest
Dutch painters, sometimes called DIRK VAN HAARLEM,
was born in that town. He lived about 1450-70. There
are two historical pictures by him in the royal collection
at the Hague, representing incidents in the life of the
emperor Otho III. and his empress. Stuerbout ranked
among the first artists of his time.

See " Lives of the Early Flemish Painters."

Stuermer. See STURMER.

Stuhr, stooR, (PETER FEDDERSEN,) a Danish writer,
born at Flensborg in 1787, published a number of philo-
sophical and historical works. Died in 1851.

Stuke'ley, (WILLIAM,) M.D., an English divine, an-
tiquary, and physician, born in Lincolnshire in 1687.
Having practised medicine for a time with great reputa-
tion and success, he took holy orders, and in 1747
obtained the rectory of Saint George the Martyr, in Lon-
don. He was the author of " Itinerarium Curiosum, or
an Account of the Antiquities, etc. observed in Travels
through Great Britain," (1724,) " Palasographia Britan-
nica, or Discourses on Antiquities in Britain," (1743-54,)
"Some Account of the Medallic History of Marcus
Aurelius Valerius Carausius, Emperor of Britain,"
(1757-59,) and other valuable antiquarian works; also
a collection of sermons, entitled " Palasographia Sacra,"
(1760-63.) Died in 1765.

Stiller or Stueler, stii'ler, (AUGUST,) a German
architect, born in Berlin in 1800, was one of the most
distinguished pupils of Schinkel. Among his greatest
works are the new museum at Berlin, and the Exchange
at Frankfort-on-the-Main. Died March 18, 1865.

Sturdza. See STOORDZA.

Sture, stoo'reh, (STEM,) called THE ELDER, a Swed
ish statesman, related to the royal family of Sweden.
On the death of Charles VIII., in 1470, he became re-
gent of the kingdom, which he defended with signal
ability against the attempts of the Danes and the Rus-
lians. Died in 1 504.

See GEIJER, " Areminne ofVsr S. Sture," 1803.

Sture, (STEN,) THE YOUNGER, grandson of the
preceding, succeeded his father as regent in 1512.
He was distinguished for his courage and ability, and
for a time successfully resisted the encroachment of
Denmark, but he was mortally wounded in the battle
near Jonkoping, in 1520.

See SILFVSRSTOLPH, " Areminne bfver S. Sture," 1791.

Sturge, sturj, (JOSEPH,) an English philanthropist,
born at Elberton, Gloucestershire, in 1793, was a member
of the Society of Friends. He became a corn-factor
t Bewdley, from which he removed to Birmingham in
1822. By his probity, energy, and moral courage he
acquired much influence. He was one of the first in
England to advocate the immediate abolition of slavery,
and he became a prominent leader of the anti-slavery
movement. In 1836 he visited the West Indies, and
collected evidence against the slaveholders. He per-
formed an anti-slavery mission to the United States
in 1841. After his return he co-operated actively with
Cobden and Bright in the anti-corn-law movement
Died in 1859.

See HENRY RICHARD, " Memoir of Joseph Sturge," 1864.

Sturgeon, (WILLIAM,) an English electrician, born
In Lancashire in 1783. He learned the trade of shoe-
maker, and served a number of years in the royal artil
lery. He invented or improved an electro-magnetic
machine, and wrote several treatises on electro-magnet
ism. Died at Manchester in

Stur'gis, (JULIAN,) an English author, was born
at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1848, and went to Eng-
land as an infant. He graduated at Oxford University,
became a British subject and author, and wrote " John-
a-Dreams," "My Friends and I," "After Twenty
Years," " Little Comedies," etc.

Stur'gis, (SAMUEL D.,) an American general, born at
Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, in 1822, graduated at West
Point in 1846. He obtained the rank of major in May,
1861, and succeeded to the command of the army at
Wilson's Creek when General Lyon was killed, August
10 of that year. His command was defeated at Gun-
town, Mississippi, June 10, 1864. Died Sept. 28, 1889.


Sturm, stooRm, or Stunne, first abbot of Fulda,
was born in Bavaria about 715 A.p. He founded about
744 the monastery of Fulda, which became a famous
seat of learning. Died in 780.

Sturm, stooRm, (CHRISTOPH CHRISTIAN,) a Ger-
man moralist and preacher, born at Augsburg in 1740.
He preached at Magdeburg and Hamburg, and wrote
a number of popular religious works, among which was
" Meditations on the Works of God in the Kingdom
of Nature," (2 vols., 1772-97.) Died in 1786.

See FEDDERSHN, "Leben und Charakter des Hauptpastors C.
C. Sturm," 1786 ; HiRSCHING, " Historisch-literaiisches Haod-

Sturm, stotiRm or stiiRm, (JACQUES CHARLES FRAN-
COIS,) an excellent Swiss mathematician, born at Geneva
in September, 1803. He was a tutor to the son of
Madame de Stael, with whom he visited Paris in 1823.
In 1827 Sturm and his friend Colladon obtained the
grand prize of mathematics proposed by the Academy of
Sciences in Paris for the best memoir on the compres-
sion of liquids. He discovered in 1829 the celebrated
theorem which completes the resolution of numerical
equations by determining the number of real roots which
are included between given limits. This is known as
"Sturm's theorem." He became professor of mathe-
matics at the College Rollin in 1830, a member of the
Institute in 1836, and professor of analysis at the Poly-
technic School in 1840. Died in 1855.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Sturm, (JAKOB,) an eminent German statesman and
Reformer, born at Strasburg in 1489. He became in
early life a convert to the doctrines of Luther, and was
chosen mayor or chief magistrate of Strasburg in 1526.
His learning and wisdom were such that he was regarded
as an oracle by his fellow-citizens. It is stated that he
was sent ninety-one times on missions to various court*,
between 1525 and 1552. Died in 1553.

See HAAG, "La France protestante."

Sturm, [Lat. STUR'MIUS,] (JOHANN,) an eminent
scholar and teacher, surnamed "the German Cicero,"
was born at Schleiden in 1507. He became in 1538 rector
of the gymnasium at Strasburg, which, under his direc-
tion, attained a very high reputation. He published an
edition of Cicero, (9 vols., 1557 et sty.,) a number of
translations from the Latin, and several original works
in that language : among these we may name "On the
Proper Opening of Schools of Learning," (" De Litera-
rum Ludis recte Aperiendis," 1538,) and "On the Uni-
versal Method of Rhetorical Elocution," ("De universa
Ratione Elocutionis Rhetoricae," 1576.) Died in 1589.

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary;" NIC<ROK,
"M(Smoires:" M. ADAM, "Vitje Germanorum Philosophorum >
" Nouvelle Biographic Gene"rale."

Sturm, (JoHANN CHRISTOPH,) a German philosophei
and mathematician, born in Bavaria in 1635. Having
graduated at Jena, he became professor of mathematics
at Altdorf in 1669. He translated into Latin Bockler's
" Hydraulic Architecture," and published several valua-
ble works on mathematics and physical science. Died
in 1703.

Sturm, (LEONHARD CHRISTOPH,) an architect, a son
of the preceding, was born at Altdorf in 1669. He
wrote a "Treatise on Military Architecture," and other
similar works. Died in 1719.

Sturmer or Stuermer, stuVmer, (BARTHOLOMAUS.)
COUNT, son of Ignaz, noticed below, was born at Con-
stantinople in 1787, and was educated at Vienna. He

ism. Died at Manchester in 1850. stantmople in 1767, and was

as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, ^guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled- s as z; th as in this. (J[f=See Explanations, p. 23.)




was consul-general to the United States in 1818, and i

1834 appointed internuncio at Constantinople.

Sturmer or Stuermer, (!GNAZ,) BARON, a Germai
diplomatist and Oriental scholar, born at Vienna in 1752
He was appointed in 1789 court interpreter, and in 1802
internuncio at the Porte, and magnate of Hungary in
1820. Died in 1829.
Sturmius. See STURM, (JOHANN.)
Sturt, (Sir CHARLES,) an English explorer, born in
India in 1796. Having entered the army, he went to
Australia in 1825, in the interior of which continent he
conducted four great exploring expeditions, fruitful in
geographical and scientific knowledge. His hardships
brought on complete blindness. He published narra
fives of his principal explorations. Died at Cheltenham,
England, June 16, 1869.

Sturt, (JOHN,) an English engraver, born in London
in 1658, was celebrated for his exquisite illustrations ol
the "Book of Common Prayer." Died in 1730.

Stur'te-vant, (JoHN MERCHANT,) an American edu
cator, born at Mattapoisett, Massachusetts, March 23
1825. Though blind, he graduated at Dartmouth Col
lege in 1846, and at the Bridgewater Normal School
He was from 1851 till his death principal of the Tennes
see School for the Blind. Died at Nashville, December
26, 1882.

Sturtzenbecher, stooRts'en-beVer, (OSCAR PAT-
RICK,) a Swedish writer and liberal politician, born at
Stockholm in 1811. Died February 15, 1869.

Sturz, stooRts, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a German
scholar, born near Freiberg in 1762, published editions
of Empedocles, the fragments of Hellanicus, and of other
Greek writers. Died in 1832.

Sturz, (HELFREICH PETER,) a German writer, born at
Darmstadt in 1736, was a friend of Klopstock, and was
patronized by Count Bernstorff. His principal works
are " Recollections of the Life of Bernstorff," and " Let-
ters of a Traveller." Died in 1779.

StiiveorStueve,stu'veh,(JoHANN KARL BERTRAM,)
a German jurist, born at Osnabriick in 1798, filled several
offices under the government, and wrote a number of
political treatises. Died February 12, 1872.

Stuven, stoo'ven, (ERNST,) a German flower-painter,
born at Hamburg in 1657 ; died in 1712.

Stuyvesant, sti've-sant, (PETER,) the last Dutch
Governor of the New Netherlands, (New York,) was
born about 1602. He was appointed governor or di-
rector-general about 1645. He had previously served
in the West Indies, and lost a leg in battle. In 1655
he conquered a Swedish colony on the Delaware River.
His administration was vigorous and rather arbitrary.
New Amsterdam was attacked by an English fleet, to
which Governor Stuyvesant surrendered in September,
1664. He died at New York in 1682. Peter Stuyvesant
forms a conspicuous character in Irving's humorous
work entitled "History of New York, by Diedrich

Style, (WILLIAM,) an English law-writer, born in
1603. He published "Reports," (1658.) Died in 1679


Styx, [Gr. 2ri|,] a personage of classic mythology,
was said to be a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, the
wife of Pallas, and the mother of Victory, (Nice,) Power,
(Cratos,) and Zelus. She is a personification of a cele-
brated river of Hades. The poets feigned that the gods
in taking a solemn oath used to swear by Styx, and if
they violated such an oath they were deprived of nectar
for nine years.

Suabedissen, soo'a-beh-dis'sen, (DAVID THEODOR
AUGUST,) a German philosophical writer, born at Mel-
sungen in 1773 ; died in 1835.


Suard, su'iR', (JEAN BAPTISTS ANTOINE,) a French
journalist and litterateur, born at Besan9on in 1734.
He was successively associate editor of the " Gazette de
France," and editor of the political journals entitled
" Les Independants" and "Le Publiciste." He trans-
lated into French Robertson's " History of Charles V.,"
and published, among other works, "Literary Miscel-
lanies," (5 vols., 1805,) and "Lettres de 1'Anonyme de
Vaugirard," a witty and satirical production, which ob-

tained great and deserved popularity. He also made
numerous valuable contributions to the " Biographic
Universelle." He was chosen a member of the French
Academy in 1772, and afterwards became perpetual
secretary of that institution. Died in 1817.

See C. NISARD, "Memoires et Correspondance Litt^raire sur
Suard," 1859; GARAT, "Historical Memoirs of M. Suard;" P<-
RHNNBS, "Eloge de Suard," 1841; " Nouvelle Biographic Gint-

Suard, MADAME, the wife of the preceding, was bom
at Lille in 1750, and was a sister of Charles J. Pane-
koucke the author. She wrote, besides other works,
" Memoirs of M. Suard," (" Essai de Memoires sur M.
Suard," 1820.) Died in 1830.

Snares, sii'i're'ss', (JOSEPH MARIE,) a French anti-
quary, born at Avignon in 1599, became Bishop of
Vaison in 1633. He wrote numerous antiquarian works.
Died at Rome in 1677.

Suaresius. See SUAREZ.

Suarez, swi'rjth, [Lat. SUARE'SIUS,] (FRANCIS,) a
learned and eloquent Spanish Jesuit and theologian,
born at Granada in 1548. He became successively pro-
fessor of divinity at Valladolid, Rome, Alcali, and Coim-
bra. Among his principal works is his " Defensio Fidei
Catholicae," etc., (1613,) being designed as a refutation
of the oath of allegiance exacted by James I. of England
from his subjects, and a "Treatise on Laws." Died
about 1615.

See DESCHAMPS, " Vita Fr. Suaresii," 1671 ; " Nouvelle Bioera-
phie Grfnende."

Suavius, swa've-us, or Suterman, soo'ter-man',
(LAMBERT,) sometimes called Schwab, a Flemish en-
*raver, born at Liege, flourished about 1550. He
engraved his own designs, and others. Died about 1565.

Subervie, sii'be'R've', (JACQUES Gervais zhR'v&',)
BARON, a French general, born at Lectoure in 1776. He
served as general of brigade in Spain, (1808-11,) and
'n Russia in 1812. He became a general of division
n 1814, and fought at Waterloo. He was republican
minister of war from February 25 to March 19, 1848.
Died in 1856.

See ALKXANDRR THIERRY, " Le GeWral Subervie," 1856 ; " Noo-
velle Biographic Ge'nerale.'*

Suben, soo'ben, an ancient goddess, the special
jatroness of Southern Egypt, and the goddess of ma-
emity. The vulture was her symbol.

Sublet, sii'bl4', (FRANC.OIS,) a French minister of
state, born about 1580. He was secretary of war from
1636 till 1643. Died in 1645.

Subleyras, su'bll'ras', (PIERRE.) a French painter,
>orn at Uzes in 1699. He resided many years in Rome,
where he was patronized by Pope Benedict XIV. Among
lis master-pieces are "Saint Basil celebrating Mass in
he Presence of the Emperor Valens," and "Saint
Benedict restoring a Child to Life." Died in 1749.
Subow. See ZOOBOF.
Subtermans. See SUSTERMANS.
Suchet, sii'shi', (Louis GABRIEL,) Duke of Albutera,
a celebrated French marshal, born at Lyons in March,
770. He served in the Italian campaign of 1796, and
'btained the rank of general of brigade for his distin-
guished bravery at the battle of Neumark, (1797.) Ap-
pointed in 1 799 general of division under Massena, he
uccessfully opposed the Austrians under General Melas,
nd made adivers'on in favour of Massena, then besieged
t Genoa, (1800.) After the battle of Marengo, in which
e took a prominent part, he was made governor of
Jenoa and commander of the centre of the army of
taly. He successively defeated the Austrians at Poz-
olo, Borghetto, Verona, and Montebello, and in 1805
ommanded the left wing of Marshal Lannes's division
r corps in the battle of Austerlitz. Having been created
y Napoleon a count of the empire, he was appointed
i 1808 to the command of a division of the army of
pain. In this post, by his brilliant successes at Lerida,
rtequinanza, (1810,) Tortosa, (1811,) and Tarragona,
iSn,) he won the highest reputation as a brave officer
nd an able disciplinarian and tactician. He was made
marshal of France in 1811. His subsequent victories
t Murviedro, Valencia, and Albufera were rewarded
y Napoleon with a large domain, and the title of Duke

a, e, i, o. ii, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;




al Albufera. After the restoration of the Bourbons he
was deprived of the greater part of his honours ; but the
title of peer was restored to him by Louis XVIII. in
1819. He died in 1826, leaving "Memoirs of the Wai
in Spain," (1829.) It is stated that Napoleon estimated
his ability higher than that of any other of his marshals
except Massena.

Suck'ling, (Sir JOHN,) an English poet, born in
Middlesex about 1608. He studied at Trinity College,
Cambridge, and, after travelling on the continent, served
for a time in the army of Gustavus Adolphus, King of
Sweden. He subsequently became celebrated as a wit
at the court of Charles I. In 1640 he was elected to the
Long Parliament for Bramber, but, having joined in the
conspiracy to rescue the Earl of Strafford from the
Tower, in 1641, he was compelled to take refuge in
France, where he died about 1642. His reputation rests
chiefly on his lyric poems; but he also wrote several
dramas and satires, and a treatise entitled " An Account
of Religion by Reason." " His style," says Hazlitt, "is
almost entirely free from the charge of pedantry and
affectation. His compositions are almost all of them
short and lively effusions of wit and gallantry, written
in a familiar but spirited style."

Suckow, sook'ko, (KARL ADOLF,) a German novelist,
born at Munsterberg, in Silesia, in 1802, has written
under the pseudonym of POSGARU. Died in 1847.

Sucre, de, da soo'kRa, (ANTONIO JOSE,) a South
American patriot and general, born at Cumana in 1793,
fought under Bolivar, and in 1819 was made a brigadier-
general. He defeated the Spaniards at Pichincha in
1822, and in 1824, having succeeded Bolivar as com-
mander-in-chief, gained a signal victory over the royal-
ists at Ayacucho, by which the country was delivered
from the Spanish yoke. He was created grand marshal
of Ayacucho by Bolivar, and in 1825 chosen President
of Bolivia. He was elected to the Constituent Congress
from Quito in 1830. He was assassinated soon after, at
the instigation, it is supposed, of General Ovando.

Su'dermann, (HERMAN,) a Prussian writer, was

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 330 of 425)