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His principal work is entitled "A Universal Theory of the
Fine Arts," (" Allgemeine Theorie der Schonen-Kiinste,"
1794,) a cyclopedia of art and literature, which has a
high reputation. Died in 1779.

See HANS CASPAR HIRZEL, "Ueber Sulzer den Weltweisen,"
1780 ; "]. G. Sulzer's Lebensbeschreibung, von ihm selbst aufgesetzt,"
etc., 1809.

Sum-ma'nus, an ancient Roman or Etruscan divinity,
whose character is involved in obscurity. Some authors
represent him as equal in rank to Jupiter. Nocturnal
lightnings were supposed to be manifestations of his

Surn'mer-field, (JOHN,) a Methodist divine and
distinguished pulpit orator, born at Preston, England,
in 1798. He emigrated in 1821 to America, where his
labours as a preacher were eminently successful. He
was one of the founders of the American Tract Society.
Died in 1825.

See J. HOLLAND, " Life of J. Summerfield," 1829.

Sum'mera, (THOMAS OSMOND,) D.D., a Methodist
divine, born in Dorsetshire, England, in 1812, emi-
grated to the United States, and became in 1858 editor
of the " Methodist Quarterly Review." He published a
" Treatise on Baptism," " The Golden Censer," and other
religious works. Died May 6, 1882.

Summonte, soom-mon'ta, (GiAN ANTONIO,) an Ital-
ian historian, born at Naples. He wrote a " History of
the City and Kingdom of Naples," (" Istoria della Citta
e Re_jno di Napoli," (4 vols., 1601-43.) Died in 1602.
Sum'ner, (CHARLES,) an American lawyer and
Senator, distinguished as an opponent of slavery, was
born in Boston, Massachusetts, on the 6th of January,
1811. He graduated at Harvard College in 1830, after
which he was a pupil of Judge Story in the law-school
of Cambridge. He was admitted to the bar in 1834,
practised law in Boston, and was appointed reporter in
the circuit court of the United States. He published
three volumes entitled " Sumner's Reports," edited the
" American Jurist," and, in the absence of Judge Story,
lectured to the students of the law-school at Cambridge,
(1834-37.) He passed about three years in visits to
various countries of Europe, (1837-40.) On the 4th
of July, 1845, ne pronounced in Boston an oration on
" The True Grandeur of Nations," which attracted much
attention in the United States and in Europe. The de-
sign of this argument was to promote the cause of peace.
He opposed the annexation of Texas to the United
States in 1845. About this time he separated himself
from the Whig party and joined that of the Free-Soilers.
He supported Martin Van Buren for the Presidency in
1848. He delivered numerous orations and lectures on
various subjects, which were published in two volumes,
(1850.) By a coalition of Democrats and Free-Soilers

he was elected a Senator of the United States in 1850
as the successor of Daniel Webster. He opposed the
Fugitive Slave bill by a speech in the Senate, and took a
prominent part in the debate on the Nebraska-Kansas
bill in 1854. On the igth and 2Oth of May, 1856, he
made in the Senate an eloquent speech on the contest
in Kansas and on the aggressions of the slave-power.
Some passages of this speech excited the anger of Pres-
ton S. Brooks, a Southern member of Congress, who, on
the 22d of May, 1856, assaulted Mr. Sumner while he
was sitting in the Senate-chamber, and beat him on the
head with a cane until he became insensible. Mr. Sum-
ner was so severely injured that he was disabled for the
public service for several years, and he sailed to Europe
in March, 1857, for the benefit of his health. He was
re-elected to the Senate by an almost unanimous vote in
January, 1857, and returned home in the autumn of that
year, but made another voyage to Europe in the spring
of 1858. He remained under medical treatment in Paris
for a year or more, and resumed his seat about the en' 1
of 1859. He afterwards denounced the peculiar institu-
tion of the Southern States in a speech which was pub-
lished under the title of "The Barbarism of Slavery"
and produced an immense effect In 1860 he advocated
the election of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency.
During the session of 1860-61 he opposed the attempts
to propitiate the disunionists by concessions which would
sacrifice the rights of the oppressed or favour the in-
terests of slavery. He was appointed chairman of the
committee on foreign relations in March, 1861, and about
the end of 1862 was again elected a Senator for six
years, ending March 4, 1869. He was the author of
the admirable resolutions on foreign mediation which
were passed March 3, 1863, by both Houses of Con-

fress. In a series of resolutions which he offered on the
th of February, 1864, he affirmed that "any system of
reconstruction must be rejected which does not provide
by irreversible guarantees against the continued exist-
ence or possible revival of slavery." After the close of
the civil war he advocated the reconstruction of the se-
ceded States on the basis of impartial suffrage. During
the rebellion he was a confidential adviser of President
Lincoln, who, in April, 1865, said to Mr. Sumner,
" There is no person with whom I have more advised
throughout my administration than yourself." Among
his important services was the production of the Freed-
man's Bureau bill. He was chairman of the committee
on foreign relations from 1861 to 1870, and lived to wit-
ness the triumph of the principles for which he so long
and strenuously contended. In April, 1869, he made an
elaborate speech on the Alabama claims. Died March 1 1,
1874. Hiscomplete works were published in 8 vols., 1870.
See CHARLES A. PHBLPS, " Life of Charles Sumner," 1870 ; D.
MARSHA, " Life of C. Sumner," 1856; MRS. STOWB, "Men of Our
Time," 1868.

Sum'ner, (CHARLES RICHARD,) an English prelate,
brother of Archbishop Sumner, noticed below, was born
at Kenilworth in 1790. He studied at Trinity College,
Cambridge, was subsequently appointed historiographer
to George IV., made Bishop of Llandaffin 1826, and of
Winchester in 1827. He published in 1825 a translation
from the Latin of Milton's "Treatise on Christian Doc-
trine." Died August 15, 1874.

Sumner, (EowiN V.,) an American general, born in
Boston in 1796. He served as captain on the Western
frontier for many years, obtained the rank of major in
1846, and distinguished himself in the Mexican war,
which ended in 1847. He became a colonel in 1855,
escorted Abraham Lincoln from Springfield to Washing-
ton in February, 1861, and was appointed a brigadiei-
general in the regular army in March of the same year.
He commanded a corps at the battle of Fair Oaks, May
jji-June I, 1862, at Malvern Hill, July I, and at the
battle of Antietam, September 17 of that year. He
directed one of the three grand divisions of Burnside's
army at the battle of Fredericksburg, December 13,
1862. He died at Syracuse, New York, in March, 1863.

See TENNEY, "Military and Naval History of the Rebellion,"
P- 747-

Sumner, (INCREASE,) an American judge and Gov-
ernor, born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1746. He

i, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, J, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon :




was appointed a judge of the supreme court of Massa-
chusetts in 1782, and was elected Governor of that State
in 1797 and in 1798. His ability and merit are highly
commended. Died at Roxbury in 1799.

See a " Memoir of J. Suraner," by his son WILLIAM, in the
11 New England Register" for April, 1854.

Sumner, (JOHN BIRD,) an English prelate, born at
Kenilworth in 1780. Having studied at King's College,
Cambridge, he was created Bishop of Chester in 1828,
and in 1848 Archbishop of Canterbury. He published
"Records of Creation," (1816,) "Evidences of Chris-
tianity," (1824.) an essay "On Apostolical Preaching,"
and other works. Died in 1862.

Sumner, (WILLIAM GRAHAM,) an American author,
born at Paterson, New Jersey, October 30, 1840, gradu-
ated at Yale College in 1863, studied in Geneva, Gottin-
gen, and Oxford, took orders in 1867 in the Episcopal
Church, and in 1872 was appointed professor of political
and social science in Yale College. His principal works
are a translation of Lange's Commentary on Second
Kings, (1872,) " History of American Currency," (1874.)
"History of Protection in the United States," (1876,)
"Life of Andrew Jackson," (1882,) "What Social Classes
are to Each Other," (1883,) and "Economic Problems,"

Sum'ter, (THOMAS,) an American general of the
Revolution, born in South Carolina about 1734, was
distinguished for his skill and success as a partisan
leader, and obtained several important advantages over
the British. He was afterwards elected to Congress,
was appointed minister to Brazil in 1809, and elected to
the United States Senate in 1811. Died in 1832.

See "National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
vol. iv.

Sunahsepha-D&varata, soo-na'se-pha da-va-ra'ta,
(" the God-given,") in Hindoo legend, an adopted son
of VISW.XMITRA, (q. v.) His own father, a Brahman,
sold him for one hundred cows, to be a sacrifice to Va-
runa. No priest except his father would slay the boy,
and the latter, when bound to the stake, prayed to several
of the gods, and especially to the Dawn, for deliverance.
At last, as he sang the praises of the Dawn, his fetters
fell off. He then was adopted by Viswamitra.

Siin'der-land, (CHARLES SPENCER,) third EARL OF,
an English statesman, born in 1674, was a younger son
of Robert, the second Earl. At the death of his elder
brother, in 1690, he received the title of Lord Spencer.
He was elected to Parliament in 1695, succeeded his
father as earl in 1702, and was sent as envoy to Vienna
in 1705. He married Anne Churchill, a daughter of the
Duke of Marlborough, about 1700, and became a leader
of the Whig party. He was secretary of state from
1707 to June, 1710. On the accession of George I.,
September, 1714, he became lord lieutenant of Ireland.
He entered the cabinet as lord privy seal in 1715, and
supplanted his rival, Lord Townshend, in the favour of
the king. By his intrigues or influence the ministry was
changed in April, 1717, when Sunderland and his friend
Joseph Addison became the two secretaries of state. In
1718 he exchanged his office for that of first lord of the
treasury, i.e. prime minister. He was accused in 1721
of having received a bribe from the South Sea Com-
pany, but was acquitted by a large majority of his judges.
He resigned office in April, 1721, although the king de-
sired to retain him in power. He died in 1722, leaving
three sons, Robert, Charles, and John.

See LORD STANHOPE, (MAHON.) " History of England."

Sunderland, (HENRY SPENCER,) first EARL OF, born
about 1622, was a son of Lord Spencer. He married
Dorothy Sidney, a sister of Algernon Sidney, a lady
whom Waller praised under the name of " Saccharissa."
Although he disapproved the measures of the court
he joined the royal army in the civil war, assigning
" the punctilio of honour" as his motive. He fought at
Edgehill, (1642,) received the title of Earl of Sunderland
in 1643, ar >d was killed at tne battle of Newbury, in the
name year.

See CLARENDON, " History of the Great Rebellion."

Sunderland, (ROBERT SPENCER,) second EARL OF.

a courtier and politician, famous for his talents and in-
trigues, was born about 1642, and was the only son of the
^receding. He was sent as ambassador to Paris in 1672,
and was appointed secretary of state in 1679. Having
Deen dismissed in the spring of 1681, he was restored to
the same office in 1682. He appears to have been totally
destitute of any fixed principles, and had great facility in
changing sides in the game of politics. He insinuated
himself into the favour of the Duke of York, who, on his
accession to the throne, in 1685, retained Sunderland in the
office of secretary of state. About this time he received
a large bribe or pension from Louis XIV. He became
president of the council in December, 1685, and prime
minister in 1686. " It was only in private conference,"
says Macaulay, "that his eminent abilities displayed
themselves. In the royal closet, or in a very small circle,
he exercised great influence, but at the council-board he
was taciturn, and in the House of Lords he never opened
his lips." (" History of England," vol. i.) In June,
1688, he openly avowed his conversion to the Roman
Catholic Church, and before the end of the year made
overtures to William of Orange, to whom he revealed
the plans of James II. Sunderland was dismissed from
power in October, 1688, on suspicion of treason. A few
weeks later he fled to Holland in disguise, and changed
his religion. " He had rendered to the cause of liberty
and the Protestant religion services of which it is diffi-
cult to overrate either the wickedness or the utility."
("Macaulay's History," vol. iv.) He returned to Eng-
land about the end of 1690, and soon regained his influ-
ence at court. It is stated that he was the chief adviser
of William III. for several years, although he held no
office until 1695, when he was appointed lord chamber-
lain. He resigned office in 1697. His wife was a
daughter of the Earl of Bristol. He died in 1702, leaving
his title to his son Charles. " His tact," says Macaulay,
" his quick eye for the foibles of individuals, his caressing
manners, his power ot insinuation, and, above all, his
apparent frankness, made him irresistible in private
conversation." (" History of England," vol. iv.)

See also BUXNET, " History of his Own Time."

Sundevall, soon'deh-val, (CARL JAKOB,) a Swedish
naturalist, born at Hoegestad in 1801. He became di-
rector of the museum of natural history at Lund in 1835.
Died February 6, 1875.

Superville, de, (DANIEL), a French Protestant
minister, born at Saumur in 1657. He removed to
Rotterdam about 1685, and preached there until his
death. Died in 1728.

Suppe, von, (FRANZ,) an Austrian musical com-
poser, was born at Spalato in 1820. He composed
operettas, songs, etc. Died in 1895.

Sura. See SURADEV{ and SURAS.

Surabhi, a name of KAMADHENU, (which see.)

Surad&vi, soo-ra-da'vee, called also simply Sura,
soo'ra, [from the Sanscrit Surd, "wine," and DM,
" goddess,"] the Hindoo goddess of wine, was supposed
to have been produced from the churning of the ocean.
(See KORMA.)

Surajah Dowlah, soo-rJ'ja dow'la, a Hindoo prince,
who took Calcutta in 1756 and confined a number of
English prisoners in the Black Hole. His army was
defeated by Clive at the famous battle of Plassey, June
23, 1757; and he was taken a few days after and put to
death by the order of Meer Jaffier.

Suras or Sooras, sdo'ras, [from the Sanscrit Surd,
a "god,"] in the Hindoo mythology, a class of inferior
deities, the children of Kasyapa and Aditi. They appear
to be the same as the Adityas, (see ADITYA,) and are
regarded as the natural enemies or opponents of the

Surcouf, su'R'kooP , (ROBERT,) a French corsair, born
at Saint-Malo in 1773. He captured many English
merchant-vessels. Died in 1827.

Sur-Das, soor dis, a Hindee author, probably a
Brahman, who lived before the year 1600 A.D. He left
a prodigious number of stanzas in honour of Vishnu,
which collectively form a vast poem called " Sur Sagar"
and are very popular.

e as k ; 9 as s: g hard: g as ;; G, H, K,guttural: N, nasal: R, trilled; as *,- *h as in this. ( 2^=See Explanations, p. 23.)




Su-re'na or Su-re'nas, a Parthian general in the
service of King Orodes. 'He gained a decisive victory
over the Roman general Crassus near Carrhae in 53 B.C.
According to Plutarch, " he was superior to the Parthians
of his time in courage and capacity." (" Life of Crassus.")
He was put to death by Orodes about 52 B.C.

See MERIVALE, "History of the Romans;" " Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Ge'ne'rale."

Surenhuis, su'ren-hois', [Lat. SURENHU'SIUS,] (WiL-
LEM,) a Dutch Orientalist, lived about 1700. He was
professor of Hebrew and Greek at Amsterdam, and
published an edition of the Mishna, (3 vols., 1698-1703.)

Surenhusius. See SURENHUIS.

Surin, sii'raN', (JEAN JOSEPH,) a French Jesuit and
ascetic writer, born at Bordeaux in 1600. He went in
1634 to Loudun to exorcise some persons possessed
with demons, and became himself, as we are told, a de-
moniac, or victim of the demons. So much, at least, is
certain, that he was insane for many years. Died in 1665.

See BOUDON, "Vie de Surin," 1689: "Nouvelle Biographic

Su'rI-us, (LAURENTIUS,) a German monk, born at
Lubeck in 1522. He wrote "Lives of the Saints,"
(1570.) Died in 1578.

Surlet de Chokier, siiR'li' deh sho'ke-1', (ERASME
Louis,) BARON, a Belgian statesman, born at Liege in
1769. Having previously filled several high offices, he
was elected Regent of Belgium in 1831. Died in 1839.

Surowiecki, soo-ro-ve-St'skee, (L. W.,) a Polish
scholar and antiquary, born near Gnesen in 1769, pub-
lished a work "On the Origin of the Slavic Nations,"
and other treatises. Died in 1827.


Suit, sdort, or Surtur, (Surtr,) sdor'ter, [etymologic-
ally related to the Danish sort, English swart, and Ger-
man schwars, " black," because it is the property of fire
to blacken what it burns,] in the Norse mythology, the
god of fire, who rules over Muspellheim, the entrance
to which he guards with a flaming sword. At Ragna-
rock he will lead the formidable band of Muspell's sons,
his fire-sword flashing more brightly than the sun itself.
In the battle with the ^sir he will slay Frey; and after
the other gods have fallen, he will scatter his fire over
the world and burn it up. (Compare Seneca's descrip-
tion of the destruction of the world, in his " Hercules
CEtaeus," 1. 1 102.)

See THORPE, "Northern Mythology," vol. i. : KEYSER, "Reli-
gion of the Northmen;" MALLET, "Northern Antiquities," vol. ii.
Fables XXXI I. and XXXI II. ; PETBRSEN, " Nordisk Mythologi."

Sur'tees, (ROBERT,) an English antiquary and poet,
born at Durham in 1779. He published a " History of
Durham," (about 1820.) Died in 1834.

Suruswuttee. See SARASWAT!

TILDE DE VALLON-CHALIS,) a French poetess, born
about 1405, was the author of a heroic poem entitled
" Lygdamir." Died about 1480.

See LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe."

Surya, soor'ya, the Sanscrit name of the Sun, re-
garded as an important deity in the Hindoo mythology,
though much more so in the primeval ages than later,
when Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva claimed nearly all the
devotion of mankind. In the earlier Sanscrit writings
the Sun is often called Mitra. Surya is represented in
a human form, (but having four arms,) surrounded by
radiating flames and riding in a car drawn by seven

Su-sa'rI-on, [Zwoapiuv,] a Greek poet, to whom the
origin of the Athenian comedy is attributed, was born
in Megara, and lived about 575 B.C. He was the first
who employed metrical composition in comedy.

SusemiM, soo'zeh-meel, (FRANZ,) a German scholar,
born at Laage, in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, December 10,
1826. He studied at Leipsic and at Berlin, and in 1856
became a professor of philology in Greifswalde University.
He published German translations of a part of the
writings of Plato and Aristotle, and wrote a treatise on
the Platonic philosophy.

Suso, soo'zo, (HEINRICH,) a celebrated mystic and
theologian, surnamed AMANDUS, was born at Constance,
Switzerland, about 1300. He entered the order of Do

minicans at an early age, and subsequently acquired a
high reputation as a preacher. He was the author of a
work entitled " Book of Eternal Wisdom," (" Horolo-
gium Sapientite Eternx,") and a " Dialogue on Truth."
They were translated into the principal European lan-
guages, and obtained extensive popularity. Died in 1365.

Susruta, sSos'rdo-ta, or Suahruta, soosh'roo-ta, a
Hindoo physician, supposed to have been one of the
earliest medical writers in India. The date and the
place of his birth are unknown. One of his works was
published in 1836 by the Asiatic Society of Calcutta.


Siissmeyer, sus'mi'er, (FRANZ XAVER,) a German
composer, born in 1766, became chapel-master at the
court of Vienna. He completed the parts of Mozart's
Requiem which the latter left unfinished. Died in 1803

Sussmilch, soos'milK, (JOHANN PETER,) a German
Lutheran minister, born about 1706. He wrote on sta-
tistics and population. Died in 1767.

Suss-Oppenheimer, siis op'pen-hl'mer, a German
Jew, who rose to be minister of finance to Karl Alex-
ander, Duke of Wurtemberg. For his abuse of power
and many acts of oppression he was condemned to death,
and executed in 1738. His history forms the subject of
one of HaufFs popular novels.

Sustermana, sfis'ter-mans, written also Subter-
mans, (JUSTUS,) a Flemish painter, born at Antwerp in
1597. He resided in Florence, and became court painter
to the grand duke Cosimo II. de' Medici. His works,
which include portraits and historical pictures, are eulo-
gized by Rubens. Died in 1681.

Sut'cliffe, (MATTHEW,) an English divine, born in
Devonshire, was the founder of a college at Chelsea, the
Fellows of which were required to assail the errors of
Romanism, Pelagianism, etc. Died in 1629.

Sutee or Suttee. See SAT}.

Suterman. See SUAVIUS.

Sutb/er-land, (ALEXANDER JOHN,) F.R.S., an Eng-
lish physician, born about 1810. He became physician
to St. Luke's Hospital, London, and wrote several
treatises on insanity. Died in 1867.

OF, the wife of the second Duke of Sutherland and
daughter of the Earl of Carlisle, was born about
1806. She was distinguished for beauty, talents, and
beneficence. About 1846 she became mistress of the
robes to the queen. She employed her influence
against slavery. Died in October, 1868.

Su'tro, (ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH,) a mining
engineer, was born at Aix-la-Chapelle, Prussia, in
1830. He went to San Francisco, and in 1860 began
the excavation of the great Sutro tunnel to develop
the silver mines of Nevada. He gave San Francisco
a beautiful park, was elected mayor in 1894, and died
in 1898.

Suttee. See SATt

Sut'ton, (AMOS,) an English missionary to Ortssa,
India, was born in Kent in 1798. He translated the
Scriptures into the Oriya language, and also published
a dictionary, grammar, and other works in that tongue.
He wrote a "Narrative of the Mission to Orissa," and
several religious treatises. Died in 1854.


Sut'tpn, (CHARLES MANNERS,) an English prelate,
born in 1755. He became Bishop of Norwich in 1792,
and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1805. Died in 1828.
His son became Viscount Canterbury.

Sutton, (Sir RICHARD,) an English lawyer, noted
as one of the founders and benefactors of Brazennose
College, Oxford. Died about 1524.

Sutton, (THOMAS,) an English merchant, born in
Lincolnshire in 1532, was the founder of a hospital for
the poor, known as the Charter-House, and which was
formerly the monastery of the Chartreux in Suffolk.
Died in 1611.

Sutzoa. See SOUTZO.

Suvee, sii'va', (JOSEPH BENofr,) a Flemish painter,
born at Bruges in 1743. He became director of the
French School of Art in Rome. Died in 1807.

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, 4, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon;




Su-war'6w, or, more properly, Soo-vo'rof, written
also Souvorof, Suvorov, Souvarof, Suworow, and
Suwarrow, (ALEXANDER VASILIEVITCH,) surnamed
RYMNIKSKI, (rim-nik'skee,) a famous Russian general,
born in Finland in 1729, was of Swedish origin. His
father was a general of high rank. He served as lieu-
tenant in the Seven Years' war, 1755-63, and became a
colonel in 1763. Having obtained the rank of a general,
he distinguished himself in the war against the Turks
in 1774. He commanded in a war against the Turks
which began in 1787, and gained a victory on the river
Rymnik, (1789,) for which he received the title of Count
Ryrnnikski. In 1794 he conquered the revolted Poles,
whom he treated with great barbarity, and for this ser-
vice was raised to the rank of field-marshal. In 1799
he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Russian
and Austrian armies which opposed the French in Italy.
He defeated Macdonald on the Trebia in June, and
gained a victory over Joubert at the great battle of
Novi, in August, 1799. Soon after this event the army
was recalled, and Suwarow lost the favour of Paul I.
He died at Saint Petersburg in May, 1800. He was a
great favourite with the soldiers, and was probably the
ablest of all the Russian generals.

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 332 of 425)