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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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botanist, born in New York in 1798. He published
in 1819 a catalogue of the plants in the neighbourhood
of New York, which was succeeded in 1824 by the first
volume of his " Flora of the Northern United States."
In conjunction with Professor Gray, he produced a
"Flora of North America," (1838.) He was appointed
in 1827 professor of chemistry and botany in the College
of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. He also pre-
pared the botanical reports of the natural history survey
of the State of New York, (1844.) Died March 10, 1873.

Torricelli, tor-re-sel'lee or tor-re-chel'lee, (EvANGE-
LISTA,) an eminent Italian natural philosopher, born at
Piancaldoli, in the Romagna, in 1608. He studied mathe-
matics at Rome under Benedetto Castelli, discovered
the law which regulates the flowing of water out of an
orifice of a vessel, and wrote a treatise on Motion. This
commended him to the favour of Galileo, who invited
him to Florence. Torricelli went thither in 1641, and
remained with Galileo until the death of the latter. He
was appointed professor of mathematics at Florence by
the grand duke Ferdinand. He discovered a method of
ascertaining the area of a cycloid. His chief title to
celebrity is the discovery of the Torricellian vacuum and
the invention of the barometer, which occurred in 1643.
He filled with mercury a glass tube about three feet long,
closed at one end, and inserted the open end in a quan-
tity of mercury. He thus found that a vacuum was
formed at the upper end of the tube, and that the column
of mercury supported by the pressure of the atmosphere
remained about twenty-nine or thirty inches high. He
published "Opera Geometrica," (1644.) Died at Flor-
ence in October, 1647.

See FABRONI, "Vita; Italorum doctrina excellentium :" TIRA-
BOSCHI, " Storia della Letteratura Italiana ;" " Nouvelle Biographie
G<Sne>ale."

Torrigiano, tor-re-i5'no, (PlETRO,) a celebrated Ital-
ian sculptor, born at Florence about 1472. He was a
fellow-student of Michael Angelo, of whom he was so
jealous that he once assaulted him violently, disfiguring
bis face for life. He afterwards resided for a time in
England, where he was patronized by Henry VIII., and
executed the tomb of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey,
and other works. Having returned to Spain in 15191
he was condemned to death by the Inquisition for having
broken in pieces a statue of the Virgin which he haa



as . 9 as s; g hard; g as ;'; G, H, K, guttural ': N, naial; R, trilkd; s as z; th as in this. ( J^ = See Explanations, p. 2^



TORRIJOS



2332



TOULONGEON



made for a nobleman, who refused to pay the price
demanded, (1522.)

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters," etc.: TICOIZI, "Diiio-
nario."

Torrijos, tor-ree'Hds, (Joss MARIA,) a Spanish gene-
lal, born at Madrid in 1791, was educated among the
pa?es of Charles IV. He served in the campaigns of
1808 and 1811, and, having been made Captain-General
of Valencia, distinguished himself by his zeal in the
cause of the constitution. After the capture of Cadiz
by the French, he left Spain, but returned in 1830, soon
after which he was betrayed, with fifty of his companions,
into the hands of his enemies, and they were all shot,
by order of King Ferdinand VII., in 1831.

Tor'ring-tpn, (ARTHUR HERBERT,) EARL OF, an
English admiral, was a brother of Chief-Justice Herbert
He was dismissed from all his places by James II. in
1687, because he would not vote for the repeal of the
Test Act He commanded the Dutch fleet of the Prince
of Orange during his voyage from Holland to Torbay,
(1688,) and was appointed first lord of the admiralty by
William III. " He was utterly inefficient," says Mac-
aulay. In 1690 he was removed from that office, and
obtained command of the fleet. He was defeated by the
French at Beachy Head, in June, 1690. His conduct in
that battle was so disgraceful that he was dismissed from
the service. Died April 13, 1716.

Torrtngton, VISCOUNT. See BYNG, (GEORGE.)

Torsellino. See TURSELLINUS.

Torstenson, toR'sten-son, or TorstenBson, (LEN-
NART,) Count of Ortala, a Swedish commander, born at
Torstena in 1603. He accompanied Gustavus Adolphus
to Germany in 1630, and after his death served under
Baner in various campaigns of the Thirty Years' war.
He was appointed to the chief command of the army in
Germany in 1641, and in May, 1642, gained a victory
over the Imperial troops at Schweidnitz, which was fol-
lowed by other successes. He defeated the Imperialists
at Jankowitr in February, 1645. Having resigned his
command in 1646, he was created a count by Queen
Christina, and obtained other distinctions. Died in 1651.

See GHIJEK, " Histoire de Suede ;" CASSTROHM, "Areminne flfver
L. Torstensson," 1786 ; " Nouvelle Bie7apbje GencSralc ;" DE PIYS-
TKR, " Life of Torstenson."

Tortelli,toR.tel'lee, [Lat. TORTEL'LIUS,] (GIOVANNI,)
an Italian grammarian, born at Arezzo about 1400. He
wrote " On the Power of Letters," (" De Potestate Lite-
rarum.") Died about 1466.

Tortellius. -See TORTELLI.

Torti, toR'tee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian physician, born
at M6dena in 1658, became professor of medicine at
M6dena about 1680. He composed several oratorios in
his vouth. His chief work is a Treatise on Pernicious
Fevers, entitled " Therapeutice specialis ad Febres quas-
dam perniciosas," etc., (1709,) which was highly esteemed.
He died in 1741.

See MURATORI, " Life of Torti."

Tory, to're', (GEOFFROI,) a French engraver and
printer, born at Bourges about 1480. He learned Greek
and Latin, established himself as a printer in Paris, and
translated several classical works. He also illustrated
numerous books with engravings. Died in 1533.

Toscanella, di, de tos-kl-nel'll, (ORAZio,) an Italian
writer, born in the Papal States about 1510; died about
1580.

Toscanelli, tos-kl-nel'lee, (PAOLO DEL Pozzo,) an
Italian astronomer, born at Florence in 1397. He formed
a project to shorten the route to China by navigating
westward, and wrote a letter to Columbus on this subject
about 1474. He constructed a gnomon on the cathedral
of Florence. Died in 1482.

Toschi, tos'kee, (DoMENico,) an Italian jurist and
cardinal, born near Reggio in 1535 ; died in 1620.

Tosohi, (PAOLO,) a celebrated Italian engraver, born
at Parma in 1788, became director of the Academy of
Fine Arts in his native city. Among his best works
may be named his prints after Correggio's " Madonna
della Scodella," and the " Venus and Adonis" of Albano.
Died in 1854.

Tosetti, to-set'tee, (URBANO,) an Italian philosopher,
born at Florence ; died in 1768.



Tostado or Tostatus. See ALPHONSUS ABULKNSIS.

Tos'H or Tos'tig, Earl of Northumberland, wa a
brother of King Harold II. In 1066 Tosti and the
King of Norway invaded England, and were defeated
by Harold. Tosti was killed in this battle, September,
1066.

Totl-la, King of the Ostrogoths, began to reign in
541 A.D. He invaded Italy and captured Rome in 546,
after Belisarius had made an effort to raise the siege of
that capital. He was defeated in Tuscany by the army
of Justinian, under Narses, and was killed in the retreat,
in 552 A.D.

Totleben or Todleben, tot'la"ben, (GOTTLOB HEIN-
RICH,) a profligate German adventurer, born in Saxony
about 1710. Having been banished for his crimes, he
vent to Russia about 1755, entered the army, and be-
came a general. He took Berlin in 1760, and committed
great cruelties on the Prussians. Died in 1773.

Totness, EARL OF. See CAREW, (GEORGE.)

Tott, de, deh tot, (FRANC.OIS,) BARON, a French
officer, of Hungarian extraction, born in 1733, held an
office in the French embassy at Constantinople. He
was appointed, after his return, consul to the Crimea.
(1767.) He subsequently resided many years in Turkey,
where he effected great improvements in the artillery
and military fortifications. He was the author ot
"Memoirs of the Turks and Tartars," (1784,) which
obtained great popularity and was translated into
several languages. Died in 1793.

See the "Monthly Review" for September and October, 1785.

Tot'ten, (GEORGE MUIRSON,) an American civil en-
gineer, born at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1809. He
was appointed engineer-in-chief of the Panama Railroad
in 1849. Died in 1884.

Totten, (JOSEPH GILBERT,) an American officer, born
at New Haven, Connecticut, in 1788, served in the war
of 1812, and rose to be lieutenant-colonel. He was
made colonel and chief engineer in 1838, and in the
latter capacity accompanied the army to Mexico in 1847,
where he was soon after appointed a brigadier-general.
He wrote a "Report on the Subject of National De-
fence." Died in 1864.

Tottenham, tot'ten-am, (EDWARD,) an English
divine and controversialist, born in 1810 ; died in 1853.

Toucey, tSw'se, (ISAAC,) an American Democratic
politician, born in Connecticut in 1798. He was chosen
Governor of Connecticut in 1846, became attorney
general of the United States in June, 1848, and was a
Senator of the United States from 1852 to 1857. In
March, 1857, he was appointed secretary of the navy.
He has been accused of dispersing the navy to remote
parts of the globe in 1860, with a design to favour the
movements of the disunionists. Died in 1869.

Touchard-Lafoase. too'shiR' Iffoss', (G.,) a me-
diocre French writer, born in 1780, published many
historical works and novels. Died in 1847.

Touche-TrevlUe. See LA TOUCHE.

Tougard, too'gaV, (JEROME FRANgois,) a French
writer on law and horticulture, born at Havre in 1781;
died at Rouen, March I, 1860.

Toullier, too'le-4', (CHARLES BONAVENTURE MARIE,)
a distinguished French jurist, born about 1760. He be-
came professor of law at Rennes, and published an im-
portant work entitled "The French Civil Law according
to the Order of the Code Napoleon," (I4vols., 1811-31)
Died in 1835.

See " Biographic Universelle," (new edition ;) C. PAULMIIR,
"ElogedeToiillier," 1836.

Toulmln, (CAMILLA.) See CROSLAND, (MRS.)
Toulmin, tool'min, (JOSHUA,) an English Unitarian
divine, born in London in 1740, became one of the pas-
tors of the congregation at Birmingham. He was the
author of "Memoirs of Socinus," (1777,) "Review of
the Life, Character, and Writings of John Biddle,"
(1789,) and other works. Died in 1815.
See the " Monthly Review" for December, 1816.

Toulongeon, de, deh tooldN'zhAN', (FRANC.OIS
EMANUEL,) VISCOUNT, a French historian, born in
Franche-Comte' in 1748. Having joined the popular
party on the breaking out of the Revolution, he was a
deputy to the States-General in 1789. He published,



a, e, T, o, u, y, long; 1, e, A, same, less prolonged; a, e. I, 5, U, , short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; mil; not;g<56d; mSon:



TOULOUSE



2 333



TOURVILLE



among other works, a " History of France from the
Revolution of 1789," (4 vols., iot-io,) and "Revolu-
tionary Manual," etc. ; also a translation of Caesar's
"Commentaries." Died in 1812.

See QUSRABD, " La France Littlraire ;" DUPONT DK NEMOURS,
"Notice sur M. de Toulongeon, " 1818; " Nouvelle Biographic
CUn&ale."

Toulouse, de, deh too'looz', (Louis ALEXANDRE de
Bourbon deh booR'boN',) COUNT, a French admiral,
born in 1678, was a son of Louis XIV, and Madame
de Montespan. He received command of a fleet, and
opposed with success the English and Dutch fleets near
Malaga in 1704. Died in 1737.

See SAINT-SIMON, "Me'moires."

Toup, toop,(JoNATHAN,) an English divine and scholar,
born in Cornwall in 1713. He studied at Exeter College,
Oxford, and subsequently became a prebendary of Exe-
ter Cathedral. He published several critical works of
great merit, the most important of which is entitled
" Emendations of Suidas," (" Emendationes in Suidam,"
4 vols., 1760-75.) Died in 1785.

Tour d'Auvergne, La. See TURENNE, LATOUR,
and BOUILLON.

Tour, de la, (BAILLET,) COUNT. See LA TOUR, VON.

Tourgee, toor-zhi', (ALBION WINEGAR,) an American
novelist, born at Williamsfield, Ohio, May 2, 1838. He
studied at Rochester University, 1859-6:, served in the
Union army in the war of 1861-65, and then settled as a
lawyer, editor, and farmer at Greensborough, North
Carolina. He was an active member of the Constitu-
tional Conventions of 1868 and 1875, and was one of the
commission appointed to codify and revise the State laws.
He was judge of the Superior Court, 1868-73. Besides
his legal works, Judge Tourgie published "Toinette,"
(1874,) " Figs and Thistles," (1879,) " A Fool's Errand,"
(which attracted much attention,) (1879,) " Bricks without
Straw." (1880,) "Hot Plowshares," ( 1883,) and other
novels. He was made consul at Bordeaux in 1897.

Tour, La. See LA TOUR.

Tourette, La. See TOURRETTE, DE LA.

Tournefort, de, deh tooR'neh'foR' or tooRn'foR',
(JOSEPH PITTON,) an eminent French botanist, born at
Aix, in Provence, in 1656. He studied medicine at
Montpellier, and subsequently made scientific ezcursions
in Spain and the Pyrenees. He was appointed in 1683
assistant professor at the Jardin du Roi, in Paris, where
his lectures won for him a high reputation. He set out
in 1700 on a journey to Asia Minor, Greece, and the
adjacent countries, accompanied by Gundelsheimer. On
his return to Paris he obtained the chair of medicine
In the College of France. He died in 1708. His prin-
cipal works are his " History of Plants in the Environs
of Paris," (" Histoire des Plantes qui naissent aux Envi-
rons, de Paris," etc., 1698,) "Elements of Botany," ("In-
stitutiones Rei Herbariae," 3 vols. 4to, with 476 plates,
1700,) and "Travels in the Levant," (2 vols., 1717.)

See FONTHNHLLK, " filoges ;" " Biographic Me*dicale ;" MAURY,
"Histoire de 1' Academic dea Sciences;" "Nouvelle Biographic
Gendrale."

Tournely, tooR'ni'le', (HONORB,) a French priest and
writer on theology, born at Antibes in 1658 ; died in 1729.

Tournemine, tooR'neh'men' or tooRn'men', (REN*
JOSEPH,) a learned French Jesuit, born at Rennes in
1661. Having previously filled various professorships,
he became in 1701 editor of the "Journal de Tr^voux."
Among his works we may name " Reflections on Athe-
ism," and an edition of Prideaux's " History of the Jews."
Died in 1739.

See NICEION, " Me'moires ;" FZLLKK, " Dictionnaire Historique."

Tournemine, de, deh tooR'neh'men', (CHARLES,) a
French painter, born at Toulon in 1814; died there,
December 20, 1872.

Tourneur, (CHARLES Louis FRANCOIS.) See LE-
TOURNEUR.

Tourneur, Le, leh tooR'nUR', (PIERRE,) a Frencl^
translator, born at Valognes in 1736. He produced in
1770 a translation of Young's "Night Thoughts," which
was praised by Diderot, and commenced a prose version
of Shakspeare's plays, the first volume of which appeared
in 1776. The admiration of Shakspeare which he ex-
pressed provoked the hostility of Voltaire. Le Tour-



neur's version of Shakspeare (20 vols., 1776-82) is
considered the best in the French language. It was
revised and republished by M. Guirot in 1824. He also
translated "Clarissa Harlowe," "Ossian's Poems," and
other English books. Died in 1788.

See LA HAKPK, "Cours de Litte'rature :" DUSKSSAKTS, "Siecle*
Litrfraires."

Tourneux, Le, leh tooR'nuh', (NICOLAS,) an eloquent
French preacher, born at Rouen in 1640. lie preached
in Paris, was praised by Boileau, and received a pension
from Louis XIV. He wrote several devotional works.
Died in 1689.

Touruon, de, deh tooR'noN', (CHARLES THOMAS
MAILLARD,) born at Turin in 1668, studied at the College
of the Propaganda at Rome, and was appointed by the
pope apostolic vicar in India. In 1701 he went on a
mission to China, where his indiscreet zeal caused him
to be imprisoned by the emperor in 1707. Died in
prison in 1710.

See CARDINAL PASSIONBI, " Memorie storiche delta Legazione
Morte del Cardmale di Toumon."

Tournon, de, (FRANC.OIS,) a French cardinal and
statesman, born at Tournon in 1489, was distinguished
by the favour of Francis I. In 1526 he assisted in ne-
gotiating for the deliverance of the king, who had been
made prisoner by Charles V., and in 1529 concluded the
peace of Cambray. He was soon after made a cardinal
and Archbishop of Bourges. He was instrumental in
effecting the marriage of the son of Francis, afterwards
Henry II., with Catherine de' Medici, and in 1538 nego-
tiated with Charles V. the ten years' truce of Nice. He
was made prime minister of state about 1542, in which
post he was conspicuous for his cruel persecution of the
Protestants. Died in 1562.

See FLKURY-TERNAL, " Histoire du Cardinal de Tournon," 17*8;
DE THOU, "Historia ui Teraporin;" SAINTE-MARTHX, " Galli*
Christiana Nova;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ge'ne'rale."

Tournon, de, (PHILIPPE CAMILLE CASIMIR MARCE-
LIN,) COUNT, a French statesman, born at Apt in 1778.
He was appointed prefect of Rome by Napoleon, and
after the second restoration became prefect of the
department of the Gironde. He wrote "Statistical
Studies of Rome," etc., (1831.) Died in 1833.

Touro, too'ro, (JuDAH,) a wealthy and benevolent
American Jew, born at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1776.
He settled at New Orleans, and at his death left $80,000
to found an almshouse in that city, as well as numerous
munificent bequests for various charities in other cities
of the United States, and for the relief of the Jews in
Palestine. Died in 1854.

Touron, too'roN', (ANTOINE,) a French biographer
and monk, born near Castres in 1686. He wrote, be-
sides other works, in French, a " Life of Thomas Aqui-
nas," (1737,) and a "Life of Charles Borromeo," (1761.)
Died in 1775.

Tourreil, de, deh too'r^I' or too'rj'ye, (JACQUES,) a
French litterateur, born at Toulouse in 1656. He trans-
lated some orations of Demosthenes, and was admitted
into the French Academy in 1692. Died in 1715.

Tourret, too'rj', (CHARLES GILBERT.) a French min-
ister of state, born at Montmarault in 1795. He was
minister of agriculture from June to December, 1848,
and founded agricultural schools, (ftrmes Icoles.) Died
in 1857.

Tourrette, de la, deh It too'riV, (MARC ANTOINK
Louis CLARET,) a French naturalist, born at Lyons
in 1729, was a friend of J. J. Rousseau. He published,
besides other works, " Elements of Botany," (2 vols.,
1766,) and "Chloris Lugdunensis,"(i785.) Died in 1793.

Tourtelle, tooR'tSl', (TIENNE,) a French medical
writer, born at Besan9on in 1756. Among his works is
a " Philosophic History of Medicine," (2 vols., 1804.)
Died in 1801.

Tourville, de, deh tooR'vel', (ANNE HILARION de
Cotentin deh ko'toN'taN',) COUNT, a celebrated
French admiral, born at Tourville in 1642. He became
a captain in 1667, and served with distinction against
the Dutch and Spaniards. In 1682 he obtained the rank
of lieutenant-general, and in 1689 was made a vice-
admiral. " Tourville," says Macaulay, " was the ablest
maritime commander that his country then possessed."



as/t; 5 as/; %AarJ; gas/;G, H, K,guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sas; %h as in this. (JQp^See Explanations, p. 23.)



TOUSSAIN



2 334



TOWNS END



(" History of England," vol. iii.) He defeated the Eng-
lish admiral Torrington at Beachy Head in June, 1690.
In 1692 he was ordered, with forty-four ships, to protect
the descent of an army on England. The English and
Dutch fleets gained a decisive victory over him at La
Hogue the same year. He was created a marshal of
France in 1693. Died in 1701.

See "M^moires de Tourville," 3 vols., 1742; RICHER, "Viede
Tourville," 1783; SISMONDI, "Histoire des Fran^ais ;" SAINT-
SIMON, "M^moires;" " Nouvelle Biographic Ginerale."

Toussain, too'slN', (DANIEL,) a French Protestant
minister, born at Montbelliard in 1541. He taught
Hebrew at Orleans, and afterwards preached at Heidel-
berg, where he also was professor of theology. He
wrote several works. Died in 1602.

TouBsain, [Lat. TUSSA'NUS,] (JACQUES,) a French
Hellenist, born at Troyes. He was appointed professor
of Greek at the College Royal by Francis I. about 1532.
Among his pupils were Turnebe (Turnebus) and Henri
Estienne. Died in 1547.

Toussaint, too'saV, (ANNA LUISE GERTRUDE,) a
Dutch novelist, born at Alkmaar in 1812. She pub-
lished, besides other works, "Almagro," (1837,) "The
English in Rome," (1840,) and " Lauernesse House,"
(" Het Huis Lauernesse," 1841,) which had a great
success ; also a popular historical novel, entitled '* Ley-
cester in Nederland," (about 1851.) She was married
to the painter Bosboom in 1851. Died April 13, 1886.

See the "Westminster Review" for August, 1843.

Toussaint, too'slw', (FRANCOIS CHRISTOPHE AR-
MAND,) a French sculptor, born in Paris in 1806, was a
pupil of David of Angers. Among his works is " Two
Indian Slaves bearing a Torch." Died in 1862.

Toussaint, (FRANCOIS VINCENT,) a French writer,
born in Paris about 1715. He published a treatise on
ethics, entitled "Les Moeurs par Panage," (1748.) Died
in Berlin in 1772.

Toussaint L'Ouverture, too'siN' loo'veR'tiiR', a
celebrated negro general and liberator, born near Cap
Fran9ois, in Hayti, in 1743, was descended from an
African prince. His parents were both slaves and of
pure negro blood. He learned to read and to write,
and by his good conduct and intelligence gained the
confidence of his master, who appointed him steward
of the implements employed in making sugar. In
August, 1791, began a general insurrection of the slaves
of Hayti, who massacred many nl the whites. Tous-
saint, however, was innocent of these acts of cruelty,
and saved the lives of his master's family. After they
had escaped from the island, Toussaint joined the army
which was fighting for liberty. The insurgents espoused
the cause of Louis XVI., while their former masters
-eceived aid from the English.

The horrible confusion which prevailed in the island
was increased by dissensions among the whites and by
the interference of the Spaniards. Toussaint obtained
the chief command of the negroes, and after the French
Convention had decreed the liberation of the slaves
(February, 1794) he fought against the English and
Spaniards, and aided the French general Laveaux to
expel those invaders. He gained a number of victories.
" His energy and his prowess," says Beard, " made him
the idol of his troops. ... In his deeds and warlike
achievements he had equalled the great captains of
ancient and modern times." He was appointed com-
mander-in-chief by the French commissioner in 1796,
and confirmed as such by Bonaparte about December,
1799. He was regarded as a general benefactor by all
classes and colours. He restored order and prosperity,
and governed with moderation and humanity. Under
his auspices a liberal constitution was formed, and he
was elected president for life. Toussaint sent this con-
stitution to Bonaparte for his approbation in July, 1800,
but the French Consul exclaimed, " He is a revolted
slave, whom we must punish ; the honour of France is
outraged." Having resolved to reduce the negroes
again to slavery, Bonaparte sent an army of about
35,000 men, under Leclerc, to subdue Toussaint. This
army arrived at Hayti about the end of 1801, and, though
courageously resisted by Toussaint, occupied the sea-
ports Retiring to the mountains, Toussaint maintained



the contest, and killed thousands of the French. Le-
clerc resorted to negotiation, and offered the negroes
their liberty. These conditions were accepted by Tous-
saant, who concluded a peace and retired to his estate.
He was taken by treachery in June, 1802, and carried to
France, and confined in the dungeon in the castle of
Joux, near Besan9on, where he died in April, 1803.
According to some authors, he was starved to death.

See SAiNT-RiMY, "Vie de Toussaint L'Ouverture," 1850: JOHM
R. BEARD, "Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture," 1853; J. RHDPATH,
"Toussaint L'Ouverture; a Biography," 1863.

Toussenel, toos'nel', (ALPHUNSE,) a French naturalist
and journalist, born at Montreuil-Bellay in 1803. He
published, besides other works, " Le Monde des Oiseaux ;
Ornithologiepassionnelle," (1852,) etc. Died in 1885.

Tow'er, (CHARLEMAGNE,) an American diplo-
matist, was born at Philadelphia in 1848. He became
actively engaged in iron-mining and other interests,
was appointed United States minister to Austria-Hun-
gary in 1897, and ambassador to Russia in 1899.

T6w'er, (ZEALOUS B.,) an American general, born in
Massachusetts about 1822, graduated at West Point in
1841. He became a captain about 1855, a brigadier-
general of volunteers in 1861, and commanded a brigade
at the second battle of Bull Run, August 29 and 30,
1862. Died March 21, 1900.

Towianski, to-ve-in'skee, a Polish mystic, who pre-
tended to have divine revelations, was born in Lithuania
about 1800. He successively visited the principal cities
of Europe, and while in Paris made a convert of the
Polish poet Mickiewicz, who wrote a treatise in favour


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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 354 of 425)