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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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the Prince of Wales in 1805. Died in 1837.

Jelal-ed-Deeu or Djelal-Eddin, jeh-lil' ed-deen',



(i.e. the "Splendour (or Glory) of Religion,") written also
Jalal-ed-Deen and Djalal-Eddin, King of Khorasmia,
who succeeded his father, Ala-ed-Deen, in 1218, was re-
nowned for his military ability and enterprise. He fought
numerous battles against Jengis Khan with various suc-
cess. It is said that he afterwards abandoned himself to
indolence and pleasure, and when a Mongol army in-
vaded his capital he fled, and was killed, in 1231.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale."

Jelal-ed-Deeu-Roomee, (Jelal-ed-Din-Raml or
Djelal-ed-dyu-Roumy,) jeh-lal' ed-deen-roo'mee, one
of the most eminent Persian poets, born at Bulkh or
Balkh, in Khorassan, about 1200. His father was a
noted doctor and preacher of the Soofee sect, who set-
tled at Iconium, (Konieh,) in Asia Minor, (called in Arabic
and Persian Room, because it was part of the empire
of Rome.) At his death, in 1233, Jelal-ed-Deen became
the chief of the Soofees. His "Mes'newee" ("Mesnewi")
or "Mesnevee," (i.e. poem with rhyming couplets,) less
correctly written " Metsnewee" or " Metsnevi," is re-
garded as an excellent model of the mystical style.
"This precious pearl of the ocean of mysticism departed
from this fragile world" in 1272.

Jelf, (RICHARD WILLIAM,) D.D., an English clergy-
man and author, born in London in 1798. He graduated
in 1820 at Oxford, and became a Fellow of Oriel and a
tutor, was made canon of Christ Church in 1831, was
Bampton lecturer in 1834, and in that year became prin-
cipal of King's College, London. He wrote several
theological works. Died at Oxford, September 19, 1871.

Jelf, (WILLIAM EDWARD,) D.D., a brother of the pre-
ceding, was born in Gloucester in 1811. He was educated
at Eton, and at Christ Church, Oxford, graduating in
1833. His "Greek Grammar" (1842-45) added greatly
to his fame. He also edited the "Ethics" of Aristotle.
Died October 18, 1875.

Jellachich von Buzim, von, fon yel'la-KiK' fon
boot'sJm, (FRANZ,) BARON, an Austrian general, born in
1746, fought with distinction in the principal campaign?
of the French Revolution, and rose to be lieutenaut-
field-marshal in 1800. Died in 1810.

Jellachich von Buzim, von, (JOSEPH,) Ban of Cro-
atia, son of the preceding, was born at Peterwardein in
1801. In the revolution of 1848 he was appointed Bar.,
or commander-in-chief, of the Croats, and had the prin-
cipal share in the victory of Schwechat, near Vienna,
over the Hungarians. He gained several advantages
over General Bern, but was at length defeated, (1849,) and
forced to retreat with considerable loss. Died in 1859.

See BALLEYDIEH, " Histoire de la Guerre de Hongrie."

Jel'lett, (JOHN HEWITT,) an Irish mathematician,
born at Cashel, December 25, 1817. He graduated at
Dublin University, took orders in the Episcopal Church
was made a Fellow of Trinity College in 1840, a pro-
fessor of natural philosophy in 1848, and provost of the
university in iSSr. He published various able mathe-
matical treatises. Died in 1888.

Jellinek, yel'le-nek', (ADOLPH,) a German philologist,
of Jewish extraction, born in Moravia in 1821, wrote on
the Cabala and on Oriental philology. Died in 1893.

See JOST, " Adolphe Jellinek et la Kabbale," 1852.

Jem or Djem, j Jm, sometimes called Zizim, a Turkish
prince, born in 1459, was a son of Mahomet II., and
younger brother of Bayazeed, (Bajazet.) At the death of
his father he aspired to sovereign power, but was de-
feated in battle by Bayazeed, (1481.) Jem became an exile,
passed some years in France, and died in Italy in 1495.

Jemlah or Djemlah, je'm'la, [Hindoo pron. jumla,]
(Mohammed, mo-ham'med,) called AMEER (or EM?R)
AL OMRA, (i.e. " Prince of the Nobles,") a famous states-
man and general, born near Ispahan. In 1652 he entered
the service of Aurung-Zeb, and was raised to the rank of
first vizier of the Mogul empire. Having been appointed
Viceroy of Bengal, he commanded in 1659 an expedition
against Assam, in which he displayed great talents and
prudence. Died in 1665.

See "JfouveUe Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Jemsheed or Jemshid, jSm-sheed', written also
Djemchyd, Dschemschid, and Jamshid, an ancient
Persian king, supposed to have ascended the throne
about 800 B.C. He greatly improved and embellished



eas/J,- ijasj; g/4ur</; gas/V G, a, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; thasinMif.



Explanations, p. 25.)



JEMSHW



1380



JENIFER



the city of Istakhar, or Persepolis, the ruins of which are
now known by the name of Chilminar, (" Forty Pillars.")
Tradition ascribes to him the introduction of the solar
year among the Persians, and the invention of tents. He
was dethroned by Zohak, an Arabian.

See ATKINSON, "Abridgment of the Shah Nameh of Firdausi;"
D'HERBELOT, " Bibliotheque Orientale."

Jemshid or Jemschid See JEMSHEED.

Jengis Khan, jen'gis Kin, (written also Djenguiz
Khan. Dschengis Chan, Tchenguyz TThan Chingia
Khan, and in various other modes,*) a celebrated Tartar
conqueror, born in 1 164, was the son of a Mongolian chief.
Having subdued a number of Mongol and Tartar tribes,
he caused himself to be proclaimed khan of the nation,
and about 1210 invaded China, took Peking, (1215,) and
in a few years gained possession of the northern prov-
inces. In 1218 he marched against Mohammed Koteb-
ed-Deen, King of Khorasmia, whom he defeated, and
afterwards destroyed Bokhara, Samarcand, and other
cities. Having subjected the whole of Persia, he gained
a victory over the King of Tangoot, and was proceeding
towards the south of China, when he died in 1 227, leaving
the principal part of his empire to his son Oktai. Jengis
Khan is said to have caused the destruction of five mil-
lions of human beings. He gave a code of laws, which
is still called by his name.

See DE GUIGNES, " Histoire ge'nirale des Huns," etc. : PBTIS
DB LA CROIX, " Histoire du grand Genghizcan ;" A. RBMUSAT,
" Nouvelles Melanges Asiatiques;" VON HAMMER-PURGSTALL,
" Geschichte der Goldenen Horde in Kiptschak," 1840; ANTOINB
GAUBM, "Histoire de Gentchiscan," 1739: ABOOLFBDA, " Annales
Moslemici :" KARAMZIN, " Histoire de Russie."

Jeuicheu or lenichen, ya'ne-Ken, (GoTTLOB AU-
GUST,) a German jurist and bibliographer, born at Leipsic
in 1709; died in 1750.

Jenisch, von, fon ya'nish, (BERNHARD,) BARON, a
German Orientalist, born at Vienna in 1743, became
in 1772 keeper of the Imperial Library. He pub-
lished "Persian Anthology," ("Anthologia Persica,"
1778,) and a "History of the Early Kings of Persia
after the Establishment of the Mohammedan Religion,"
(" Historia priorum Regum Persarum post firmatum in
Regno Islamismum ex Mohamede Mirkhond," 1792.)
Died in 1807.

Jenischius, ya-nis'Ke-us, (PAUL,) a Dutch or Flemish
writer, born at Antwerp in 1558. He published "Thea-
trum Animarum." Died in 1647.

Jenk'in, (ROBERT,) an English divine, born in the
isle of Thanet in 1656. He was educated at Cambridge,
and received several preferments ; but, refusing to take
the oaths of allegiance to William and Mary, he was
deprived of them all. He wrote "The Reasonableness
of the Christian Religion," (1696,) and several other
works. Died in 1727.

Jenkin or Jenk'yn, (WILLIAM,) an English Puritan
minister, born at Sudbury in 1612. He preached many
years in London, and published an " Exposition of the
Epistle of Jude," (1652,) which is called an excellent
work. His ministry was highly commended by Baxter.
He died in Newgate prison in 1685.

See J. SHERMAN, " Memoir of William Jenkin," 1839.

Jgnk'ins, (ALBERT G.,) an American general, born
in Cabell county, Virginia, about 1830. He represented
a district of Virginia in Congress, 1857-61. He served
under General Lee at Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863, and
was killed at the battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864.

JSnk'ins, (DAVID,) a Welsh judge, was born in Gla-
.norganshire in 1586. After the commencement of the
civil war he condemned to death several persons who
had fought against the king. He was taken prisoner by
the Parliamentary forces, and confined in the Tower, in
1645. Having been brought before the House of Com-
mons on a charge of high treason, he refused to kneel,
and called the House "a den of thieves." He was fined
jiooo, and imprisoned in Newgate. He was released
about 1660. He wrote several legal works. Died in 1667.

See WOOD. " Athenae Oxonicnses."

Jenk'ins, (EDWARD,) an English author,* born at
Bangalore, (Orissa,) in India, in 1838. He was educated



* This name is written in more tlinn twenty different modes, not
counting such forms (like Gentchiscan) as are manifest errors



at McGill College, Montreal, and at the University of
Pennsylvania. He was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn
in 1X64, was agent-general for Canada, 1874-76, and sat
in Parliament as an "Anti-Republican Liberal" of ad-
vanced social views, 1874-80. Among his works are
"Ginx's Baby," " Lord Bantam," " Little Hodge," "The
Church and the Law," " A Paladin of Romance," and
several other books and pamphlets treating on social,
political, and colonial questions.

Jenk'ins, (HENRY,) an Englishman, celebrated for
his longevity, born in Yorkshire in 1501 ; died in 1670.

Jenkins, (JOHN,) an English musician and composer,
born at Maidstone in 1592; died in 1678.

Jenkins, (JoHN S.,) an American author, born at
Albany, New York, February 15, 1818. He published,
besides other works, " Lives ot the Governors of the
State of New York," a "Lite of Silas Wright," and a
"Life of Jackson," (1847.) Died September 20, 1852.

Jenkins, (Sir LEOLINE,) a British civilian and states-
man, born in Glamorganshire in 1623. He fought on the
king's side in the civil war, and on the death of Charles
became tutor to several families in Wales. He was sub-
sequently obliged by Parliament to leave the country.
After the restoration he was chosen principal of Jesus
College, Cambridge. In 1665 he was appointed judge
in the court of admiralty, and in 1672 ambassador to
Holland. On his return he became secretary of state.
He was twice chosen member of Parliament for the
University of Oxford. His letters and manuscripts, con-
taining valuable diplomatic information, were published,
in 2 vols., in 1724. Died in 1685.

Jeuk'iii-son, (ANTHONY,) an Englishman, travelled
in Russia and Persia about 1560. His Adventures were
published by Hakluyt and Purchas.

Jenkinson, (CHARLES.) See LIVERPOOL, EARL OF.

Jenkinson, (ROBERT.) See LIVERPOOL, EARL OF.

JSnks, (BENJAMIN,) an English religious writer, born
in 1646, was curate of Kenley and Harley. He wrote
" Prayers and Offices of Devotion," (1697.) and " Medi-
tations on Important Subjects," (1701.) Died in 1724.

Jenks, (EDWARD,) an English historian, born at
Clapham in 1861. He became connected as lecturer
and professor with Oxford, Cambridge, and other uni-
versities, and published " Constitutional Experiments
of the Commonwealth," (1891,) " Law and Politics in
the Middle Ages," (1897,) etc.

Jgn'ner, (EDWARD,) M.D., celebrated for having in-
troduced the practice of vaccination, was born at Berke-
ley, in Gloucestershire, England, in 1749. He studied
surgery at Sodbury, and afterwards went to London,
where he attended the lectures of the celebrated John
Hunter, with whom he formed an intimate friendship.
He commenced practice at Berkeley, and obuined a
high reputation for skill. His attention was first called
to the subject of vaccination by hearing a countrywoman
remark that she could not take the smallpox, because she
had had the cow-pox. Upon investigating the subject,
he ascertained that milkers frequently caught a disease
from an eruption on '.he cow's udder, and that to such per-
sons it was impossible to communicate the smallpox by
inoculation. Jenner related the circumstance to several
eminent men in the profession ; but they treated it with
ridicule. By further experiments he clearly demonstrated
the fact that from one of the several eruptions to which
cows were subject, the true cow-pox, as he termed it,
could be propagated to the human body, and then from
one person to another, and that this was a preventive of
the smallpox. After nearly twenty years of experiments,
he published " An Enquiry into the Causes and Effects
of the Variola; Vaccinas," (1798;) and soon after more
than seventy physicians and surgeons signed a declara-
tion of their entire confidence in the truth of Jenner's
theory. He was rewarded by Parliament for his dis-
covery by a present of jio,ooo in 1802, and a grant of
, 20.000 in 1807. He also received marks of distinction
from the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia.
Died in 1823.

See DR. JOHN BARON, " Life of Dr. Jenner," 1817; DR. V*L
TIN " Notice historique surle Docleur Jenner," Nancy. i8v *
UOP, "Hulde aan E. Jenner," Rotterdam, 1813; J. A. DurAD.
" Notice historique sur le Dr. E. Jenner," 1824.



i, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, tat; met; not; good; moon;



JEtfNER



1381



JEROME



Jenner, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English physician,
born at Chatham in 1815, graduated in London in 1844.
He became professor of anatomy in University College
in 1848, and professor of clinical medicine there in
1857. He was appointed physician-in-ordinary to the
queen in 1862, and physician-in-ordinary to the Prince
of Wales in 1863. He established the difference be-
tween typhus and typhoid fevers, and published " Lec-
tures and Essays on Fever and Diphtheria," (1893.)
He was president of the Royal College of Physicians
1881-88. Died December 11, 1898.

J6n'ning8, (DAVID,) a learned dissenting minister,
born in Leicestershire, England, in 1691. He was ap-
pointed to an Independent church in Wapping, where
he preached about forty years. He wrote " An Appeal
to Reason and Common Sense for the Truth of the
Holy Scriptures" "An Introduction to the Knowledge
of Medals," (1763,) and a "Treatise on Jewish Antiqui-
ies," (1766, often reprinted.) Died in 1762.

Jennings, (HENRY CONSTANTINE,) an English an-
tiquary and virtuoso, born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, in
1731. He had a passion for the collection of medals,
antiquities, and works of art, by the purchase of which
he ruined his fortune. Died in 1819.

Jennings, (SARAH.) See MARLKOROUGH, DUCHFSS

OF.

Jensen, (ADOLPH,) a German musician and com-
poser, born at Konigsberg in 1837. He was espe-
cially distinguished as a song-writer. Died in 1879.

Jensen, ( WILHELM,) a German novelist, born near
Kiel in 1837. He studied medicine, and after 1860
engaged in journalism, editing several important news-
papers. His novels are especially noteworthy for their
fine descriptions of the sea. His principal works are
" Lieder aus Frankreich," (1871,) and " Rumen-
steine," ( 1888, English translation 1895.)

Jensoii, (NICOLAS.) See JANSON.

Jeu'yus, (SOAME,) a distinguished writer and politi-
cian, born in London in 1704, was educated at Cam-
bridge. At the age of twenty he married a young lady
of a large fortune, from whom he soon after separated.
He was several times elected to Parliament, and in 1755
was made a lord of trade. In politics he was a Tory.
His writings are conspicuous for elegance of style, wit,
and discrimination. Among them we may mention "A
Free Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Evil," (1757,)
"View of the Internal Evidence of the Christian Reli-
gion," (1776,) a work which attracted great attention,
and several poetical productions. Died in 1787.

Jeph'son, (ROBERT,) a dramatic writer, and captain in
the English army, was born in Ireland in 1736. He wrote,
besides other works, the tragedies of " Braganza," (1 775,)
and " The Count of Narbonne," which were successful,
and a poem entitled "Roman Portraits," (1797.) He
was master of the horse under twelve successive viceroys
of Ireland. Died in 1803.

Jeph'thah, [Heb. JinS',] a judge of Israel, about
1200 B.C.

See Judges xi. and xii.

Jequitmhonha, de, da zha'ke-teen-yon'ya, (FRAN
Cisco G6 ACAIBA DE Montesuma, originally named
FRANCISCO GOMES BKANDAU Montesuma,) VISCOUNT,
a Brazilian statesman, born at Bahia, March 23, 1794.
In 1808 he became a Franciscan monk, but soon aban-
doned his profession, went to Coimbra, studied medicine
and law, and graduated in 1816. Banished from Brazil
in 1823, he entered the Senate in 1851. Died in 1870.

Jer'dan, (WILLIAM,) a writer and critic, born at
Kelso, in Scotland, in 1782. He became a journalist,
and in 1817 established the " Literary Gazette," which
he edited in an able manner until 1850. He published
an interesting work, entitled " Men I have known,"
(1866.) Died in 1869.

Jereer, Jerir, or Djerir, jgh-reeR', [in German,
DSCHKRIR,] or, more fully, Jereer-Ibn-Ateeyah-At-
temeeniee, (Attemimi,) Ib'n a'tee'yah at-te-mee'mee,
surnamed ABUO- (Ai:0-) HAZRAH, (a'boo haz'ra,) a
celebrated Arabian poet, who lived at Bassora, (Basra,)
whence he was called EL-BASREE, (or -BASRY.) He



whence he was called EL-BASREE, (or -BASRY.) He
as k; if as s g haril: g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R. /.



excelled in almost every kind of poetry, in panegyric,
and in amatory pieces, but was most distinguished for
his wit and satiric powers. He died about 730 (or,
according to some authorities, about 700) A.r>.

JSr-e-mi'ah, I Heb. iTDT or ID'OT ; Lat. JEREMI'AS ;
Fr. JEREMIE,' zha'ra'me'; Ger. JEREMIAS, ya-ra-mee'is ;
It. GEREMIA, ja-ra-mee'a,] a prophet of Judah, who
lived about 600 B.C., was one of the four great prophets
of the Bible. He was the author of the greater part of
the book in the Old Testament which bears his name,
and of all the book of Lamentations. He is called
JEREMY in the New Testament. (Matthew xxvii. 9.)
Died about 580 B.C.

Jeremiah was Patriarch of Constantinople in 1572.
The Lutherans sent him a copy of the Confession of
Augsburg, hoping to obtain his approval of it ; but, on
the contrary, he condemned it in many of his writings.

Jeremie. See JEREMIAH.

Jeremie, jer'e-me, (Sir JOHN,) an eloquent lawyer,
born in Guernsey in 1795, at tne a g e * twenty was
admitted to the bar. In 1824 he was appointed chief
justice of Saint Lucia, in the West Indies. When he first
went to that island he was opposed to the abolitionists ;
but, improving the opportunities which he possessed
of investigating the subject at slavery, he formed very
different views. During the time that he held office in
Saint Lucia he ably enforced the laws for the ameliora-
tion of the condition of the slaves. On his return to
England, in 1831, he published " Four Essays on Colonial
Slavery." In 1836 he became justice of the supreme
court of Ceylon, and four years later Governor and Cap-
tain-General of Sierra Leone, where he died in 1841.
He was the author of a " Letter on Negro Emancipation
and African Civilization."

Jerichau, yek'i-Kow, (JENS ADOLF,) a Danish sculp-
tor of distinction, was born at Arsens, April 17, 1816;
died at Copenhagen, July 25, 1883. His wife, ELIZA-
BETH JERICHAU-BAUMANN, was born at Warsaw, No-
vember 19, 1819, and died at Copenhagen, July n, 1881.
She had a good reputation as a painter.

Jerlr. See JEREER.

Jerningham,jer'ning-am, (EDWARD,) an English poet,
born in 1727. Of his productions we may cite "The
Rise and Fall of Scandinavian Poetry," " Essay on the
Mild Tenour of Christianity," and "The Shakspeare
Gallery," which was praised by Edmund Burke. Died
in 1812.

Jer-o-bo'am [Heb. D>'3V] I, first King of Israel,
was elected king by the ten tribes who had revolted
from Rehoboam, the son of Solomon, 975 B.C. Died
about 954 B.C.

See I. Kings xi. to XV. ; II. Chronicles ix. to xiv.

Jeroboam H., a son of Joash, became King of Israel
in 834 or 825 B.C., and reigned forty-one years.

See II. Kings xii.

Jerome, je-rom' or jeVpm, [Lat. HIERON'YMUS; Fr.
JER&ME, zhi'rom'; Ger. HIEROM, hee'rom ; It. GIRO-
LAMo,je-rol'a-mo; Sp. GERONIMO, Ha-ron'e-mo,| SAINT,
or, more fully, Eu-se'bl-usHi-er-on'jr-musSo-phro'-
nl-us, one of the most learned of the Latin Fathers of
the Church, was born at Stridon, in Dalmatia or in Pan-
nonia, about 340 A.D. After receiving his education at
Rome, he visited Gaul, where he collected a valuable
library. He next travelled through Thrace, Pontus, and
Cappadocia, and finally fixed his residence in Syria. He
subsequently went to Jerusalem to study Hebrew. About
382 he returned to Rome, and became secretary to Pope
Damasus. Upon the death of that pontiff he removed
to a monastery at Bethlehem, where he died in 420 A.D.
A large portion of his writings were of a controversial
character, exhibiting great learning, eloquence, and in-
genuity, though too often betraying bigotry, passion, and
bitterness. But the works by which he will ever be
remembered and honoured are a treatise on the " Lives
and Writings of the Elder Christian Fathers," " Com-
mentaries on the Prophetical Books of the Old Testa-
ment, the Gospel of Saint Matthew, and several of the
Epistles of Saint Paul," and a translation of the Old and
New Testaments into Latin, known in the Romish
Church as the " Vulgate."

See ERASMUS, "Vita Doctoris Hieronymi," BSIe, 1319; SCHROKH,



'rilliii; s as s; th as in this,



Explanations, p. 23. ;



JEROME



1382



JESSEY



" Kirchenpeschichte," vol. xi. : MARTIANAY, " Vie de Saint- Jerome,"
1706; F. Z. COLLOMBET, " Histoire de Saint-Jerome," 1844; Josd
DE SIGUENZA, " Vida de San Geronimo," Madrid, 1595 ; SEBASTIANO
DOLCI," Maximus Hieronymus Vitassua: Scriptor," etc, 175? ; VILLE-
MAIN, "Tableau de ['Eloquence chre'tienne a-j quatrieme Siecle,"
1857: ViNCENZo ROMANI, " Compendio storico della Vita e degli
Scritti di S. Girolamo," 2 vols., 1844; ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allge-
meine Encyklopaedie. "
Jerome OF SANTA F6, (san'ta fa,) a learned Spanish

few, who lived about 1420. His Hebrew name was
OSHUA LARCHI. After making a careful examination
of the prophecies in regard to the Messiah, he was con-
vinced of the truth of Christianity. He wrote a treatise
on the errors of the Jewish faith, and another against
the Talmud.

Jerome de fcardie. See HIERONYMUS.
Jerome of Prague, [Lat. HIERON'YMUSPRAGEN'SIS,]
f ne of the most distinguished followers of John Huss,
was born in the city from which he took his surname. He
studied at the Universities of Paris, Heidelberg, and Co-
logne, each of which conferred upon him the diploma of
D.D. About 1400 he became acquainted with John Huss,
whose doctrines he soon after began to preach with great
effect in Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland. In 1415, when
Huss was arrested, Jerome prepared to go to Constance
to defend him. Being informed, however, of the great
hostility felt there towards reputed heretics, he retired
to Eberlingen, and afterwards attempted to return to
Bohemia, but was arrested, and placed in the custody
of the Prince of Salzburg, who sent him in chains to
Constance, where he was thrown into prison and treated
with great cruelty. On a third examination before the
council, he signed a recantation of the doctrines of Huss
in regard to transubstantiation ; but a few months after he
bitterly repented of this, and declared that fear of a cruel
death alone induced him to do it. He was thereupon
condemned as a heretic, and sentenced to be burnt on
the 3Oth of May, 1416. He suffered with the greatest
firmness, serenity, and Christian heroism, and his death
excited the highest admiration even in his enemies.

Jerome, ((EROME KI.APKA,) an English humourist,
born at Walsall in 1859. He was successively clerk,
school-master, actor, and journalist, being editor of
"Idler" 1892-97, and of "To-Day" 1893-97. His
first and greatest success as a humourous writer was
with "Three Men in a Boat," (1889.) He subse-
quently published numerous other works.

JSr'ram, (CHARLES,) an English theologian, born in
1770, was vicar of Chobham, Surrey. He published,
besides other works, "Conversations on Infant Baptism,"
(3d edition, 1826.) Died about 1853.

See " Memoirs of C. Jerram," by his son, 1855.

Jer'rold, (DOUGLAS WILLIAM,) celebrated as a hu-
mourist, a journalist, and a dramatical and satirical
writer, was born in London in 1803. He was the son
of the manager of Sheerness Theatre, where he imbibed
his taste for dramatic literature. He was apprenticed
to a printer in London, in which situation he diligently
improved his leisure hours in the study of literature and
the languages. Shakspeare was his favourite book. His
first production was an essay on the opera of " Der Frei-
schiitz," which he enclosed anonymously to the editor
by whom he was then employed. The article was highly
commended, and Jerrold had the satisfaction of placing
it in type. Thus encouraged, he wrote "Black-Eyed


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 35 of 425)