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Turenne was educated in the Protestant religion by
Daniel Tilenus, a tolerant Calvinist He served, in ha
early youth, under his uncles Maurice of Nassau and
Henry Frederick, (1625-30.) During this period of five
or six years he fought against the Spaniards, and acquired
much practical knowledge of the art of war. In 1630
be returned to France, and received command of a regi-
ment He obtained the high rank of marechal-de-camp
in 1635, and was sent in the same year, under La Vallette,
to defend Mentz against the Imperialists. In 1637 he
took Landrecies, and gained some successes in Flanders.
As second in command under Harcourt, he had the
principal part in the capture of Turin in 1640. His

Cromotion was retarded by the political course of his
rother, the Due de Bouillon. He was raised to the
rank of marshal of France in 1643, and ordered to Ger-
many, where he was second in command under the
Prince of Conde. The success of the French at Nord-
lingen in 1645 was attributed to Turenne by Condi
himself. In 1646, by judicious plans and skilful man-
oeuvres, he gained important advantages without much
loss of life. He effected a junction with the Swedish
army, invaded Bavaria, and compelled the Duke of
Bavaria to sue for peace. The long war was terminated
by the peace of Westphalia, (1648,) and the civil war of
the Fronde began in 1649. Turenne, probably, felt little
zeal for either party in this contest. He declined to
fight for Mazarin, and retired to Holland after he had
been superseded in the command of the army. The
Prince of Conde having been imprisoned by Mazarin, in
January, 1650, Turenne declared himself in favour of the
captive prince, and took arms at Stenay against the
court. He was defeated near Rethel by the royal army
in December, 1650, soon after which Conde was liberated
from prison.

In 1651 he went to Paris, and married Charlotte de
Caumont, a daughter of Armand, Due de La Force-
He accepted in March, 1652, the chief command of the

a, e, I, o, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e. I, 6, fi, y, short: a. e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; gdod; moon




-oyal army, and was o; posed to the Prince of Cond^,
who, in alliance with the Spaniards, had renewed the
war. Turennt defeated his adversary at Paris in 1652,
and at Arras in 1654, after which the seat of war was
transferred to Flanders. He gained a decisive victory
over Conde and the Spaniards at the battle of the
Dunes, near Dunkirk, in 1658. Peace was concluded in
1659. After the death of Mazarin, Turenne had much
influence in the direction of the foreign policy of France.
He was persuaded to become a Roman Catholic in 1668.
He commanded a large army which invaded Holland in
1672, and conquered several provinces of that country.
Unable to resist this army in battle, the Dutch opened
the dykes, flooded the country, and thus checked the in-
vaders. In 1674 he defeated the Imperialists in several
actions near the Rhine, and ravaged the Palatinate with
excessive cruelty, which is perhaps the only stain on
his memory. He was opposed in the next campaign to
Montecuculi, an Austrian general of great skill, and was
killed at Salzbach in July, 1675. Turenne was distin-
guished for his modesty, sobriety, sound judgment, and
impassible composure in action.

See BOSSUHT. "Oraison funebre du Vicomte de Turenne," 1676;
PAULHTTI, "Vita diTurenna," 1677; G. DE COURTILZ, "Vie de
Turenne," 1685; RAMSAY, " Histoire de Turenne," 2 vols., 1735;
RAGUENKT, " Histoire de Turenne," 1738: FLESHIER, "Oraisoc
funebre de Turenne," 1675; SISMONDI, "Histoire de France;"
MICHHLHT, " Histoire de France ;" VOLTAIRE, " Siecle de Louil
XIV ;" DE RHTZ, " Me'moires :" " Leven van den Marschalk van
Turenne," Amsterdam, 1676; " Lettres et Me'moires du Marecha
de Turenne," edited by COMTH DE GRIMOARD, 2 vols., 1782.
Tureniiius. See TURENNE.

Turgenef, Turgenev, or Turgenew. See TOOK-

Tur'got, an Anglo-Saxon historian. He became
Bishop of Saint Andrew's and Primate of Scotland in
1107, and wrote a "History of the Church of Durham
from 635 to 1096." Died in 1115.

Turgot, tiiR'go', (ANNE ROBERT JACQUES,) Baron de
L'Aulne, (deh Ion,) an eminent French economist and
financier, born in Paris in May, 1727. He studied law,
became a counsellor to the Parliament in 1752, and mas-
ter of requests in 1753. In 1761 he was appointed in-
tendant of Limoges. Before the last date he had pro-
duced treatises on various subjects. He was versed in the
ancient languages and many sciences. In the perform-
ance of his administrative duties as intendant, he made
several reforms and experiments in political economy.
He suppressed the corvees, opened new roads, introduced
the use of potatoes, and distributed the burden of taxation
more eauitably. Having formed friendly relations with
the philosophic party, of which Voltaire and D'Alem-
bert were leaders, he contributed to the " Encyclopedic"
articles on " Existence," " Expansibilite," " Fairs and
Markets," (" Foires et Marches,") etc.

He was appointed in August, 1774, to the office of
controller-general of finance, then the most important
office of the government. Among his first acts was the
restoration of free trade in grain between the provinces.
He abolished several oppressive laws and feudal privv
leges, reformed abuses, and began to improve, by econ-
omy, the public finances. His policy was expressed by
the phrase, "No bankruptcy, no increase of taxes, nc
loans." The courtiers, nobles, politicians, and privileged
classes combined against him. He was removed in May
1776. His friend Malesherbes said that Turgot hac
"the heart of L'Hopital with the head of Bacon.'
Voltaire was a warm admirer of Turgot, whom he char
acterized as the best minister that France ever had
Turgot corresponded with Benjamin Franklin, and wrote
a Memoir on the American war. Died in March, 1781
"There are crises," says the "Fortnightly Review'
for August, 1870, "when a character tells far more than
an idea, and is at once a saving opportunity and a de
cisive force. Such a character was Turgot. The furthe
we recede from the French Revolution, the more pre
eminent does this firm and exalted figure shine forth,
the one legislator who might have saved France."

Turgot, (EriENNE FRANCOIS,) MARQUIS, a rural
conomist, born in Paris in 1721, was a brother of the
receding. Died in 1789.

Turgot, de, deh tiiR'go', (Louis FiLix TIENNE,)
IARQUIS, a French diplomatist and senator, born in
796. He was minister of foreign affairs from Decenv
er, 1851, to July, 1852, and was sent as ambassador to
pain in 1853. Died October I, 1866.

Turk, tooRk, (DANIEL GOTTLOB,) a German musician,
orn near Chemnitz in 1751, was organist at Halle. He
rote several treatises on music. Died in 1813.

Turk, von, fon tdoRk, (KARL CHRISTIAN WILHELM,)

German philanthropist, born at Meiningen in 1774,

as active in promoting common-school education,
nd was the first to introduce the silk-manufacture into
Jermany. Died in 1846.

Turkheim, von, fon tflRk'him', (JOHANNES,) a po-
itical and historical writer, born at Strasburg in 1746
ied in 1824.

Turlupin. See BELLEVILLE.

Tfirn'bull, (ROBERT,) D.D., a Baptist divine, born in

.inlithgowshire, Scotland, in 1809, emigrated to America,

and settled in 1845 as pastor of a church at Hartford,

Connecticut. He published " Christ in History, or the

"entral Power," (1856.) and several other works, and

ranslated from the French Vinet's "Vital Christianity.'"

3ied November 20, 1877.

TurnTjull, (ROBERT JAMES,) an American politician,
>orn in Florida in 1775. He wrote a number of treatises
n defence of the State-Rights party in South Carolina.
Died in 1833.

Turnebe. See TURNEBUS.

Tur'ne-bus, [Fr. TuRNkBE, tu'R'nSb',1 (ADRIEN,) an
eminent French scholar, originally named Tournebceuf,
>orn in Normandy in 1512. He studied in Paris, and
>ecame professor of Greek in that city in 1547. He
acquired a European reputation as a classical scholar,
ranslated into Latin a number of Greek authors, among
whom were Plutarch and Theophrastus, and wrote com-
mentaries on Cicero's works. According to a French
Biographer, he was unrivalled as a professor in clearness,
accuracy, and profundity. Among his works is "Ad-
versaria," (3 parts, 1564-73,) in which he corrects and
explains many passages in the Greek and Latin authors.
Died in Paris in 1565. He was eulogized by L'Hopital,
Scaliger, and Montaigne, the last of whom called him
' 1'ame la plus polie du monde," (" the most polished
[or polite) soul in the world.") He had a son Adrien,
who wrote Latin verses. Died in 1594.

See PASSP.RAT, " In Turnebi Obitum Nasnia," 1651 ; DE THOD et
TEISSIEX, " filoges ;" NIC^RON " Me'moires. "

Tur'ner, (CHARLES Tennyson,) an English divine
and poet, brother of Alfred Tennyson, was born in 1808,
at Somersby, Lincolnshire. With Alfred he put forward
n 1827 " Poems by Two Brothers ;" later he assumed
lis grandmother's name of Turner. Died in 1879.

Tur'ner, (DAWSON,) an English botanist and writer,
born at Great Yarmouth in 1775. He published, among
other works, " Fuci, or Coloured Figures and Descrip
tions of the Plants of the Genus Fucus," (3 vols. fol.,
1808,) "A Tour in Normandy," (1820,) and "The
Botanist's Guide through England and Wales," (2 vols.,
1805,) the last-named conjointly with Mr. L. W. Dill-
wyn. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society and of
other learned institutions. Died in 1858.

Tur'ner, (EDWARD,) a distinguished chemist and
physician, born in Jamaica in 1797. He studied at
Edinburgh and Gbttingen, and in 1828 was appointed
professor of chemistry in the London University, where
his lectures gained for him a high reputation. His
"Elements of Chemistry," (1827,) often reprinted, is
-steemed a standard work. Died in 1839.

Turner, (FRANCIS,) Bishop of Ely, was one of the
seven English prelates who were prosecuted for resisting
the authority of James II. in ecclesiastical affairs. He
was the author of a " Vindication of Archbishop San-
croft," etc., and "Animadversions on Naked Truth."
Died in 1700.

See Miss STRICKLAND, "Lives of the Seven Bishops," London.

Turner, (Sir JAMES,) an English officer, who lived in

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the reign of Charles II. and was notorious for his cruel
treatment of the Scottish Covenanters. He left an auto-

Turner, (JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM,) an eminent
English landscape-painter, born in London in April,
1775, was a son of a hair-dresser. He received only an
ordinary education, and passed his boyhood mostly in
London. " At last," says Ruskin, " fortune wills that
the lad's true life shall begin ; and one summer evening
he finds himself sitting alone among the Yorkshire hills.
For the first time the silence of Nature around him, her
freedom sealed to him, her glory opened to him," He
was admitted as a student in the Royal Academy in
1789. "So taught and prepared for his life's labour,
sat the boy at last alone among his fair English hills,
and began to paint, with cautious toil, the rocks and
fields, and trickling brooks, and soft white clouds of
heaven." (" Modern Painters," vol. v.) For many
years he used water-colours almost exclusively. He
exhibited a "View of Lambeth Palace" in 1790. His
early pictures represented mostly English or Welsh
scenery. In 1799 he was elected an associate of the
Royal Academy, and exhibited an oil-painting of " The
Battle of the Nile." He became a Royal Academician
in 1802, after which he travelled in France, Switzerland,
and the valley of the Rhine. Among his master-pieces
are "The Fall of Schaffhausen," (1805,) "The Sun
Rising through Vapour," (1806,) "Narcissus and Echo,"
(1814,) "Apollo and Python," and "Childe Harold's
Pilgrimage," (1832.) In 1807 or 1808 he commenced
the publication of his famous " Liber Studiorum," a
series of prints or drawings. He visited Italy in 1819,
1829, and 1840. According to Ruskin, he surpassed
all former artists in " the expression of the infinite re-
dundance of natural landscape. . . . This work, done by
Turner among the hills, joining the most intense appre-
ciation of all tenderness with delight in all magnitude
and memory for all detail, is never to be rivalled or
looked upon in similitude again." ("Modern Painters,"
vol. iv. chap, xvii.) Turner was never married. His
disposition was reserved and unsociable, and he is repre-
sented as having been extremely parsimonious. He
died in London in December, 1851, having bequeathed
to the nation a large number of oil-paintings, which are
exhibited in the National Gallery.

See BURNETT, "Turner and his Works," 1852; W. THORN-
BURY, "Life of W. Turner," 2 yols., 1862; RUSKIN, "Modem
Painters," passim; " Nouvelie Biographic Ge'ne'rale ;"

Turner, (SAMUEL,) an English diplomatist, born in
Gloucestershire about 1759, entered the service of the
East India Company, and was sent on a mission to
Thibet in 1783, and afterwards to the Sultan of Mysore.
He published an "Account of an Embassy to the Court
of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet," (1800.) He was a Fellow
of the Royal Society. Died in 1802.

Tur'ner, (SAMUEL HULBEART,) D.D., an American
Episcopalian divine, born at Philadelphia in 1790. He
became in 1821 professor of biblical learning in the
General Theological Seminary, New York, and in 1831
professor of Hebrew in Columbia College. He pub-
lished "Thoughts on Scriptural Prophecy," and other
works. Died in 1861.

See ALLIBONH. "Dictionary of Authors."

Turner, (SHARON,) an English historian, born in Lon-
don in 1768, followed the profession of attorney. His
reputation is founded chiefly on his " History of the
Anglo-Saxons," (4 vols., 1799-1805,) which is highly
esteemed. He also published a " History of England
from the Norman Conquest to the Death of Elizabeth,"
(5 vols., 1814-29,) a " Sacred History of the World as
displayed in the Creation and Subsequent Events to the
Deluge," (3 vols., 1832-39,) and several poems. Died
in 1847.

See WILLIAM JERDAN, "Men I have known," London, 1866;
" Fraser's Magazine" for May, 1835 ; " Monthly Review" for March,
:8o3, February, 1807, and November, 1824.

Turner, (Rev. SYDNEY,) a son of the preceding, and
chaplain of the Reformatory School at Red Hill, pre-
pared a new edition of his father's " Sacred History of
the World," and published a treatise on " Reformatory
Schools." Died June 26, 1879.

Turner, (THOMAS HUDSON,) an English antiquary
born in London in 1815. He published in 1851 " Some
Account of Domestic Architecture in England from
the Conquest to the End of the Thirteenth Century,"
(illustrated,) a work which displays great learning and
research. Died in 1852.

Turner, (WILLIAM,) an English divine and physician,
born in Northumberland about 1520. He studied at
Cambridge, and subsequently became Dean of Wells.
He was the author of treatises on medicine, theology,
zoology, and botany ; among the last-named we may cite
his " Herball, or History of Plants," said to have been
the first work of the kind published in England. Died
in 1568.

Turner, (Sir WILLIAM,) an English anatomist,
born at Lancaster in 1832. He became demonstrator
of anatomy in the University of Edinburgh in 1854,
and was professor of anatomy there after 1867. He
published many memoirs on human and comparative
anatomy, and was president of the British Association
for the Advancement of Science in 1900.

Turner, (WILLIAM WADDEN,) born in London in
1810, emigrated at an early age to America, where he
distinguished himself as an Oriental scholar. He be-
came in 1842 professor of the Oriental languages at
Union Theological Seminary, New York. Died in 1859.

Tur'nus, [Gr. Tipvoc,] King of the Rutulians, was a
suitor for the hand of Lavinia, and an adversary of
.("Eneas, against whom he waged war. He was killed by
/Eneas in single combat.

See VIRGIL, "jEneid," books vii., be., x., ., lii.

Tur'nuB, a Roman satiric poet, who probably flour-
ished in the second half of the first century. His works,
which are praised by Martial, are not extant.

Tur'pin or Til'pin, [Lat. TURPI'NUS,] a French Bene-
dictine monk, was made Archbishop of Rheims by
Charlemagne. He has been supposed to be the author
of a chronicle celebrating the deeds of Charlemagne, but
in point of fact its authorship is very doubtful. The
chronicle itself is of high value, but on internal evidence
it is now generally assigned to the eleventh or twelfth
century. Died about 812.

Turpin, tiiR'paN', (FRANCOIS HENRI,) a French littl-
rateur, born at Caen in 1709, wrote a "History of Ma-
homet," (2 vols., 1773.) "France Illustrated, or the
French Plutarch," (5 vols., 1777-^0,) and other historical
and biographical works. Died in 1799.

SeeQuiRARD, "La France Litte'raire."

Turpin, (PIERRE JEAN FRANCOIS,) a French botanist
and designer, born at Vire in 1775. He visited the
West Indies in his youth, returned to France in 1802,
and was employed to illustrate with his designs the
works of Humboldt. He published, besides othei
works, " Vegetable Iconography," (1841.) Died in 1840.

See ACHILLK RICHARD, " Notice sur M. Turpin," 1840.

Turpin de Crisae, tuR'paN' deh kRe'si', (LANCELOT,)
COUNT, a French officer and military writer, born in la
Beauce about 1715, served with distinction in Italy and
Germany, and rose to the rank of brigadier-general.
His principal work, entitled "Essay on the Art of
War," (3 vols., 1754,) obtained extensive popularity and
was translated into English, German, and Russian. He
also published " Commentaries on Cjesar," and other
similar treatises. He was created a commander of the
order of Saint Louis in 1771, and lieutenant-general in
1780. Died about 1795.

See DE COURCELLES. " Dictionnaire des Ge'ne'raux Francais.

a French artist, born in Paris in 1782. He painted
landscapes, published a " Voyage to Naples," and was
admitted into the Institute. Died in 1859.

Turquet. See MAYERNE.

Turquety, tiiR'keh-te', (DOUARD,) a French poet,
born at Rennes in 1801, wrote " Poetical Sketches,"
("Esquisses poetiques," 1829,) "Love and Faith,"
(1833,) " Primavera," (1840,) etc. Died in 1867.

Tiirr, tuR, (STEPHEN,) a Hungarian patriot and gene-
ral, born at Baja about 1820. He joined the Italian
army in 1849, and fought against Austria. In the Cri-
mean war he served in the allied army against Russis.

a, e, T, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, !, 6, fi, ?, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; not; good; moon:




He enlisted, with the rank of colonel, in the army
of Garibaldi in 1859, and distinguished himself in the
liberation of Sicily in 1860. He became a general of
division in the Italian service, and married a grand-
daughter of Lucien Bonaparte. In 1886 he obtained
a concession for cutting a canal across the Isthmus of
Corinth, which was completed in 1893.

Turranius. See RUFIHUS.

Turreau, tu'ro', (Louis,) a French Jacobin, born at
Orbec about 1760. He was a violent member of the
Convention, 1792-95. Died in 1796.

Turreau de Linieres, tii'ro' deh le'ne-aiR', (Louis
MARIE,) BARON, a French general, born"af fivreux in
1756. He commanded an army which defeated the Ven-
dean insurgents in 1793, an ^ was ambassador to the
United States from 1804 to 1811. Died in 1816.

Turrecremaea, the Latin of TORQUEMADA, which

Turrell or Turret, tu"rel',[Lat. TUREL'LUS,] (PIERRE,)
a French astrologer, and rector of the College of Dijon,
wrote " The Period of the World," (" La Periode du
Monde," 1531.) Died about 1547.

Turretin. See TURRETINI.

Turretini, toor-ri-tee'nee, [Fr. TURRETIN, tii'ren-
I!N' or tiiR'taN,] (BENEDICT,) a Swiss theologian, born
at Zurich in 1588, was eminent for his learning and
talents. He became professor of theology at Geneva in
1612, and published several works on theology. Died
in 1631.

Turretini or Turretin, [Lat. TURRETI'NUS,] (FRAN-
COIS,) an eminent Swiss theologian, a son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Geneva in 1623. He studied under
Spanheim and Diodati, became an eloquent preacher,
and was appointed professor of theology at Geneva in
1653. He had great influence in the Church. His prin-
cipal work is "Theological and Controversial Institutes,"
(" Institutiones Theologiae Elencticae," 3 vols., 1679-85,)
which was highly esteemed. Died at Geneva in 1687.

See PICTBT, "Memoria F. Turretini celebrata," 1688.

Turretini or Turretin, [Lat. TURRETI'NUS,] (JEAN
ALPHONSE,) a son of the preceding, and the most cele-
brated member of the family, was born at Geneva in
1671. He studied at Leyden and in England, gained
distinction as a preacher, and became professor of the-
ology at Geneva in 1705. He was a liberal theologian,
who endeavoured to promote union among the different
Protestant sects. He opposed with success the regula-
tion that candidates for the ministry should be required
to sign the Ccmjtnsus. His chief works are " Cloud of
Witnesses in favour of Moderate and Pacific Judgment
concerning Theological Affairs," ("Nubes Testium pro
moderate et pacifico de Rebus Theologicis Judicio,"
1719,) and "Theological Cogitations and Dissertations,"
(" Cogitationes et Dissertationes theologicae," 2 vols.,
1737.) Died in 1737.

Turrian, toor-re-Jn', [Fr. TURRIEN, rii're-aN' ; Lat.
TURRIA'NUS,] or Torres, tor'res, (FRANCISCO,) a Span-
ish Jesuit and writer, born at Herrera about 1504. He
wrote many works of little merit. In 1562 he was sent
by the pope to the Council of Trent Died in 1584.

Turrianus. See TURRIAN.

Turrien. See TURRIAN.

Tur-sel-li'nus, (HoRATius,) an Italian Jesuit, ori-
ginally named Torsellino, (toR-sel-lee'no,) born at Rome
in 1545, became rector of the Jesuits' Seminary in his
native city. He was the author of a treatise on the use
of the Latin particles, " De Usu Particularum Latini
Sermonis," (1598,) which ranks among the most valuable
works of the kind ; also an " Epitome of Universal His-
tory," (in Italian,) and " Life of Saint Francis Xavier,"
(in Latin, 1594.) Died in 1599.

See MORRI, " Dictionnaire Historique."

Tttr'ton, (THOMAS,) an English theologian, born
about 1780. He became Dean of Peterborough in 1830,
and Bishop of Ely in 1845. Died in 1864.

Turton, (WILLIAM,) an English physician and natu-
ralist, born before 1800. Among his principal works
we may

ranged, (1822, illustrated,) and "Manual of the Land
and Fresh-Water Shells of the British Islands," (1831.)

Tussanus. See TOUSSAIN.

Tus'ser, (THOMAS,) an English poet and writer on
agriculture, was born in Essex about 1520. His principal
work is entitled "Five Hundred Points of Good Hus-
bandry united to as many of Good Housewifery," (1573,)
and was dedicated to his patron, Lord Paget. It is
written in verse, and accompanied by an interesting
memoir of the author. Died about 1580.

Ttttch'in, (JoHN,) an English political writer under
the reign of James II., was a partisan of the Duke of
Monmouth. Died in 1707.

Tuthill, tut'il, (LOUISA CAROLINE HUGGINS,) an
American writer, born at New Haven, Connecticut, in
1799, was married in 1817. She published "James
Somers, the Pilgrim's Son," (1827,) " My Wife," a novel,
"The History of Architecture," (1848,) "The Nursery
Book," (1849,) and other works, besides a compilation
entitled "The Young Ladies' Reader." Died in 1879.

Tutilo, too'te-lo, or Tuptilo, too-o'te-lo, a learned
Swiss monk, was distinguished for his proficiency in
music, eloquence, and the arts of painting and sculpture.
Died about 896.

Tut'tle, (DANIEL SYLVESTER,) D.D., an American
bishop, born at Windham, New York, January 26, 1837,
graduated at Columbia College in 1857, and at the Gen-
eral Theological Seminary (New York) in 1862. He en-
tered the priesthood of the Episcopal Church, of which
in 1867 he was consecrated a missionary bishop, having
his episcopal seat at Salt Lake City, Utah.

Tuttle, (HERBERT,) an American historian, born at
Bennington, Vermont, November 29, 1846. He gradu-
ated at the University of Vermont in 1869, and in 1881
became professor of history in Cornell University. He
published "German Political Leaders," (1876,) and a
" History of Prussia," (1884.) Died June 21, 1894.

Tuttle, (HUDSON,) an American author, born at
Berlin Heights, Ohio, in 1836. He was long con-
nected with reform and spiritualistic journals, and
wrote "Arcana of Nature," " Origin of Man," etc.


Twed'dell, (JOHN,) an English scholar, born in

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 359 of 425)