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tavian government, ambassador to Peking. He died in
1812, leaving several valuable works in manuscript;
among these we may name "Memoirs and Anecdotes
of the Reigning Dynasty of the Djogouns, Sovereigns
of Japan," etc., published in French by Abel Remusat.

Tittmann, tit'mln, (FRIEDRICH WILHELM,) a Ger-
man historical writer, born at Wittenberg in 1784. He
published, besides other works, a treatise "On Know-
ledge and Art in History," (1817,) " Exposition of the
Greek Constitutions,") 1822,) " History of Henry the Illus-
trious," (2 vols., 1845,) an d " Life an< 3 Matter," (" Leben
und Stoff," 1855.) Died at Dresden, May 23, 1864.

Tittmann, (JOHANN AUGUST HEINRICH,) an eminent
Protestant theologian, born at Langensalza, in Germany,
in 1773. He studied at Leipsic, where he became first
professor of theology in 1818. He published a " Manual
of Homiletics," " Encyclopaedia of Theological Science,"
(1798,) "Theocles, a Conversation on Belief in God,"
('799.) "Pragmatic History of Theology and Religion
in the Protestant Church during the Second Half of the
Eighteenth Century," (1805, unfinished,) "On Super-
naturalism, Rationalism, and Atheism," (1816,) and
other standard works of the kind. He also prepared
editions of the Greek New Testament and the " Libri
Symbolici," and a Latin treatise "On the Synonyms
of the New Testament." Died in 1831.

Tittmann, (KARL AUGUST,) brother of the preceding,
was born at Wittenberg in 1775. He studied at Leipsic
and Gottingen, and rose to distinction as a jurist. He
published a "Manual of the Science of Criminal Law,"
etc., (1807,) and other similar works. Died in 1834.

TTtus, [Gr. Tirof ; Fr. TITE, tet,] a disciple of Saint
Paul, who was converted by him to Christianity, and
subsequently accompanied him to Corinth, Ephesus, and
other cities.

See SAINT PAUL, " Epistle to Titus."

Ti'tuB, [Fr. TITK, tet; It. TITO, tee'to,] or, more
fully, Ti'tus Fla'vl-us Ves-pa-sl-a'nus, Emperor of
Rome, born in 40 A.D., was the son of Vespasian, and
was educated at the court of Nero. He early distin-
guished himself by his military talents in Britain and
Germany, and assisted his father in quelling an insurrec-
tion of the Jews, (67 A.D.) After the death of Vitelhus,



; sas-f; gAard; gas/;G,H, K.,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in Mir. (J[^=See Explanations, p. 23.)



TITYUS



2326



TODHUNTER



Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, in 69 A.D., and Titus,
having been appointed commander of the army of Judea,
laid siege to Jerusalem, which was taken by storm in 70
A.D. On the death of Vespasian, in 79 A.D., Titus be-
came emperor, and, by the wisdom and benignity of
his rule, acquired the affection and reverence of his sub-
jects, who gave him the name of "The love and delight
of the human race." Under his reign a great part of
Rome was destroyed by a conflagration, which was fol-
lowed by the plague, of which many thousands perished
daily. He completed the Flavian Amphitheatre, (Co-
losseum,) which had been commenced by his father. It
is stated that at the end of a day in which he had per-
formed no act of beneficence, he exclaimed, " My friends,
I have lost a day!" Died in 81 A.D.

See SUETONIUS, "Titus;" TACITUS, "History;" MERIVALK,
M History of the Romans under the Empire ;" TILLHMONT, " His-
toire des Empereurs ;" J. H. JUNG, "Dissertatio de Tito Impera-
tore," 1761; ROLLAND, " Histoire des Empereurs Vespasien et
Titus," 1830; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Tit'jf-us, [Gr. TITOOC; Fr. TITYE, te'te',] a giant of
classic mythology, was called a son of Terra, or of
Jupiter and Elara. Having offered violence to Latona,
he was killed by Apollo and Diana, and cast down to
Tartarus. According to Virgil, his body extended over
nine acres of ground. (See " ^tneid," book vi. 595.)

Tixier, (JOHN.) See RAVISIUS TEXTOR.

Tizian or Tiziano. See TITIAN.

Toaldo, to-il'do, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian geographei,
born near Vicenza in 1719, became professor of physical
geography and astronomy at Padua in 1762. Among
his principal works are a "Treatise on Gnomonics,"
"Meteorological Essay on the True Influence of the
Stars," (1770,) and "Compendium of Spherics and
Geography," (1773.) Died in 1798.

See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italian! Ulustri."

Tobar, de, di to-baa', (ALFONSO MIGUEL,) a Span-
ish painter, born near Aracena in 1678, produced good
copies of some works of Murillo. Died in 1758.

Tobiesen. See DUBY.

To'bin, (GEORGE,) an English admiral, born at Salis-
bury in 1768, served against the French in the campaigns
of 1782 and 1804. Died in 1838.

Tobin, (JOHN,) an English dramatist, born at Salis-
bury in 1770, was the author of several comedies, one
of which, entitled "The Honeymoon," obtained great
popularity. Died in 1804.

See "Memoirs of John Tobin," by Miss BKNGKK, 1830:
'Monthly Review" for May, 1820.

Tobler, to'bler, (TlTUS,) a Swiss traveller and lit-
tfratcur, born at Stein in 1806, visited Palestine, and
published, after his return, " Topography of Jerusalem
and its Environs," (1853.) Died January 21, 1877.

Tochon d'Annecy, to'shdN' dSn'se', (JOSEPH FRAN-
COIS,) a French numismatist, born near Annecy in 1772.
Among his works is " Researches on the Medals of the
Nomes or Prefectures of Egypt," (1822.) Died in 1820.

Tocque, to'ka', (Louis,) a French portrait-painter,
born in Paris in 1696; died in 1772.

Tocqueville, de, deh tok'vil or tok'vel', (ALEXIS
CHARLES HENRI CLEREL,) an eminent French states-
man and political philosopher, born in Paris on the 2gth
of July, 1805. He studied law, (1823-26,) and became
judge-auditor at the tribunal of Versailles in 1827. In
1831 he visited the United States in company with his
friend Gustave de Beaumont, having received a mission
to examine the penitentiary systems of that republic.
He passed a year in the United States, returned home,
resigned his office in 1832, and published in 1835 the first
volume of his work " On Democracy in America," (" De
la Democratic en Ame'rique," 4 vols., 1835-40,) the suc-
cess of which was prodigious. Royer-Collard affirmed
that since Montesquieu nothing comparable to it had
appeared. De Tocqueville predicted the progress and
predominance of democracy in the world, although his
own predilections were in the opposite direction. He
married an English lady, named Mary Mottley, about
1835, became a member of the Academy of Moral and
Political Sciences in 1838, and was elected to the Cham-
ber of Deputies in 1839. In 1841 he was admitted into
the French Academy. He was elected in 1848 to the
Constituent Assembly, in which he supported the cause



of order, and he voted for Cavaignac in the election of
president. He was minister of foreign affairs from June
2 to October 31, 1849, and was driven from the public
service by the coup cTltat of December 2, 1851. In 1856
he published " The Old Regime and the Revolution,"
(" L'ancien Regime et la Revolution,") a work of much
merit. Died at Cannes in April, 1859. Commenting on
his " Democracy in America," the " Edinburgh Review"
of April, 1861, says, " Far from having suffered from
the lapse of a quarter of a century, it has gained in
authority and interest, from the inexhaustible depth, the
unflinching truth, and the extraordinary foresight which
re its characteristics."

See G. DE BEAUMONT, notice prefixed to an edition of his Worki
and Letters, 1860; LACORDAIRE, "Discours de Reception a 1'Aca-
de"mie Francaise," 1861 ; SAINTE-BBUVE, "Nouvelles Causeries du
Lundj;" REMUSAT'S article in the " Revue des Deux Mondes" for
August i, 1856; "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;" "Edinburgh
Review" for September, 1836. and July, 1849: "Quarterly Review"
for October. 1861 : " North British Review" tor May. 1861 ; "Atlantic
Monthly" for November, 1861.

Tocqueville, de, (HERV* Louis FRANCOIS JOSEPH
CLEREL,) COMTE, a French peer and historical writer,
born in 1772, was the father of the preceding. He was
prefect of the departments of Moselle, Somme, and
Seine-et-Oise between 1816 and 1827. He wrote, be-
sides other works, a " Philosophic History of the Reign
of Louis XV.," (2 vols., 1846.) Died in 1856.

Tod, (ELI,) M.D., an American physician, born at
New Haven, Connecticut, about 1768, was one of the
founders of the Insane Retreat at Hartford, of which he
became president. Died in 1833.

Tod, (Lieutenant-Colonel JAMES,) an English officer,
born in 1782, entered the East India service, and wa
appointed in 1817 political agent He was the authot
of "Travels in Western India," etc., and "Annals of
Rajisthan ;" the latter contains an excellent map of
Rajpootana. Died in 1835.

Todd, (Rev. HENRY JOHN,) an English clergyman
and writer, born in 1763, studied at Hertford College,
Oxford, and rose through several preferments to be
Archdeacon of Cleveland in 1832. He published a
"Life of Archbishop Cranmer," (1831,) "Memoirs of
the Life and Writings of the Right Reverend Brian
Walton," and other works ; he also edited Milton's
"Poems" and "The Works of Edmund Spenser." Died
in 1845.

Todd, (Rev. HUGH,) an English writer, born in Cum-
berland in 1658, lived at Carlisle. Died in 1728.

Todd, (JAMES HENTHORNE,) a clergyman and an-
tiquary, born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1805. He became
professor of Hebrew in the University of Dublin, and
published several works on theology, etc. Died in 1869.

Todd, JOHN,) D.D., an American Congregational
divine, born at Rutland, Vermont, in 1800, settled in
1842 as pastor at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. He was
one of the founders of the Mount Holyoke Female Semi-
nary. Among his works we may name " Lectures to
Children," (1834,) also translated into several languages,
"The Student's Manual," (1835,) which had a very
extensive sale both in America and Europe, and was
translated into French, " The Bible Companion," " The
Sabbath-School Teacher," (1836,) and "The Lost Sister
of Wyoming," (1841.) Died August 24, 1873.

Todd, (ROBERT BENTLEY,) a physician and writer on
physiology, a brother of James H. Todd, noticed above,
was born about 1810. He graduated at Oxford, and
subsequently settled in London. He became associate
editor of the "Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology"
in 1836, and published, among other works, a treatise
" On the Anatomy of the Brain, Spinal Cord, and Gan-
glions," (1845,) a "d " Physiological Anatomy and Phy-
siology of Man," (2 vols., 1845-56.) He was appointed
physician to King's College Hospital. Died in 1860.

Toderlni, to-di-ree'nee, (GIAMBATTISTA,) an Italian
writer, born at Venice in 1728, published a work "On
Turkish Literature," (3 vols., 1787.) Died in 1799.

Tod'hun-ter, (ISAAC,) an English mathematician, born
at Rye in 1820. He was educated at University College,
London, and at Saint John's College, Cambridge, where
he graduated as senior wrangler in 1848, becoming a
Fellow of his college. He wrote treatises on " Diner-



a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; i, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscurt; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;



TODHUNTER



2327



TOLLIUS



ential Calculus," "Analytical Statics," "Integral Calcu
lus," " Algebra," " Trigonometry," " History of the Cal
culus of Variations," and numerous other mathematical
works. Died March 2, 1884.

Todhunter, (JOHN,) a British author, born at
Dublin in 1839. He graduated in medicine at Trinity
College, practised until 1874, and then devoted him-
self to literature in London. His works consist of
poems, plays, etc., among his plays being " The
Poison Flower," (1891,) "The Black Cat," (1893,)
and " A Comedy of Sighs," (1894.)

Todleben, tot'la'ben, (FRANCIS EDWARD,) a Russian
general and engineer, of German extraction, born at
Mitau in 1818. He served with distinction in the Crimean
war of 1854, and was afterwards created general of engi-
neers. In 1878 he was appointed commander-in-chief
of the Russian army before Constantinople. Died in
1884.

Toepfer. See TAPPER.

Toepffer. See TSPFFER.

Tograi, to-grl', or Togbrai, a celebrated Persian
poet, born at Ispahan about 1060. He became vizier to
Masood, Sultan of Mosul, and, after the defeat of that
prince by his brother Mahmood in 1120 A.D., was taken
prisoner and put to death. His principal work is an
elegiac poem, entitled "Lamiato 1'Ajam," which has
passed through several editions and been translated into
Latin, English, French, and German.

Togrul or Thogrul-Beg, (or -Bek,) to'grSol big,
written also Tugrol, the founder of the Seljookide
dynasty in Persia, was a grandson of Seljook, (Seljuk.)
He became king or chief of his tribe about 1038, and
conquered Persia by victories over the Sultan Mahmood
and his son Masooi Died about 1065.

Togrul II., the last Sultan of the Seljookide dynasty,
began to reign in 1176 ; died in 1194.

Togrul-Beg, (or -Bee.) See TOGRUL,

ToinardorTnoynard,twa'njR', (NICOLAS,) a French
numismatist, born at Orleans in 1629; died in 1706.

Toiras, de, deh twa'ra', (JEAN de Saint-Bonnet
deh siN'bo'nJ',) SEIGNEUR, a French general, born in
Languedoc in 1585. He fought against the Huguenots,
and in 1625 took the Isle of Rhe, which he defended
against the English Duke of Buckingham in 1627. For
his defence of Casal he was rewarded with the rank of
marshal of France in 1630. He was killed at a siege in
the Milanese in 1636.

Tokely, to'kal, (EMMERIC,) a Hungarian patriot,
born in 1656. Having taken up arms against the Aus-
trian government, he solicited aid from the Sultan Ma-
homet IV., who in 1682 declared him King of Hungary.
After waging war many years, with varying success, he
was compelled to take refuge in Turkey, where he died
in 1705.

Toktamish-Aglen, tok'tl-mish Sg'len, a warlike
Khan of Kaptchak, in Tartary, was a descendant of Jengis
Khan. He began to reign m 1376, invaded Russia in
1382, and took Moscow. Soon after this event he was
involved in a war with Tamerlane, who defeated and
deposed him about 1395. Died in 1406.

To'land, (JOHN,) a deistical and controversial writer,
born near Londonderry, in Ireland, in 1669. He studied
at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh, and sub-
sequently at Leyden, where he became acquainted with
Leibnitz. His first publication, entitled "Christianity
not Mysterious," (1696,) caused a great sensation and
gave rise to a protracted controversy. He afterwards
produced " A Life of Milton," (1698,) " Amyntor, or a
Defence of Milton's Life," (1699,) " Anglia Libera, or
the Limitation and Succession of the Crown of England
Explained and Asserted," (1701,) "Socinianism Truly
Stated," etc., (1705,) and other works. He was patronized
by Harley, secretary of state, who in 1707 sent him to
the continent as a political agent or spy. Toland was a
pedantic and mediocre writer. Died in 1722.

See DES MAIZEAUX, "Life of John Toland," 1726; MOSHEIM,
"De Vita, Fatis et Scriptis J. Tolandi," 1722; LELAND, " DeisticaJ
Writers;" NICERON, " Mdmoires."

* See Introduction, p. 9, 16.



Toldy, tol'de, (almost tolj,) (F. S.,) a Hungarian
critic and writer, born at Buda in 1805. He published,
besides other works, a "History of the Hungarian Lan-
guage and Literature," (3 vols., 1851-55.) He was pro
lessor of medicine at Pesth, 1838-44. Died in 1875.

Toledo, de, di to-la'oo, [Lat. TOLE'TUS ; Fr. TOLK.J,
to'14',] (FRANCISCO,) a learned Spanish cardinal, born
at C6rdova in 1532. He was professor of philosophy
and theology at Rome, and gained distinction as a
pulpit orator. He wrote a work on Casuistry, (1602.)
Died at Rome in 1596.

Toledo, de, (PEDRO,) a Spanish statesman, born neai
Salamanca in 1484, was a son of Frederick of Toledo,
Duke of Alba. He obtained the title of Marquis of
Villafranca from his marriage with a lady of that house.
He was patronized by the emperor Charles V., whc
aprx inted him in 1532 Viceroy of Naples. He died in
1553, a ^ ter . a Prosperous rule of more than twenty years,
during which he greatly enlarged and improved the citj
of Naples and adorned it with splendid edifices.

See GIANNONE, " Storia civile del Regno di Napoli ;" BOTTA,
" Storia d'ltalia."

Toledo, de, (RODRIGO,) [Lat. RODERI'CUS TOLETA'-
NUS,] a distinguished prelate and historian, born in
Navarre about 1170, was originally named RODRIGO
XIMENES. He became Bishop of Siguenza in 1192,
and subsequently Archbishop of Toledo. He was the
author of a History of Spain, (" Rerum in Hispania
GestarumChronicon," 1545,) and History of the Western
Arabs, ("Historia Arabum," 1603,) both of which are
highly esteemed.

Toler, (JOHN,) Earl of Norbury, born in the county
of Tipperary, Ireland, in 1745. He was successively
appointed solicitor -general, (1789,) attorney-general,
(1798,) and chief justice of the common pleas, (1800.)
He afterwards received the title of Earl of Norbury and
Viscount Glandine. He enjoyed a high reputation as a
jurist, but he was still more celebrated for his brilliant
wit and repartee. He presided at the trial of Robert
Emmet. Died in 1831.

See " Eccentric Personages," by WM. RUSSELL, 1866.

Tolet or Toletus. See TOLEDO, DE, (FRANCISCO.)

Toletanua. See TOLEDO, DE, (RODRIGO.)

Tolken or Toelken, tol'ken, (ERNST HEINRICH,) a
German archaeologist, born at Bremen in 1785, pub-
lished a number of treatises on ancient art He be-
came professor in the University of Berlin in 1823, and
director of the cabinet of antiques in 1832. Died 1864.

Toll, tol, (KARL,) COUNT, a Russian genera), born
near Hapsal, Esthonia, in 1778, served against the
French in the campaign of 1812, and subsequently in
the Turkish war of 1829. Died in 1842.

Tollens, tol'lens, (HENDRIK CORNELISZOON,) a dis-
tinguished Dutch poet, born at Rotterdam in 1780. His
poem "On the Death of Egmont and Hoorn" (1806)
obtained a prize from the Society for the Promotion of
National Poetry, and was followed by a collection of
lyrics which became widely popular and are esteemed



Arms," (" Wapenkreet,") and " The Wintering of the
Hollanders in Nova Zembla." In 1850 the King of
Holland bestowed upon him the order of the Dutch
Lion. Died in 1856.

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" VAN EICH-
STORFP, " H. Tollens, biographische Schets en Proeve en Kritiken
ran zijne Dichtungen ;" " Fraser's Magazine" for December, 1854.

Tol'let, (ELIZABETH,) an English scholar and poetess,
born in 1694, was a friend of Sir Isaac Newton. Died
;n 1754.

Her nephew, GEORGE TOLLET, wrote notes on Shak-
speare. Died in 1779.

Tollius, tol'le-us, (CORNELIS,) a Dutch philologist,
jorn at Utrecht about 1620, was a pupil of Vossius, and
afterwards his private secretary. He published editions
of several of the classics. Died about 1652.

Tollius, (HERMANN,) a Dutch philologist, born at
Breda in 1742. He became professor of Greek at Ley-
den, where he died in 1822.

Tollius, (JACOB,) brother of Cornelis, noticed above,



t as k; 9 as s: g hard; g as/; G, H, K.,guttiiral; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t: th as in this.



Explanations, p. 23.



TOLMACH



2328



TONE



was born at Utrecht about 1630. He studied under
Vossius, and became professor of history and eloquence
at Duisburg in 1679. He was the author of several phi-
lological and scientific treatises. Died in 1696.

Tolmach. See TALMASH, (THOMAS.)

Tolomei, to-lo-ma'ee, or Tolommei, (CLAUDIO,) an
Italian scholar and diplomatist, born at Sienna in 1492.
He was sent in 1552 on a mission to the French court,
on which occasion he delivered an eloquent oration in
the presence of Henry II. He was the author of several
poems and orations, and a collection of letters which
rank among the best compositions of the kind in the
language. Died in 1554.

See TIRABOSCHI, " Storia della Letteratura Italiana :" LONGFEL-
.ow, "Poets and Poetry of Europe,"

Tolomei, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) a learned Italian
cardinal, born at Florence in 1653. He was employed
by Clement XI. in important affairs. Died in 1726.

Tolomeo, the Italian of PTOLEMY, which see.

Tolommei. See TOLOMEI.

Tolstoi. See OSTERMANN-TOLSTOI.

Tol'stoi, (ALEXIS,) COUNT, a Russian author, born
September 5, 1817. His tragedies " Ivan the Terrible,"
" Czar Feodor," and " Czar Boris" form a trilogy. He
was also noted for his novels and poems. Died 1875.

Tolstoi, tol'stoi, (FEODOR PETROVITCH,) a Rus-
sian sculptor, born at St. Petersburg in 1783, became
professor of sculpture in the Academy of that city.

Tolstoi, (LEO NIKOLAIEVITCH,) COUNT, an emi-
nent Russian author and reformer, was bom at Yasnaya
Poliana, August 28, 1828. He studied at Moscow and
Kazan, joined the army, and was present at the storm-
ing of Sebastopol in 1855. He had already become
well known as a poet and novelist, and, leaving the
army, travelled in Germany and Italy. He married in
1862, and afterwards lived on his estate near Moscow.
After the Crimean war he published several works on
military and other subjects, becoming famous by
his graphic " War and Peace," (i 86 1-68,) and his
notable novel of social relations, " Anna Karenina,"
(1875-78.) He subsequently devoted himself to the
reform of social and industrial conditions, threw aside
the distinctions of rank, and lived and labored like a
peasant, devoting himself to good works. He wrote
numerous other works, dealing with industrial, social,
and sexual relations, and advocating what seemed a
morbid asceticism, in which, however, the world gave
him the highest credit for sincerity and altruistic de-
votion.

To-lum'nI-ua, (L.AR,) was King of the Veientes in
438 B.C., and persuaded the people of Fidenae to kill four
Roman ambassadors. He was killed in single combat
by Cornelius Cossus.

Tomacelli See BONIFACE IX.

Tomaschek, to'ma-skek', (WENZEL JOSEF,) a Ger-
man musician and composer, born in Bohemia in 1774;
died in 1850.

Tomaselli, to-ma-sellee, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian natu-
ralist, born near Verona in 1733 ; died in 1818.

Tomasini, to-ma-see'nee, or Tommaaini, tom-ma-
ee'nee, (JACOPO FILIPPO,) an Italian antiquary and
priest, born at Padua in 1597. He published, besides
other works, a "Life of Livy," (1630,) a " Life of Pe-
trarch," (" Petrarcha Redivivus," 1635,) and " Eulogies
of Illustrious Men," (2 vols., 1630-44.) Died in 1654.

Tomek, to'mek, (WACLAW WLADIWOJ,) a Bohemian
(Czech) historian, born at Koniggratz, May 31, 1818. In
1850 he became a professor in the Prague University.
He published various works, including histories of Bo-
hemia and of Austria, which have been translated into
"Oerman.

TomOIne, (GEORGE,) an English prelate, bom in
Suffolk in 1750, was originally named PRETYMAN, but
assumed that of Tomline in compliance with the wishes
of a gentleman who left him a large fortune. He studied
at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, was elected Fellow of
the college in 1773, and subsequently became tutor to
Mr. Pitt. When that statesman obtained the office of
first lord of the treasury, Tomline was appointed his



secretary. He was made Bishop of Lincoln and Dean
of Saint Paul's in 1787, and in 1820 Bishop of Win-
chester. He was the author of " The Elements of Chris-
tian Theology," (1799,) a " Life of the Right Honourable
William Pitt," (1821,) a "Refutation of Calvinism," and
a number of sermons. Died in 1827.

Tomlina, (ELIZABETH SOPHIA,) an English writer,
born in London in 1768, published a number of poems,
" The Victim of Fancy," and other novels, and mad:
several translations from the French. Died in 1828.

Tomlins, (FREDERICK GUEST,) an English journalist,
born about 1804. He edited several periodicals, and
originated the Shakspeare Society, (1840.) Died in 1867.

Tom'lin-Bpn, (CHARLES,) F.R.S., an English author,
born in London, November 27, 1808. His father was a
common soldier. The younger Tomlinson was chiefly
self-educated, and became an instructor in King's Col-
lege, London. Among his numerous works are " Nat-
ural Philosophy," (1838,) "Rudimentary Mechanics,"
(1840,) "Amusements in Chess," (1845,) "Illustrations
of Useful Arts," (in several series,) "The Thunder-
storm," (1859,) "The Dew-Drop and the Mist," (1860,)
" On the Sonnet," (1874,) a rhymed translation of Dante's
"Inferno," (1877,) "Original and Translated Sonnets,"
(iSSi,)etc. Died in 1897. His wife, (died in 1872,) whose
maiden name was WINDSOR, was author of several books.

Tommaseo, tom-mS-sa'o, (NiccoL&,) a distinguished
statesman and scholar, born in Dalmatia about 1804.
He was educated in Italy, and resided subsequently
for a considerable time at Venice. After the revolution
of 1848 he was appointed minister of instruction and
religious affairs. After Venice had surrendered to the
Austrians in 1849, he took refuge in Corfu. He pub
lished a treatise "On Education," (1834,) "New Die
tionary of Synonyms," (1835.) "Critical Studies," (1843,)


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 352 of 425)