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Susan," (about 1824,) one of the most popular dramas
ever acted on the English stage. This was followed by
several other plays of great merit. He afterwards be-
came a contributor to " Punch," the popularity of which
was rapidly increased by his satirical and witty produc-
tions. He also edited successively " The Heads of the
People," "The Illuminated Magazine," "The Shilling
Magazine," and " Lloyd's Weekly." All of these were
very successful, and the last had an immense circulation.
Many of his writings have been issued in volume form
among which we may mention " Mrs. Caudle's Curtain
Lectures," (new edition, 1846,) "Chronicles of Clover-
nook," (1846,) "Saint Giles and Saint James," (1851,)
^"Prisoner of War," "Time Works Wondei." (1854,)
^ antf tbt" Bubbles of the Day." Died in 1857.

Jerjrold, (\\ 'ALTER COPELAND,) grandson of the

preceding, was born at Liverpool in 1865. He became
a journalist, and published biographies of Faraday,
Gladstone, and Holmes, " Electricians and their Mar-
vels," (1895,) and various other works.

Jerrold, (WILLIAM BLANCHARD,) a son of Doug-
las, was born at London in 1826. He published, be-
sides other works, "A Brage-Beaker with the Swedes,
or Notes from the North," (1853,) "Life of Douglas
Jerrold," (1859,) " Chronicles of a Crutch," (1860,) " Two
Lives," (1865,) "Up and Down in the World," (1866,)
"The Children of Lutetia," "The Gavroche Party,"
(1870,) " London, a Pilgrimage," (1872,) " Life of Napo-
leon III.," (1874,) etc. He succeeded his father as editor
of "Lloyd's Weekly News." Died March 10, 1884.

Jerusalem, ya-roo'za-ISm', (JoHANN FRIEDRICH
WILHELM,) a celebrated Protestant divine and pulpil
orator, born at Osnabriick, in Germany, in 1709. He
was appointed in 1740 court preacher to Duke Charlei
of Brunswick, and soon after became tutor to his son,
Prince Charles William. Through his influence the
Caroline College was established at Brunswick. In 1771
he was created vice-president of the consistory at Wol-
fenbiittel. He published, besides sermons, "Contem-
plations on the Principal Truths of Religion," (5 vole.,
1768-79.) Died in 1 789.

Jer'vis, (JOHN,) Earl of Saint Vincent, and admiral of
the British fleet, born at Meaford, in Staffordshire, in
1734. He entered the navy when ten years old, and in
1760 became a post-captain. In 1778 he commanded an
eighty-gun ship in Keppel's action against the French,
and in 1782 captured the Pegase, of seventy-four guns.
He sat in Parliament several years for various boroughs,
until the commencement of the French Revolution, when
he sailed at the head of a squadron to the West Indies,
with the rank of rear-admiral. He captured Martinique,
Guadeloupe, and Saint Lucia. In 1795 he was made
admiral of the blue, and commander of the naval force in
the Mediterranean. He encountered the Spanish fleet
off Cape Saint Vincent in February, 1797, and, though
their force was double his own, he gained a complete
victory. For this exploit he received the thanks of both
Houses of Parliament, and a pension of 3000, and was
raised to the peerage, with the titles of Earl of Saint Vin-
cent and Baron Jervis of Meaford. He was appointed
first lord of the admiralty in 1801, and retired from that
office in 1804. He became admiral of the fleet in 1821.
Died in 1823.

Jesabel, the French of JEZEBEL, which see.

Jesi, ya'see, (SAMUELE,) an Italian engraver, born at
Milan about 1789, executed a number of excellent plates,
after Raphael. Died in 1853.

Jesid. See YEZEED.

Jes'se, (EDWARD,) an English naturalist and writer,
published, besides other works, " Gleanings in Natural
History," (3 vols., 1832-35,) and "Scenes and Tales of
Country- Life," (1844.) Died in 1868.

Jesse, (JOHN HENEAGE,) an English poet and his-
torical writer of the present age. Among his works are
" Memoirs of the Court of England during the Reign of
the Stuarts," (4 vols., 1839-40,) and "Memoirs of the
Pretenders and their Adherents," (1845.) Died in 1874.

Jes'sel, (Sir GEORGE,) an English judge, was born in
London, of Jewish parents, in 1824. He was educated
at University College, London, and in 1847 was called to
the bar at Lincoln's Inn. In 1865 he was made a bencher
and Queen's counsel, was sent to Parliament in 1868 as
a Liberal, became solicitor-general in 1871, was knighted
in 1872, and in 1873 was appointed master of the rolls
and sworn of the Privy Council. He was regarded as
the best equity lawyer in Great Britain. Died March 21,

Jesseuius, ye's-sa'ne-us, (JoHANN,) a physician, born
in Hungary in 1566, was employed by the Emperor of
Germany. In 1621 he was condemned and executed for
having attempted to incite his countrymen to revolt
against the house of Austria.

Jes'sey, (HENRY,) a learned English divine, born in
Yorkshire about 1600. He was ordained after the Epis-
copal forms, and obtained a living. He subsequently
became minister of a Baptist congregation. He com-

i, e, i, 3*6, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e., j, 9, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n&t; good; moon;




menced a new translation of the Bible, but, from the
persecutions which he suffered for his religious belief,
was unable to finish it. He died in prison in 1663.

Jes'sopp, (AUGUSTUS,) an English author, born
at Cheshunt in 1824. He became rector at Seaming
in 1879. His works include " Arcady, for Better for
Worse," (1887,) "Trials of a Country Parson,"
(1890,) "Random Roaming," (1893,) "Frivola,"
(1896,) etc.

Jes'up, (MORRIS KETCHUM,) an American philan-
thropist, born at Westport, Connecticut, in 1830.
He was very active in reform movements, including
the Five Points Mission, the Suppression of Vice, the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Young Men's
Christian Association, etc. He became president of
the Museum of Natural History in 1881, and presented
it a $100,000 collection of native woods.

Jeuiie, le, leh zhun, (JEAN,) a celebrated French
preacher, born in Franche-Comte in 1592; died in 1672.
His sermons were published in 10 vols.

Jevhery or Djevhery, jev'ha-ree, (Ismaeel-Ibu-
Ham'mad,) an Arabian lexicographer, born at Farab.
After travelling through various countries, he settled at
Nishapoor, in Persia, where, in 999, he published one
of the most perfect of Arabian dictionaries, of which
Golius made extensive use in his "Lexicon Arabicum."
Died about 1005.

Jev'on, (THOMAS,) an English dramatic writer and
actor, who died in 1688, aged about thirty-five.

Jev'pns, (FRANK BYRON,) an English antiquarian
writer, born in 1858. He became classical tutor at

Kimberworth, November 24, 1816. Among his publica-
tions are "The Ceramic Art of Great Britain," (2 vols.,
2000 engravings,) " The Stately Homes of England,"
(partly by S. C. Hall,) "Mountain, River, Lake, and
Landscape Scenery of Great Britain," (4 vols. lolio,)
"The Wedgwoods," "Life of William Hutton," "His
tory of Plymouth," "Hand-Book of Englisn Coins,"
" History of the County of Derby," etc. Died in 1886.

Jews'bur-jf, (GERALDINE ENDSOR,) younger sister
of Mrs. Fletcher, noticed below, was born at Manchester
in 1821. She published a number of novels, among
which may be named "Zoe, or the History of Two
Lives," (1845,) "Marian Withers," (1851.) and "The
Sorrows of Gentility," (1856.) Died Sept. 22, 1880.

Jewsbury, (MARIA JANE,) an English authoress,
.born in Warwickshire about 1800. Among her principal
works are "Phantasmagoria, or Sketches of Life and
Literature," (1825,) "Lays of Leisure Hours," (1829,)
and "Three Histories." Having been married in 1832
or 1833 to the Rev. William Fletcher, she accompanied
him to India, where she died in 1833.

Jex-Blake, (THOMAS WILLIAM,) D.D., an English
educator, born in London, January 26, 1832. He was
educated at Rugby, and at University College, Oxford,
graduating in 1855. He became a Fellow of Queen's
College, was made principal of Cheltenham College in
1868, and head-master of Rugby in 1874. Among his
works are " Long Vacation in Continental Picture-Gal-
leries, " (1858,) "Life by Faith," (1875,) "Higher
Religious Education," (1896,) etc.

Jez'e-bel, [Heb.

Fr. J^SABEL, zhi'zfbH',] a

daughter of Ethbaal, King of the Zidonians, and wife of

Durham University in 1882 and was senior proctor , Ahab) K; f Israe] _ She was notorious for her cruelty
1896-98. He wrote " The'Prehistoric Antiquities of , and ;u fai(h _ g he wa kil]ed b bei thrown out o f a
the Aryan Peoples," (1890,) "A Manual of Greek , window by the or( j er o f j enu .
Antiquities," (1895,) "An Introduction to the His- Jezid or Jezed. See YEZEED.

tory of Religion," (1896,) etc. Jezzar or Djezzar Ahmed, jez'zar iH'med, a Pasha

Jev'pns, (WILLIAM STANLEY,) an English economist j of Acre and Sidon, notorious for his cruelty, was born

and author, born at Liverpool, September i, 1835. He
was a grandson of William Roscoe, the historian. He
was educated at University College, London, and grad-
uated in 1862 as M.A., after having spent five year&as an
officer of the mint at Sydney, Australia. He was, 1866
-76, professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy
at Owens College, Manchester, and in 1875 became pro-

fessor of political economy in University College, London.
Among his works are " Pure Logic," (1864,) "The Coal
Question,"! 1865,) " Elementary Lessons in Logic,"(i87oJ
"Theory of Politi
(1876,) " Political Economy

in Bosnia. After being a slave of Ali Bey in Egypt, he
became governor of Cairo. In 1775 he was appointed
Pasha of Acre and Sidon, and about 1 784 he received
the Three Tails. In 1799 he was defeated by the French,
and shut himself in Saint-Jean-d'Acre, which, with the
aid of Sir Sidney Smith, he successfully defended against
Bonaparte. Died in 1804.

Jhering, von, fon ya'rlng, (RUDOLF,) an able German
jurist, born at Aurich, in East Friesland, August 22, 1818.
He was educated at Heidelberg, Munich, and Gottingen.
He held professorships of Roman law successively at
Basle, Rostock, Kiel, Giessen, Vienna, and Gottingen.

tive Logic," (1880.) He was drowned, August 13, 1882. ' He published the celebrated " Spirit of the Roman Law,"
Jew'ell or Jew'el, (JOHN,) Bishop of Salisbury, one ( ? vols., 1852-65.) One of his popular works, " The Strug-
of the earliest champions of the Episcopal Church, born gle about Law," (" Der Kampf urns Recht," 1872,)
at Buden, in Devonshire, in 1522. He studied at Oxford, . has been very frequently translated. Died in 1892.
and graduated in 1540. Under the reign of Edward VI. j Jina, jin'a, [a Sanscrit word signifying "victorious,"]
he openly avowed the Protestant faith, and assisted Peter ' one o f tne mall y names applied to Vishnu : also the
Martyr in his dispute with the Catholic theologians at J name o f a celebrated sage, (called also JAINA, jl'na,)
Oxford. After the accession of Mary he fled to Ger- tne founder o f tj le se ct of Jains or Jainas. It is also the
many, (1555,) and at Strasburg again met Martyr, whom t j t ] e O f eac [j o f tne sa i,,t s wno have been deified by the
he assisted on some of his works. When Elizabeth j a j ns As the Hindoos have no trustworthy annals, it
ascended the throne, Jewell returned to England, and seems impossible to determine positively the historical
was ordained Bishop of Salisbury in 1559 or 15- I" j character of the Jains. They are commonly regarded as
this position he continued to labour diligently for the | a dj v j s i on or offshoot of the Booddhists. Thus much is
advancement of the Protestant religion. He died in j certa j n> tnat j n SO me of their tenets and customs the
1571, greatly esteemed for his eminent piety and vast j j a j ns c l ose ly resemble the Booddhists. They have a.
theological knowledge. His writings are principally p ecu ij ar sacred language (not now in use) called the
of a controversial nature, and are still highly valued. .. j a j, la p ra k r jt."

The most important of these is " Apologia Ecclesiae gee MOQR| ., Hindu P;lntheon _-. and an exce iient article on ih.
Anglicans," ("Apology for the Church of England, Jaios, by ME. RHYS DAVIDS, in the " Encydopzdia Briunnica."
1562,) written in elegant Latin, and translated into ji rece k yee'Ret-chek, (HERMENEGILD,) a Bohemian
English by the mother of Lord Bacon. Versions were
also rendered of it into various European languages ;
and it is said to have done more for the promotion of
the Reformation than any other work.

Jew'ett, (SARAH ORNE,) an American author, born I born at Huhemnauth, October 9, 1825. He became con-

Jirecek, yee'Ret-chek, (HERMENEGILD,) a con<
(Czech) jurist, brother of Joseph Jirecek, was born at
Hohenmauth, April 13, 1827. His principal works are
on Bohemian and Moravian law.

Jirecek, (JOSEPH,) a Bohemian (Czech) historian,

Mate of the bayfight," (1882,') and other novels. Hungary. His writings have special reference to the

Jew'itt, (LLEWELLYN,) an English author, born at literary history of the Slavs of Austria. Died in 1888.

as A; 5 as i; g harj; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled: s as z; th as in this. 1 2^=See Explanations, p. 23. )



Jirecek, (KO.NSTANTIN JOSEPH,) a son of Joseph
Jirecek, was born at Vienna, July 24, 1854, and became
general secretary of the Bulgarian ministry of public
instruction. Me published a " Bibliography of Bulgarian
Literature," ( 1 872,) a History of the Bulgarians," (1876,)
and valuable works on the resources and trade of the
Balkan peninsula. In 1884 he was appointed professor
of history at Prague.

Jo'ab, jlleb. 3Sr,| chief captain of the armies of
Israel under King David.

See II. Samuel iii., iv., x., xviii.. xix., XX. ; I. Kings ii.

Jo'a-ehim, |It. GioACCHiNo,jo-ak-kee'no,|an Italian
monk, founded the monastery of Flora, in Calabria. He
wrote several heretical works, in which he advanced
the doctrines of tritheism. Died in 1202 or 1207.

Joachim, (GEORGE.) See RHETICUS.

Joachim, yo'a-Kim, (JOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German
historian and medallist, born at Halle in 1713. He was
professor of history and law at Halle, and wrote several
works on history and numismatics. Died in 1667.

Joachim, (JOSEPH,) an eminent Hungarian (Jewish)
violinist, composer, and teacher, born at Kiltsee, near
1'resburg, June 28, 1831. He made his first public ap-
pearance when only seven years of age. He has visited
London, and made a tour of the principal cities in Ger-
many. Since 1868 he has resided in Berlin as head of
the High School for Musical Execution, attached to the
Royal Academy of Arts.

Joachim Murat. See MURAT.

Joan or Jo-an'na [Fr. JEANNE, zhin ; It Gio-
VANNA, jo-van'na| I., Queen of Naples, a daughter of
Charles, Duke of Calabria, was born in 1327. She was
married to Andrew, Prince of Hungary, and in 1343 suc-
ceeded her grandfather, Kobert, King of Naples. In 1345
Andrew was murdered by conspirators, probably with
the connivance of Joan, who soon after married Prince
Louis of Tarentum. To avenge the death of Andrew,
Louis, King of Hungary, invaded Naples and expelled
Joan from the kingdom. Having gained the favour of the
pope by ceding Avignon to him, she was restored to the
throne in 1352. She was married in 1376 to her fourth
husband, Otho of Brunswick, but continued to be child-
less. In 1381 Naples was invaded by Charles Durazzo,
who captured Joan and put her to death in 1382.

See " Historical Life of Joanna of Sicily," London, 2 vols., 1824;
GIANNONE, " Storia civile del Regno di Napoli;" V. MIGNOT, " His-
toire de Jeanne I, Reine de Naples," 1764; D. CRIVBLLI, " Delia pnma
e della seconds Giovanna, Regine di Napoli," 18 *a ; *' Nouvelle Bio-
graphic Generate, " (under "Jeanne.")

Joan (or Giovanna) H., daughter of the Duke of
Durazzo, succeeded her brother Ladislaus on the throne
of Naples in 1414. She was notorious for her licentious
conduct and the number of her favourites. She died iti
1435, leaving the kingdom in a very unsettled state.

See D CRIVKLLI, " Delia prima e della seconda Giovanna, Regine
Ji Napoli." iX,j; "Nnnvellp Rincraphie OnrWe."

Joan, POPE, supposed by most authorities to be a fabu-
lous character, is placed by several writers in the ninth
century. I laving assumed male attire, she went to Rome,
and became so celebrated for her ecclesiastical know-
ledge that upon the death of Leo IV. she was unani-
mously elected pope. She was, however, one day seized
with the pains of childbirth as she was proceeding to the
Lateran Basilica, and died in the street, after a pontificate
of two years, five months, and four days. She was buried
without honours. Other accounts state that upon the
discovery of the imposture she was stoned to death by the
populace. David Blonde], a Protestant historian, was
the first to show this story to be a fiction, although it was
in circulation as early as the thirteenth century.

See J. LKNFANT, " Histoire de !a Papesse Jeanne," 1730; S.
BARING GOULD, " Curious Myths of the Middle Ages," 1867; DOL-
LiNiiER, " Papsi-Fabeln," 1803.

Joan, Queen of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand and
Isabella the Catholic, was married in 1496 to Philip,
Archduke of Austria. In 1500 she gave birth to Prince
Carlos, afterwards Charles V. of Germany. She soon
after lost her reason ; and when, upon the dearh of Isa-
bella, she became Queen of Castile, it was necessary that
5 r-gent should be appointed. Died in 1555.

See PRKSCOTT, " History of Ferdinand and Isabella:" MARIANA,
"Hisloria de Kspana."


(Jeanne,) daughter and heiress of Henry I
of Navarre, and queen of Philippe le Bel of France,
was born in 1272. Upon her marriage with the French
monarch she retained authority over her hereditary do-
minions of Navarre and Champagne. She carried on
a successful war against the Castilians and Aragonese,
assisted her husband in the councils and administration
of affairs in France, established a college in Navarre,
and was a liberal patroness of learning. In 1297, Count
de Bar having invaded Champagne, the queen marched
against him at the head of her troops, cut his army in
pieces, and carried him prisoner to Paris. Died in 1305.

Joan d'Albret See JEANNE D'ALBRET.

Joan of Arc, or Jeanne Dare, zhin dink, Mir named
M pii'sf 1' doR'li'oN',] the most illustrious of the hero-
ines of history, was born in the hamlet of Dom-Remy,
in Lorraine, about 1411. She was the daughter of
poor and religious peasants, who implanted in her heart
at an early age the seeds of that exalted enthusiasm
which subsequently obtained so absolute an ascendency
over her character. At this time the rival factions of
the Orleanists or Armagnacs and the Burgundians deso-
lated France by their wars. The former supported the
claims of Charles VII.; while the latter had sworn al-
legiance to Henry V. of England. Joan from infancy
had imbibed the principles of the Orleanists, by whom
she was surrounded. Her devotion to their cause was
increased by the cruelties which she frequently saw the
enemy commit. She was untiring in her efforts to re-
lieve the sufferings of the poor around her, and even sold
her bed and the greater part of her clothing in order to
procure them supplies. She afterwards stated that as
early as the age of thirteen she received commands from
Heaven to go and liberate France. These commands
continued to be repeated ; but her parents endeavoured
to suppress her enthusiasm. She. however, obtained
the assistance of an uncle, who introduced her to De
Baudricourt, the commander of a neighbouring fortress,
before whom her voices, as she termed them, had or-
dered her to lay her divine commission. That officer at
first treated her assertions with scorn ; but finally, on
account of the disasters that his prince had suffered, he
gave her the assistance which she had requested, and
in February, 1429, with a guard of five or six men, she
set out on her journey for C.hinon, where Charles then
held his court. At this time his cause appeared to be
almost desperate. Orleans, which was the only place of
importance that remained to him, was closely besieged
by the English. Joan appeared before him, and declared
that her mission was to raise the siege and to conduct
him to Rheims to be crowned. At this period she had
reached her eighteenth year, and possessed a very beau-
tiful countenance and noble form. Charles was convinced
of the truthfulness of her statements, and, notwithstand-
ing the opposition of his ecclesiastics and courtiers,
raised her to the rank of a military commander, and
placed a considerable body of troops at her disposal.
She entered Orleans about the last of April, 1429, with
a convoy of provisions, and in one week raised the siege.
In battle Joan displayed great personal bravery. She
subsequently gained the battles of Jargeau and Patay, in
the latter of which the noted Talbot was made prisoner.
Several important cities surrendered to her without resist-
ance ; and in less than three months from the time that she
received her military command, Charles was crowned at
Rheims, in the cathedral consecrated to the coronation of
the French sovereigns. She then petitioned the king that
she might be permitted to return home ; but he prevailed
on her to continue in the army. The following spring, as
she was making a sortie against the Burgundians near
Compiegne, she was captured by them and subsequently
handed over to the English, who, with the Bishop of
Beauvais and the University of Paris, urgently demanded
her execution as a sorceress. The King of England
granted their request, and Joan, after a mock-trial at
Rouen, was condemned to be burnt. On the 3istof
May, 1431, she was dressed in the garb of the victims of
the Inquisition, and, amidst the clamours of assembled
thousands, conducted to the stake, where, in i. short
time, her body was consumed. She died declaring that

i, e, i,o. u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 5, u, y, short; a,e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fit; m8t; not; good; moon;




her voices had not deceived her, and with the name ol
Jesus on her lips. Many of those who had most eagerly
sought her death were melted to tears ; and even the
executioner declared that he had committed an unpar-
donable sin. A secretary of the King of England also
said, " We are lost ! we have burned a saint." Thus
perished the Maid of Orleans, against whom not the
slightest crime could be proved. If the inspiration which
she received came not from the source to which she
attributed it, it was at least the offspring of bravery, of
generosity, of patriotism, of those virtues which nave
raised to immortality so many of the great and good.
In the high-coloured and eulogistic account given of
her by Michelet, he remarks, "She had the goodness of
the ancient martyrs, but with this difference : the early
Christians remained pure and virtuous only in retiring
from the encounter and in separating themselves from
the struggles and temptations of the world, while she
was benign in the fiercest conflicts, good among the bad,
gentle even in war; 'into war, that triumph of the devil,
she carried the spirit of Heaven.' This tenderness of
heart she had for all men. She wept after the victories,
and relieved the sufferings of the wounded English."
Her death stamped indelible infamy on all the parties
connected with the war, on the Burgundians for de-
livering her to her inveterate enemies, on the English
and their French allies for their inhuman cruelty and
thirst for revenge, and on her own prince and party for
not making a powerful attempt to save her.

See BARTHRI.KMY DK BHAUREGARD, " Histoire de Jeanne a" Arc,"
2 vols., 1847 ; DESJARDINS, "Vie de Jeanne d'Arc," 1854 ; VALLEI
DE VIRIVILI.H, " Nouvelles Recherches sur la Famllle, etc. de Jeanne
Dare," 1854: LENGLET-DUPRESNOY, " Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc,"
1753: LK BRUN DE CHARMKTTES. "Histoire de Jeanne d'Arc,"
4 vols., 1817: ALPHONSE DE LAMARTINE, "Jeanne d'Arc," 1852;
JULES MICHELET, "Jeanne d'Arc," 1853; R. M. EVANS, " Storv
of Joan of Arc," 1847: A. M. MENEGHEI.LI, " Giovanna d'Arc."
Padua, 1841: MJCHELET, "History of France;" CARL LIEBELT,
" Diiewica Orleanska ustep dziejow Francyi," Posen, 1847: GUI or
GOERRES. "Die Jungfrau von Orleans," 1834: HARRIET PARR,
" Life and Death of Jeanne d'Arc," 1866; THOMAS DE QUINCEY,
"Miscellaneous Essays."

Joan |Sp. JUANA, Hoo-Jn'ya] Henriquez, (Jn-ree'
k?th,) Queen of Aragon and Navarre, daughter of Fred-
erick Henriquez, of the blood-royal of Castile, and
admiral of that kingdom. In 1444 she was married to
John II. of Aragon, and in 1452 gave birth to Ferdinand
the Catholic. She was a princess of great energy of

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 36 of 425)