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See ANTHING, "Versuch einer Kriegsgeschichte des Grafen
Suwarow," 3 yols., 1759, (English translation of the same;) DE
LA VERNE, " Histoire de Souvarow," 1809 ; SERGE GLINKA, " Vie de
Souvarof," 1819 ; F. VON SCHMITT, " Suworow's Leben und Heer-



1865; "Sketch of Si

Last Campaign," by E. NEVIL MACREADY, 1851.

Suwarrow. See SUWAROW.

Suze, de la. See COLIGNI, DE, (HENRIETTE.)

Svanberg or Svansberg. See SWANBERG.

Svantovit, or Swantowit, swan'tp-wit', the great
divinity of the Baltic Wends. Arkona, on the isle of
Ru'gen, was a great seat of his cultus. Svantovit had
four heads and a double body. A sacred horse of pure
white was kept in his temple and was consulted as an
oracle.

Svartalfar. See ELVES.

Svartz. See SWARTZ,

Svedberg. See SWEDBERG.

Svedenborg. See SWEDENBORG.

Svetchiae or Swetchine, sve'tch-en', (SOPHIA
SOYMONOF,) MADAME, a Russian lady and writer, born
at Moscow in 1782, became the wife of General Svetch-
ine. She removed to Paris in 1818, joined the Roman
Catholic Church, and was distinguished for her piety
and talents. Died in Paris in 1857.

See M. DS FALX.OUX, " Madame de Swetchine, sa Vie ct ses CEu-
rres,"2 vols., 1858; ERNEST NAVILLH, "Madame Svetchine," 1863

Swain, (CHARLES,) an English writer and engraver,
known as " the Manchester poet," was born in that
city in 1803. He published " Metrical Essays," (1828.)
" Beauties of the Mind," etc., (1831,) " Rhymes for Child-
hood," (1846,) "English Melodies," (1849,) and other
works, in prose and verse. His " Dryburgh Abbey," an
elegy on Sir Walter Scott, is particularly admired. Died
September 22, 1874.

Swain'son, (WILLIAM,) an English naturalist and
voluminous writer, born at Liverpool in 1789. He visited
South America and the shores of the Mediterranean,
and made valuable collections of objects in natural his
tory. Among his principal works are his " Zoological
Illustrations, or Original Figures and Descriptions of
New, Rare, or Interesting Animals," (6 vols., 1820,)
"Exotic Conchology," (1821,) and a "Treatise on
Malacology," (1840.) He also contributed to Lardner's
" Cabinet Cyclopaedia" numerous treatises on natural
history, of which we may name " The Natural History
and Classification of Fishes, Amphibians," etc., (2 vols.,
1838-39,) and "On the Habits and Instincts of Animals,"
(1840.) He was likewise a contributor to the " Fauna
Boreali-Americana" of Sir John Richardson. Mr.
Swainson emigrated in 1841 to New Zealand, where he
died in 1855.

Swammerdam, swJm'mer-dam', (JAN, or JOHN,) an
eminent Dutch naturalist, born at Amsterdam in Feb-
ruary, 1637. He studied medicine at Leyden, but not with
a design to practise as a physician. He also passed some
years at Saumur and Paris in the study of anatomy and



entomology. In 1664 he discovered the valves of the
lymphatic vessels. He took the degree of doctor of medi-
cine in 1667, and published in 1669 a "General History
of Insects," a work of great merit. He made several
discoveries in entomology, and was very skilful in the
dissection of insects. Among his works are a " Natural
History of Bees," (1673,) and "The Book of Nature, or
the Natural History of Insects," etc., ("Biblia Naturae,
seu Historia Insectorum in certas Classes redacta," a
vols., 1737-38.) He destroyed his health by intense ap-
plication, became melancholy, and diverted his attention
from science to religion. He entered into religious
fellowship with Antoinette Bourignon. Died at Am-
sterdam in 1680.

Swamy, swS'mee, (Sir MUTU COOMARA,) a Cey-
lonese jurist, born at Colombo in 1834. He studied
English law, became a barrister in 1863, was knighted in
1874, and married an English lady. He published an
ancient history of the holy tooth of Booddha, (in Pali,)
and the " Sutta Nipata" in the original Pali, with Eng-
lish notes and a translation. Died at Colombo, May 4,
1879-

Swan, (JOSEPH WILSON,) an English electrician, born
at Sunderland, October 31, 1828. He became a druggist
of Newcastle-'upon-Tyne. He in youth began to experi-
ment, at first with the arc light, and later very success-
fully with various means of producing electric light by
incandescence in vocuo. He was also the inventor of
the " autotype" process of photo-printing, of improved
dry-plate operations in photography, and of an improved
mercurial air-pump.

Swanberg or Svanberg, svan'b?Rg, written also
Svansberg, (JONS,) a Swedish mathematician, born in
the province of Westerbotten in 1771. In 1801, in con-
junction with Oefverbom, he measured an arc of the
meridian in Lapland. Of this enterprise he published
an account which obtained a prize from the French
Institute. He became professor of mathematics at
Upsal in 1811, and published a "Theory of the Planets
and Comets," and other scientific works. Died in 1851.

Swaiievelt, van, vtn swa'neh-velt', (HERMAN,) an
eminent Dutch landscape-painter, born at Woerden about
1620, was a pupil of Gerard Dow, and subsequently of
Claude Lorrain. His pictures are few in number, but
of great excellence. He died about 1690, at Rome,
where he had long resided. He also executed many
admirable etchings. He was surnamed THE HERMIT,
from his solitary habits.

Swan'wick, (ANNIE,) an English writer, was
born at Liverpool in 1813. She became interested in
philanthropic work, translated from the Greek and
Herman, and wrote "An Utopian Dream," (1888,)
" Evolution and the Religion of the Future," (1894,)
etc.

Swar'ga, [modern Hindoo pron. swur'ga or swurg,]
written also Swerga, in the Hindoo mythology, the
name of Indra's heaven or paradise, supposed to be
situated among the clouds in the sky, and regarded as
the abode of the inferior gods and deified mortals. (See
INDRA.)

Swartz or Svartz, swaRts, (OLAUS or OLOF,) a Swed-
ish botanist, born at Norrkoping in 1760. He studied at
Upsal, and subsequently travelled in Finland, Lapland,
the West Indies, and the western part of America,
bringing with him on his return a rich collection of plants.
He was soon after appointed professor of natural history
in the Medico-Chirurgical Institute at Stockholm. He
was also made a knight of the Polar Star, and received
other distinctions. Among his works we may name his
" Icones Plantarum Incognitarum," illustrating the rare
plants of the West Indies, " Flora Indiae Occidentalis,"
(1806, 3 vols., with plates,) and " Synopsis of the Ferns,"
("Synopsis Filicum," 1806.) He also wrote the text of
four volumes of the "Botany of Sweden," ("Svensk
Botanik,") and contributed to the "Transactions" of the
Linnsean Society, London, of which he was a member.
He died in 1818, having acquired the reputation of one
of the first botanists of his time. The genus Swartzia,
of the order Leguminosje, was named in his honour.

See WILKSTROEM, " Biographic iiber deu Professor O. Swartt,"
1828.



as k; c as s; | hard; g as/'; G, H, K,gutturai; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this. (Jl^^See Explanations, p. 23.)



SWAYAMBHU



2270



SWEDENBORG



Swayambha, swi'am-b'hoo', or Swayambhuva,
swi'am-b'hdo'va, [from the Sanscrit sw&y&m, "self," and
PA4', to "exist,"] a Sanscrit term, signifying "self-exist-
ent," and used in the Hindoo mythology as an epithet
of Brahm (the infinite eternal Being) and of Brahma.
It is also sometimes applied to the first Manu, (or
Menu,) in which case it may, perhaps, mean "born (or
son) of the Self-existent," 6'ku signifying to " be born"
as well as to "exist" (See MANU.)

Swayne, (NOAH HAYNES,) LL.D., an American
judge, born in Culpeper county, Virginia, December 27,
1804. He was admitted to the bar in 1824, and was one
of the justices of the United States supreme court from
1861 to 1881. Died in New York, June 8, 1884.

Sweat'man, (ARTHUR,) D.D., a bishop, born in Lon-
don, England, November 19, 1834. He studied at Univer-
sity College, London, and graduated at Christ's College,
Cambridge. In 1865 he became head-master of Hell-
muth College, London, Ontario, and in 1879 was
consecrated Anglican Bishop of Toronto.

Swedberg, swSd'beRg, written also Svedberg, (JES-
PER,) a Swedish theologian, father of the celebrated
Emanuel Swedenborg, was born near Fahlun in 1653.
He became professor of theology at Upsal in 1692, and
in 1702 was made Bishop of Skara by Charles XII. His
family was ennobled in 1719, under the name of Sweden-
borg. He died in 1735, leaving a number of religious
and miscellaneous works.

See FAHLCRANTZ, " Minneskrift tifver Biskopen Dr. Svedberg,"
1852.

Swe'den-borg, [Sw. pron. swn'den-boRg',] written
also Sve'denborg, (originally SwedTaerg,) (EMA-
NUEL,) a celebrated Swedish naturalist, mathematician,
and theosophist, was born at Stockholm on the 2gth of
January, 1688. His father, Jesper Swedberg, at that
time a chaplain of the army, became afterwards Bishop
of Skara. The family was ennobled by Queen Ulrica
in 1719, and the name was changed to Swedenborg.
Even in early childhood Emanuel appears to have given
indications of those peculiar powers for which he was
afterwards so distinguished. He says, in a letter to Dr.
Beyer, " From my fourth to my tenth year my thoughts
were constantly engrossed by reflections on God, on
salvation, and on the spiritual affections of man. I often
revealed things in my discourse which filled my parents
with astonishment, and made them declare at times that
certainly the angels spoke through my mouth." He
was educated at the University of Upsal, where, in his
twenty-second year, he took the degree of doctor of
philosophy. On leaving the university he set out on
his travels. He passed about a year m England ; he
then visited the chief cities of Holland, spent subse-
quently a year in Paris and Versailles, and returned by
Hamburg and Greifswalde to his native country, after an
absence of more than four years. In early life Sweden-
borg's favourite pursuit was mathematics. About 1715-
16 he edited a scientific publication entitled " Daedalus
Hyperboreus." The distinction which he had acquired
as a mathematician brought him to the notice of Charles
XII., who employed him in the construction of some of
his military works. In the siegeof Fredericshall, (1718,)
under the direction of Swedenborg, rolling-machines
were made by means of which two galleys, five large
boats, and a sloop were carried overland a distance of
fourteen miles. He had been appointed by Charles
XII., in 1716, assessor of the board of mines. In 1717
he published " An Introduction to Algebra," and " At-
tempts to find the Longitude of Places by Lunar Obser-
vations." Soon after he wrote several other works on
kindred subjects. Some of these have not been published.

In 1721 he again visited Holland, and while in that
country published (at Amsterdam) several small works,
chiefly on subjects connected with natural philosophy.
The following year he published at Leipsic "Miscel-
laneous Observations connected with the Physical Sci-
rnces," (" Miscellanea Observata circa Res Naturales.")
All the above works give indications of a profound and
most original intellect. In 1733 lie published at Leipsic
and Dresden his " Opera Philosophica et Mineralia,"
in 3 vols. fol., with numerous engravings. This work,
10 its title indicates, is written in Latin. The first



volume in particular, entitled " Principia. or the First
Principles of Natural Things, being a New Attempt
towards a Philosophical Explanation of the Elementary
World," has attracted great attention. It is claimed by
Swedenborg's admirers that this publication anticipated
several of the most important discoveries of modern
science. Gorres, a distinguished German writer and
journalist, says of the " Principia," " It is a production
indicative of profound thought in all its parts, and not
unworthy of being placed by the side of Newton's ' Ma-
thematical Principia of Natural Philosophy.' " Sweden
borg's father died in 1735. The next year he again set
out on his travels, visiting Holland and France, and
afterwards Italy, where he passed rather more than a
year, five months being spent at Rome. He appears to
have returned to Sweden in 1740. In 1740-41 he pub-
lished at Amsterdam his " Economy of the Animal
Kingdom," (" CEconomia Regni Animalis.") The " Ani-
mal Kingdom," (" Regnum Animate,") which may be
said to be a continuation of the preceding work, appeared
in 1744-45, parts one and two being published at the
Hague, and part three in London. Swedenborg, refer-
ring to the plan pursued in the foregoing works, says,
" The reader may see that the end I propose to myself in
the work is a knowledge of the soul, since this knowledge
will constitute the crmvn of my studies." In one of his
manuscripts, also, he observes, " I have gone through
anatomy with the single end of investigating the soul."
Of the "Animal Kingdom," Emerson remarks, " It was
an anatomist's account of the human body in the highest
style of poetry. Nothing can exceed the bold and bril-
liant treatment of a subject usually so dry and repulsive."
When Swedenborg reached the age of fifty-seven, his
life took a new direction. He no longer occupied himself
with the pursuit of physical science. He had, it appears,
in 1747, resigned his assessorship ; but, in consideration
of his long and faithful services, his full salary was con-
tinued to him to the end of his life. Some time before
he had, as he believed, been brought into intimate com-
munication with the spiritual world, and " the Lord him-
self," as Swedenborg says in one of his letters, "granted
me the privilege of conversing with spirits and angels
which I enjoy to this day." No candid and intelligent
person who attentively peruses the writings of the
Swedish sage can doubt the perfect sincerity of his own
belief in his divine illumination. Nor can the random
assertion that he was a dreamer, or that he was insane,
be accepted as any satisfactory refutation of his claims.
As Tennemann well observes, in his " History of Phi-
losophy," "If he must needs be mad, there is a rare
method in his madness. In vain will you ransack the
archives of his family or his personal history for any
trace of insanity." As probably few who are compe-
tent to form an intelligent and impartial opinion would
be disposed to deny that Swedenborg was gifted with a
rare insight into the mysteries of external nature, so
it would seem almost impossible for any one, who will
allow unimpeachable testimony to prevail against preju-
dice or skepticism, to doubt that he was endowed with
an extraordinary perception of some things not discern-
ible by the senses or mental faculties of the generality
of mankind. On Saturday, the igth of July, 1759, Swe-
denborg was at Gottenburg, (which is about three hun
dred English miles from Stockholm,) having recently
arrived from England. He was at the house of Mr.
Castel, with a party of fifteen persons. "At about six
o'clock P.M.," says Kant, the celebrated German phi-
losopher, " Swedenborg went out, and, after a short
interval, returned to the company quite pale and
alarmed. He stated that a dangerous fire had broken
out in Stockholm, at Sundermalm, and that it was
spreading very fast. He was restless, and went out
often. He said that the house of one of his friends,
whom he named, was already in ashes, and that his own
was in danger. At eight o'clock, after he had been out
again, he joyfully exclaimed, ' Thank God ! the fire is
extinguished the third door from my house." . . . The
next morning Swedenborg was sent for by the governor,
who questioned him concerning the disaster. Sweden-
borg described the fire precisely, how it had begun, in
what manner it had ceased, and how long it had con-



, e, T, 6, u, y, long; a, 6, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mdt; not: good; moon;



SWEDENBORG



2271



SWETT



tinned. . . On Monday evening a messenger arrived
at Gottenburg, who was despatched during the time of
the fire. In the letters brought by him the fire was de-
scribed precisely in the manner stated by Swedenborg."
Kant states this on the authority of a friend of his, who,
he says, " has examined the circumstances of this extra-
ordinary case, not only at Stockholm, but also at Gotten-
burg, where he is acquainted with the most respectable
houses, and where he could obtain the most authentic
and complete information, as the greatest part of the
inhabitants, who are still alive, were witnesses to the
memorable occurrence." It is proper to observe that
Kant was skeptically inclined respecting the extra-
ordinary claims of Swedenborg ; those, indeed, who are
acquainted with the character of that philosopher need
not be told that he, of all men, was one of the least likely
to give credence to any marvellous statement, unless it
were supported by evidence of the most unimpeachable
character.*

The first volume of Swedenborg's first theological
work, entitled the " Secrets or Mysteries of Heaven,"
("Arcana Ccelestia,") appeared in 1749. It was com-
pleted in 1756, having extended to eight quarto volumes.
The work is an exposition of the books of Genesis and
Exodus, with intervening chapters describing the won-
ders of the future world. In 1758 Swedenborg published
in London the following works : " An Account of the
Last Judgment and the Destruction of Babylon ; show-
ing that all the Predictions in the Apocalypse are at
this day fulfilled, being a Relation of Things Heard and
Seen," " Concerning Heaven and its Wonders, and Con-
cerning Hell, being a Relation of Things Heard and Seen,"
"On the White Horse mentioned in the Apocalypse,"
"On the Planets in our Solar System, and on those in
the Starry Heavens, with an Account of their Inhabitants
and of their Spirits and Angels," and " On the New
Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrine as revealed from
Heaven." In 1763 he published at Amsterdam "The
Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the Lord,"
"The Sacred Scripture," "Faith," a "Continuation re-



publi:

dam in 1766 an explanation of the book of Revelation,
entitled "The Apocalypse Revealed," (" Apocalypsis
Revelata ;") a much more extensive work on the same
subject, written also in Latin, was published after his
death, in 1790 ; it was translated into English, and pub-
lished in 1815 with the title of " Apocalypse Explained."
In 1768 he published at Amsterdam his treatise on " Con-
jugal (Conjugial) Love," (" Amor Conjugialis,") in which
he teaches that the marriage relation exists in heaven
as well as on earth. In 1769 appeared at Amsterdam a
small work entitled a "Brief Exposition of the Doctrine
of the New Church," and in the same year, at London,
another little book, "The Intercourse between the
Soul and the Body." He published in 1771, at Amster-
dam, the last and one of the most important of his works,
"The True Christian Religion," ("yera Christiana
Religio,") which is in fact a system of universal theology
of the "New Church," (i.e. the Church introduced or
revealed by Swedenborg.)

Swedenborg died in London, from the effects of a
paralytic stroke, the 29th of March, 1772, in the eighty-
fifth year of his age. He was never married. In person
he was of a medium height ; his manners were dignified
and somewhat reserved ; his countenance mild and
pleasing. He had a slight impediment in his speech, in
consequence of which he talked slowly but very distinctly.

The views entertained of the theological doctrines of
Swedenborg, and of his ideas of a future life, will, of
course, vary according to the preconceived opinions or
the habits of thought of his readers ; but of his merits
as a writer on intellectual and moral subjects, several
competent and (as we have reason to believe) impartial
critics have spoken in terms of the highest praise.

" I have often thought," says Coleridge, " of writing a
work to be entitled 'Vindication of Great Men unjustly
branded ;' and at such times the names prominent to my

See Kant's letter on this subject to the Frau von Knobloch.



mind's eye have been Giordano Bruno, Bbhmen, Spi-
noza, and Swedenborg. Grant that the origin of the
Swedenborgian theology is a problem; yet, on which-
ever of the three possible hypotheses (possible, I mean, for
gentlemen, scholars, and Christians) it maybe solved,
I, Swedenborg's own assertion and constant belief in the
hypothesis of a supernatural illumination ; or, 2, that
the great and excellent man was led into this belief by
becoming the subject of a very rare but not (it is said)
altogether unique conjunction of the somniative faculty
with the voluntary and other powers of the waking state ;
or, 3, the modest suggestion that the first and second may
not be so incompatible as they appear, still it is never
to be forgotten that the merit and value of Swedenborg's
system do only in a very secondary degree depend on any
one of the three. . . . So much, even from a very partial
acquaintance with the works of Swedenborg, I may ven-
ture to assert, that as a moralist he is above all praise,
and that as a naturalist, psychologist, and theologian he
has strong claims on the gratitude and admiration of th
professional and philosophical student." (See " Notes
on Noble's Appeal," in Coleridge's " Literary Remains.")

" There is," says Emerson, " an invariable method and
order in his delivery of his truth, the habitual proceed-
ing of the mind from inmost to outmost. What earnest-
ness and weightiness ! his eye never roving, without one
swell of vanity or one look to self in any common form
of literary pride ! a theoretic or speculative man, but
whom no practical man in the universe could affect to
scorn." In another place he says, " Not every man
can read them, [his books,] but they will reward him
who can. . . . The grandeur of the topics makes the
grandeur of the style. . . . His writings would be a
sufficient library to a lonely and athletic student; and
the ' Economy of the Animal Kingdom' is one of those
books which, by the sustained dignity of thinking, is an
honour to the human race." But this high praise is
not bestowed without important qualifications. (See
" Swedenborg, or the Mystic," in " Representative Men. ")

Professor von Gorres, already referred to in this article,
says of Swedenborg, " He was guided in his researches
by a mind clear, acutely analytic, endowed with skill, and
well disciplined in mathematics and logic."

Our limits will not permit us to attempt even an out-
line of his theosophic system ; suffice it to say that what
seems to be the great central idea in this system is the
doctrine of correspondences, according to which everj
thing in the natural world is a correspondent or type
of something existing in the supernatural or spiritua'
world.

It cannot be denied that Swedenborg's theosophy has
exerted an important influence upon many gifted minds
who are far from accepting all the details of his extra-
ordinary revelations. This need surprise us the less
because " what appears as Swedenborg's crudities and
fantasies," to adopt the words of the Rev. E. H. Sears,
" are extraneous to his essential system." (See " Monthly
Religious Magazine" for March, 1865.)

See " Emanuel Swedenborg : his Life and Writings," by WILLIAM
WHITE, 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1867, (pronounced by Henry James " by
far the best life of Swedenborg;" see " North American Review" for
July, 1867 ;) J. G. WILKINSON, " E. Swedenborg ; a Biography, 1849 ;
GOERRES. " E. Swedenborg," 1827 ; S. SANDELS, " Aminnelse-Tal
ofver E. Swedenborg," 1772; CARL F. RANZ, " E. Swedenborg, der



borg," 18...

borg," 1842 : TAFEL, " E. Swedenborg und seme Gegner," 2 voli..
1841 : " Fraser's Magazine" for February, 1857, and June, 1868.

Sweerts, swaRts, (EMMANUEL,) a Belgian botanist,
born near Breda about 1552, published "Florilegium
Amplissimum et Selectissimum," (1612.)

Sweerts, (PIERRE FRANCOIS,) a Belgian historian,
born at Antwerp in 1567 ; died in 1629.

Swerga. See SWARGA.

Swetchine, (Madame SOPHIA.) See SVETCHINE.

Swett, (JOHN APPLETON,) M.D., an American phy-
sician, born at Boston in 1808. He became in 1840
associate editor of the " New York Journal of Medicine,"
and in 1853 professor of the theory and practice of medi-
cine in the University of the City of New York. He
published a "Treatise on Diseases of the Chest," (1851.)
Died in 1854.



. k: c as s; g hard: g as /; G, H, K,.f*etural: N, nasal; R, trilltd; as *.- th as in this. ( Jjy See Explanations, p. 2 1.



SWEYN



2272



SWIFT



Sweyn.swan, [Lat. SUE'NO ; Fr. SuENON,sii-a'n6N',l
King of Denmark, obtained the throne about 986 A.D.
He b*gan about 994 a series of piratical expeditions
against the Anglo-Saxons, and ravaged the coasts of


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 333 of 425)