Joseph Thomas.

Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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and antiquary, born in Westminster in 180^. He pub-



a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; n6t; good; moon;



THOMSEN



2311



THOMSON



lished a "Collection of Early Prose Romances," (1828,)
"Lays and Legends of Various Nations," (1834,) and
editions of Stow's " Survey of London" and Caxton's
" Reynard the Fox." He was also the principal editor
of "Notes and Queries," a work first published at his
suggestion. Died August 18, 1885.

Thomsen, tom'sen, (CHRISTIAN JURGENSEN,) a
Danish antiquary, born at Copenhagen in 1788. He
became director of the royal cabinet of medals in 1842.
He wrote a "Treatise on Northern Antiquities," (1831,)
and other works. Died May 21, 1865.

Thomsen, (WILHELM LUDWIG PETER,) a Danish
philologist, born at Copenhagen, January 25, 1842. He
studied at Copenhagen and in other universities, and in
1871 was made professor of comparative philology at
Copenhagen. Among his writings are "The Influence
of the Gothic Languages upon the Finnish," (1869,) " The
Relations between Ancient Russia and Scandinavia,"
(1877,) and various important papers upon the philology
of the Romanic languages.

Thom'spn, (tom'spn,) (ALEXANDER,) a Scottish poet,
was the author of a poem entitled "The British Par-
nassus at the Close of the Eighteenth Century," and
other works. Died in 1803.

Thomson, (ANDREW,) a Scottish divine and pulpit
orator, born in Dumfriesshire in 1779. He became in
1814 pastor of Saint George's Church, Edinburgh, where
he acquired a high reputation for his zeal and eloquence.
Died in 1831.

Thomson, (ANTHONY TODD,) an eminent Scottish
physician, born at Edinburgh in 1778. He studied in
his native city, attending the lectures of Munro, Black,
and other distinguished men, and about 1800 began the
practice of medicine in London. He published the
"London Dispensatory," (1811,) which met with great
success and was translated into several languages, a
"Conspectus of the Pharmacopoeias of London, Edin-
burgh, and Dublin," etc., (1816,) " Lectures on Botany,"
"Elements of Materia Medica," (1832,) and other works
on various subjects. He was a member of the Royal
College of Physicians, and in 1828 became professor
of materia medica in the London University. He was
appointed to the chair of medical jurisprudence in
1832. Died in 1849.

Thom'son, (tom'son,) (CHARLES,) a patriot, born in
Ireland in 1729 or 1730. He emigrated to America in
1741, and settled in Philadelphia. He was a friend of Dr.
Franklin, served as secretary of Congress from 1774
to 1789, and was highly respected for his virtues and
learning. He produced a translation of the Septuagint,
which was published in 4 vols., (1808.) Died in 1824.

Thomson, (Sir CHARLES WYVILLE,) LL.D., a Scot
tish biologist, born at Bonsyde, Linlithgowshire, March
5, 1830. He graduated at the University of Edinburgh,
was an instructor at Aberdeen, 1850-53, professor of
natural history at Queen's College, Cork, 1853-54, pro-
fessor of mineralogy and geology in Queen's College,
Belfast, 1854-70, and in 1870 received the then lucrative
position of regius professor of natural history at Edin-
burgh. He was at the head of the famous Challenger
expedition of 1872-76. Among his works are " Depths
of the Sea," (1872,) and "The Voyage of the Challenger,"
(1877.) Died March 10, 1882.

Thom'son, (EDWARD,) D.D., a Methodist divine,
born at Portsea, England, in 1810, emigrated to America,
and was elected in 1843 professor of mental and moral
philosophy in the University of Michigan. He subse-
quently became president of the Ohio Wesleyan Univer-
sity. In 1864 he was elected a bishop of the Methodist
Episcopal Church. Died in 1870.

Thomson, (ELIHU,) an American electrician,
born at Manchester, England, in 1853, educated in
the Philadelphia public schools, professor of chemistry
and mathematics in the Philadelphia High School
1870-80. He made many important inventions in
electric lighting, power, etc., obtaining more than five
hundred patents, in use by the Thomson-Houston
General Electric Companies. Among his inventions



hundred patents, in use by the Thomson-Houston at the University of Saint Andrew's and a^EcJin,
General Electric Companies. Among his inventions where abou^^&Dpjje^g'jj'^ 'antiquary,' a son 01
is that of electric welding. He received Jj)| 1< fis?- t 'j' receding, born in' 1713, wrote an account of the ci
Prix in Paris in 1880 fm- >* : - | Rochester, entitled " Registrum Rofiense." Died in :



Thomson, (JAMES,) a celebrated poet, born in Rox-
burghshire, Scotland, in 1700. He studied theology at
he University of Edinburgh ; but he soon renounced
t for literary pursuits, and published in 1726 his poem
entitled "Winter." Its success at first was moderate,
>ut it subsequently acquired great popularity, and was
followed in a few years by his " Spring," " Summer,"
and " Autumn," all of which appeared in 1730, under the
title of " The Seasons." His tragedies of " Sophonisba,'
' Agamemnon," and " Edward and Eleonora," as well
as his poem on " Liberty," were received with little fa-
vour. Through the influence of his friend Sir George
afterwards Lord Lyttleton, he was appointed about 1745
surveyor-general of the Leeward Islands. He published
in 1748 his "Castle of Indolence," an allegorical poem
in the Spenserian measure, which is generally esteemed
lis finest production. He died in 1748. Translations of
lis "Seasons" have been made into German, and both a
prose and poetical version of it have appeared in French,
while among all classes in Great Britain it is still one
of the most popular poems in the language. Campbell
observes, "The unvaried pomp of Thomson's diction
suggests a most unfavourable comparison with the manly
and idiomatic simplicity of Cowper; at the same time,
the pervading spirit and feeling of his poetry is in gen-
eral more bland and delightful than that of his great
rival in rural description."

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the Poets:" DAVID, EARL OF BUCMAN,
" Essays on the Lives and Writings of Fletcher of Saltoun and the
Poet Thomson," 1792; CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of
Eminent Scotsmen."

Thomson, (JAMES,) a Scottish poet, born at Port
Greenock, November 23, 1834. He enlisted as a private
soldier, and was for ten years a regimental schoolmaster.
He published " The City of Dreadful Night, and other
Poems," (1880,) " Vane's Story," " Essays and Phan-
tasies," etc. He wrote with much technical skill and
with sincere feeling. Died in London, June 8, li>S2.

Thomson, (JAMES,) a brother of Lord Kelvin,
was born at Belfast about 1815. He was educated at
Glasgow University, was professor of engineering in
Queen's College, Belfast, 1857-72, and in the Univer-
sity of Glasgow after 1872. He was distinguished as
an inventor and physicist. Died in 1892.

Thomson, (JOSEPH,) a Scottish explorer, born in
Dumfriesshire in 1857. He went to Africa in 1879 with
Keith Johnston the younger, and after the death of John-
ston young Thomson took charge of the expedition,
which he conducted safely and successfully. He made
other explorations in Africa 1883-85, iSSS, and 1891,
describing his travels in a number of books. Died
in 1895.

Thomson, (JOSEPH JOHN,) an English physicist,
born near Manchester in 1856. He became professor
of experimental physics at Cambridge in 1884. His
works include "Vortex Rings," (1884,) "Recent
Researches in Electricity and Magnetism," (1892,)
etc.

Thomson, (KATHARINE, nee By'erley,) an Eng-
lish authoress, born at Etruria, in Staffordshire, in iSoo.
She became the wife of Dr. A. T. Thomson, (q. v.,)
and the mother of J. Cockburn Thomson. She wrote
many books, partly in conjunction with her son. These
mostly appeared under the pseudonyms of " Grace and
Philip Wharton." Died at Dover, December 17, 1862.

Thomson, (RICHARD,) an English antiquary, born
In 1794, lived many< years in London. He published,
besides other works, "Chronicles of London Bridge,"
(1827.) Died in i86>

Thomson, (ROBERT DUNDAS,) F.R.S., a British phy-
sician and writer, born about 1805. He resided m
London, and published a " Cyclopaedia of Chemistry,
Mineralogy, and Physiology." Died in 1864.

Thomson, (THOMAS,) an eminent Scottish chemist
and physician, born in Perthshire in 1773. He studied
at the University of Saint Andrew's and a

i son of the
:ity of
' I792-



.- casx: %hard: gas/;G, H K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz.- thasinrtif.



Explanations, p. 2j



THOMSON



2312



THOREA U



.he articles on chemistry and mineralogy. He was one
of the first to suggest the use of chemical symbols. In
1813 he edited the " Annals of Philosophy" in London,
and in 1818 was appointed professor of chemistry in the
University of Glasgow. He published a " System of
Chemistry," (4 vols., 1802,) "Elements of Chemistry,"
(iSio,) " Outline of the Sciences of Heat and Electricity,"
"Travels in Sweden," (1813,) "The History of Chemis-
try," (1830,) "Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology," etc., (a
vols., 1835,) and other similar works, which enjoy a high
reputation. Died in 1852.

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen, 1
(SupplemenL)

Thomson, (THOMAS,) a Scottish botanist, was born at
Glasgow, December 4, 1817, and studied in the univer-
sity of that town. He entered the medical staff of the
East India Company in 1840, travelled extensively, and
was professor of botany, and director of the Calcutta
Botanic Garden, 1854-61. His " Western Himalayas
and Tibet" won a gold medal from the London Geo-
graphical Society. He published, at his own cost, a " Flora
of British India." Died in London, April 18, 1878.

Thomson, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish writer, born in
Perthshire in 1746, was .editor successively of the "Eng-
lish Review," " Political Magazine," and other journals,
and published " Memoirs of the War in Asia," and a
number of compilations. Died in 1817.

Thomson, (WILLIAM.) an English bishop, bom in
Cumberland in 1819. He became preacher of Lincoln's
Inn in 1858, Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol in 1861
and Archbishop of York in 1862. He wrote " An Out-
line of the Laws of Thought." Died Dec. 26, 1890.
Thomson, (Sir WILLIAM.) See KELVIN, LORD.
Thoniflsen, to'ne'soN', (GEORGES FRANCOIS,) a Bel-
gian economist, born at Hasselt in 1817. He wrote
several works on political economy. Died in 1891.

Thor, thor, (or toR,) or Thonr, (i.e. " thunder,") [Norse,
THONAR, of which Thor is, in all probability, a con-
traction ; in Anglo-Saxon he was variously called THUR,
THOR, THUNDER, and THUNER, both the last-named
terms signifying " thunder." Some writers, with less prob-
ability, have supposed the name to be allied to the Greek
9oipof, " impetuous," " resistless,"] in the mythology of
the North, the god of thunder, and also the god of
strength, was the eldest son of Odin. His mother was
Fjorgyn, (or the Earth.) He is sometimes called Oeku-
Thor, ("car Thor," or "driving Thor,") and Hlorridi,
"fire rider,") and sometimes Ving-Thor, ("winged
Thor.") As the god of thunder, he is sometimes styled
the Northern Jupiter ; and hence Thursday (Thor's day*)
is called, in the Latin of the middle ages, Jems dies,
(" Jupiter's day,") which the French have corrupted into
Jeudi. As the god of strength, and the great conqueror
of the giants, he resembles the Hercules of classic my-
thology. His only daughter was named Thrud, (i.e.
"strength,") and his dwelling-place is Thrudheim, (or
Thrudheimr,) the "home or habitation of strength," or
Thrudvangr, the "field" or "realm" of strength. His
vast hall, called Bilskirnir, has five hundred and forty
floors.

Thor appears to have been regarded in Iceland and
in some portions of Norway as the greatest of all the
gods, Odin not excepted. He had three possessions of
inestimable value, the hammer Mjolnir, (myol'nir,) the
terror of the giants and of all powers hostile to the
/Esir, his Megin-gjortS, (m<5g'in-gyorth,t) or "strength-
girdle," and his gloves of iron, with which he grasped
the handle of Mjolnir. In the legends of the North,
Thor is represented as hot-tempered, but at the same
time very frank and good-natured. He is said to be ac-

Thialfi (te-al'fe, i.e.
. . quick,") expressive

of the rapidity with which a thunder-storm flies over the
earth. His chariot is said to be drawn by goats, proba-



companied by the light-footed boy
"diligent") and the girl Roskva, ("



bly because these animals inhabit the highest mountain-
tops. Thor's wife, Sif, (seef,) with golden hair, is saic
to denote the autumnal earth, with its fields of ripening
.-.'orn. The ripening of the grain was supposed to be



jromoted by the lightning. Thor is called in the Edda
' Midgard's defender," or the defender of the habitation
of men. Although the most valiant of the gods, he is,
i fact, the personification of defensive war,} whose office
t is to protect the works of industry and the arts of
jeace. Hence he is, with great propriety, represented
is the husband and protector of Sif or Siva, (the "in-
violate,") the goddess of harvests. (See SIF.) For
some curious and interesting legends respecting Thor,
the reader is referred to Mallet's " Northern Antiquities,"
vol. ii. Fable XL, also Fables XXIII.-XXVII. At
Ragnarock (the " twilight or evening of the gods") Thot
will slay the World-Serpent, (see MIDGARD'S SERPENT,)
Dut will himself perish from the effects of its venom.

See THORPS, "Northern Mythology," vol. i. ; PETERSEN, " Nor-
disk Mythologi;" "Religion of the Northmen," by RUDOLPH
[CEYSKR. translated by BARCLAY PENNOCK, New York, 1854; also,
LONGFELLOW, " Poets and Poetry of Europe," p. 31 et seq.

Thorbecke, toR'beVkeh, (JAN RUDOLPH,) a Dutch
statesman, born at Zwolle in 1796. He became professor
of law at the University of Leyden about 1830. He was
one of seven persons charged in 1844 to propose a new
constitution, which the king rejected as too liberal. In
1848 he was placed at the head of a commission to revise
the constitution, and procured the adoption of reforms
similar to those which were rejected in 1844. He wa
prime minister from October, 1849, to April, 1853, and
was restored to that position in February, 1862. He
esigned in 1866. Died June 4, 1872.

Thorturn, (GRANT,) a Scottish writer, born near
Dalkeith in 1773. He emigrated to New York in 1794,
and became a dealer in garden-seeds. He wrote for the
newspapers under the signature of LAURIE TODD. Died
at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1863.

See his Autobiography, 1834 ; " Eraser's Magazine" for June, 1833

Thorbum, (ROBERT,) a Scottish portrait-painter,
born at Dumfries in 1818. He settled about 1836 in
London, where he produced numerous miniatures of great
merit. Among his master-pieces are miniature portraits
of the queen and several members of the royal family.
In 1848 he was elected an Associate of the Royal
Academy. Died November I, 1885.

Thordo, toR'do, or Thord Degen, toR da'gen, a
Danish lawyer of the fourteenth century, was chief judge
of the province of Jutland. He made a collection of
Danish laws, including the earliest They have been
translated into Latin by Ludewig.

Thordsoii, toRd'son, (STURLA,) a Danish historian,
born about 1218, was a nephew of Snorri Sturluson.
He filled several high offices under the government, and
was the author of a continuation of the history of Snorri
Sturluson. Died in 1288.

Thore, to'ri', (THEOPHILE,) a French republican,
journalist and critic, born about 1807. He founded in
Paris, in 1848, a journal called "The True Republic,'
and became an exile in 1851. He wrote critiques on art
inserted in the " Artiste" and the " Siecle," and edited
" L'Art moderne." Died at Paris, April 30, 1869.

Thoreau, Mo-ro' or Mo'r5, (HENRY DAVID,) an
American author and naturalist, born in Concord, Mas-
sachusetts, in 1817, was descended from an ancestor
who came from the island of Guernsey. His father was a
manufacturer of lead-pencils. The son was educated at
Harvard College, where he graduated in 1837. Besides
being a classical scholar, he was well versed in Oriental
literature. It is asserted that he had the best Oriental
library to be found in the United States. In his man-
ners, dress, and way of life he was eccentric. He was
bred to no profession ; and it is said that he never went
to church, never voted, and never paid a tax to the
State. He lived in the simplest manner ; he sometimes
practised the business of land-surveyor. In 1845 he
built a small frame house on the shore of Walden Pond,
near Concord, where he lived two years as a hermit, in
studious retirement. He published an account of this
portion of his life, in a small book entitled " Walden."
He was intimate with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Na-



published " Lectures to Young Men, ~_

Present," "The Christian Graces," and various other

works. Died in 1879.



He is nowhere represented as stirring up strife among men ;
on the contrary, all his hostility and all his prowess are exerted
-uo, x..,...-, T v, , ., (>1( . .,;. in-econciiable enemies of



T IRJhe contrary, all his hostility and all his

xiiuuAa, ^.,..., T v , ^ r . ,h,. azjrressive, irrec
and antiquary, born in Westminster ,,. .



a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; 4, e, 6, same, less prolonged: a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n5t; good; moon;



THORER



THORPE



thaniel Hawthorne. The former published a brief me-
moir of Thoreau, from which we extract the following:
"Mr. Thoreau dedicated his genius with such entire
love to the fields, hills, and waters of his native town,
that he made them known and interesting to all reading
Americans and to people over the sea. . . . He grew to
be revered and admired by his townsmen, who had at
first known him only as an oddity. ... I have repeat-
edly known young men of sensibility converted in a
moment to the belief that this was the man they were
in search of, the man of men, who could tell them all
they should do. . . . Whilst he used in his writings a
certain petulance of remark in reference to churches
and churchmen, he was a person of rare, tender, and
absolute religion, a person incapable of any profana-
tion." Thoreau was never married. He died in 1862.
He was the author of " A Week on the Concord and
Merrimac Rivers," "Excursions," (1863,) etc. A volume
of his letters was published in 1865.

See CHANNING, " Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist ;" SANBORN, " Life
of Thoreau;" JAPP, " Life and Aims of Thoreau."

Thorer, (ALBIN.) See TORINUS.

Thoresby, thorz'be, ? (RALPH,) an English antiquary
and Fellow of the Royal Society, born at Leeds in 1658.
His principal works are " The Topography of the Town
and Parish of Leeds," (" Ducatus Leodiensis,") and a
" History of the Church of Leeds," (" Vicaria Leodien-
sis.") He possessed a very valuable collection of coins,
manuscripts, etc. Died in 1725.

Thorigny. See BEAUFORT DE THORIGNY.

Thorild, to'rild, (THOMAS,) a Swedish scholar and
miscellaneous writer, born in Bohuslan in 1759. He
published, besides poems and prose essays in Swedish,
" Cromwell," an epic poem, and other works, in English.
Died in 1819.

Thorinus. See TORINUS.

ThorTs-mond, King of the Visigoths, was the eldest
!>on of Theodoric I. He fought bravely against Attila
at Chalons in 451 A.D., and succeeded his father in
that year. He was killed by his brother Theodoric in
452 A.D.

Tho'rl-us [Fr. pron. to're'us'] orTho'ris, (RAPHAEL,)
a French physician, who practised in England. Died
in 1625.

Thorkelin, toR'keh-leen', (GRIM JOHNSEN,) a distin-
guished scholar and antiquary, born in Iceland in 1752.
In 1786 he visited Great Britain and Ireland, and pub
lished in 1788 " Fragments of English and Irish History
in the Ninth and Tenth Century." He also wrote
several works in illustration of Danish and Norwegian
history. Died in 1829.

Thorlacius, tor-11'se-us, (SKULETHORDSEN,) born in
Iceland in 1741, was the author of a number of treatises
on Northern antiquities. Died in 1815.

His son B5RGE, born in 1775, became professor of
eloquence at Copenhagen, and published several classical
find antiquarian works. Died in 1829.

Thorlaksen, toR'llk'sen, or Thorlakson, (GuD-
BRAND,) an Icelandic writer, born in 1542, became a
bishop. Died in 1629. According to one authority, he
was born in 1642, and died in 1729.

Thorlaksson, toR'laks-son', (JOHN,) an Icelandic
poet, born in 1744, was a clergyman. He made a
translation of " Paradise Lost" into Icelandic, which is
highly commended. Died in 1819.

Thorn'bur-y, (GEORGE WALTER,) an English writer,
born about 1828. He published a " History of the
Buccaneers," (1855,) "British Artists from Hogarth to
Turner," (2 vols., 1861,) a "Life of Joseph M. W.
Turner," (1862,) a novel called "True as Steel," and
other works. Died June II, 1876.

Thorn'dike, (HERBERT,) an English divine and able
controversial writer. He became rector of Barley, in
Hertfordshire, in 1642, and obtained a prebend at West-
minster after the restoration. He was a learned Orien-
talist, and a zealous advocate of the Anglican Church.
Among his works are a " Discourse of Religious Assem-
blies and the Public Service of God," a " Discourse of
the Rights of the Church in a Christian State," and an
" Epilogue to the Tragedy of the Church of England."
Died in 1672.



Thorn'hill, (Sir JAMES,) a distinguished English
painter, born at Weymouth in 1676, was a nephew of
the celebrated physician Sydenham. Having travelled
in France, Holland, and other parts of the continent, he
was employed, after his return, in the decoration of the
cupola of Saint Paul's, London, the ceiling of the hall at
Greenwich Hospital, the palace at Kensington, and other
edifices. He was appointed historical painter to Queen
Anne, and was made a knight by George I. He opened
an academy for drawing in his house, where he num-
bered among his pupils the celebrated Hogarth, who
subsequently married his daughter. Died in 1734.

Thorn'ton, (BONNELL,) an English litterateur and
humorous writer, born in London in 1724. He wa
associated with George Colman in the proprietorship
of the "Saint James Chronicle," and wrote, conjointly
with Colman, the periodical essays entitled "The Con-
noisseur." He also translated the comedies of Plautus
into English blank verse, in conjunction with Colman
and Warner, and was the author of burlesque poems,
entitled " An Ode on Saint Cecilia's Day, adapted to
the Antient British Music," etc., and "The Battle of
the Wigs." Died in 1768.

Thornton, (JOHN ROBERT,) an English physician
and botanist, born about 1758, was a son of Thomas
Thornton, a writer on field-sports. He wrote "The
Philosophy of Medicine," etc., (5 vols.,) and "Temple
of Flora, or Garden of the Botanist, Poet, Painter, and
Philosopher." Died in 1837.

Thornton, (MATTHEW,) a patriot of the American
Revolution, born in Ireland in 1714. He was elected to
the General Congress by the people of New Hampshire
in 1776, and signed the Declaration of Independence.
Died in 1803.

Thornton, (PERCY MELVILLE,) an English his-
torian, born at London in 1841. He wrote "Eng-
land's Foreign Policy," (1880,) "The Stuart Dy-
nasty," (1890,) etc.

Thorn'y-croft or Thorn'ey-croft, (MARY FRAN-
CES,) an English sculptor, born at Thornham, Norfolk,
in 1814. She was married in 1840 to Mr. Thornycroft, a
sculptor. She executed for Queen Victoria statues of
the Prince of Wales, Prince Alfred, and Princess Alice.
Among her noted works are a " Sleeping Child," " A
Girl Skipping," etc. Died February i, 1895.

Thorn'ycroft, (WILLIAM HAMO,) a sculptor,
son of the preceding, was born at London in 1850.
He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1888. His
works of statuary include " Artemis," " The Mower,"
statues of General Gordon, John Bright, Cromwell,
etc.

Thor'old, (ANTHONY WILSON,) an English
bishop, born at Hougham, June 13, 1825. He gradu-
ated in 1847 at Queen's College, Oxford, and became
a clergyman of London. In 1874 he was made a
canon residentiary of York, in 1877 was consecrated
Bishop of Rochester, and in 1891 of Winchester.
He was distinguished for hie labours in the temperance
cause. Died in 1895.

Thorpe, thorp, (BENJAMIN,) an English philologist,
distinguished for 'his attainments in the Anglo-Saxon
tongue, was born about 1808. Among his publications
may be named "The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Story
of Apollonius," (1834,) the collection entitled "Ancient.
Laws and Institutes of England," etc., " Codex Exoni-
ensis," (1842,) and "Nortnern Mythology," or legends
of Scandinavia, Northern Germany, and Holland, (3
vols., 1852. ) Died in July, 1870.


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 347 of 425)