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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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Paris in 1807. He was educated at Coimbra, and in
1841 became minister of justice. In 1855 he was sent to
France as envoy. He published four volumes of legal
essays. Died at Rio de Janeiro, July 15, :866.

Urville. See DUMONT d'URViLLE.

Ushas, 6t>'shas, (allied to the Sanscrit root usA, to

burn or shine,") a goddess of the ancient Vedic religion,
corresponding to Aurora, or the Dawn. She was the
sister of Varuna, and the associate of Indra and Agni.
Her name is very prominent in the religious writings of
very early times, such as the Rigveda, but in the later
centuries her cultus seems to have become obsolete.

Ush'er or Ussh'er, (HENRY,) a prelate, born in
Dublin, was an uncle of James, noticed below. He
became Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland
in 1595. Died in 1613.

Usher or Ussher, [Lat. USSE'RIUS,] (JAMES,) an emi-
nent prelate and scholar, born in Dublin on the 4th of
January, 1580. His mother was a sister of Richard Stany-
hurst the poet. He was educated at Trinity College,
Dublin, and took his degree of M.A. in 1600. He was
ordained a priest in 1601, began to preach in Dublin,
and became professor of divinity in Trinity College in
1607. In 1613 he narried Phebe Challoner. He pub-
lished in 1614 a Latin work "On the Succession and
State of the Christian Churches." in which he opposed
the pretensions of the Church of Rome. He made fre-
quent visits to England, where he formed an acquaint-
ance with Selden and other eminent men. In doctrine
he was a Calvinist, and a zealous opponent of popery.
In 1620 he was appointed Bishop of Meath by James I.
He became Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ire-
land in 1624. In 1638 he published his " Emanuel, or a
Treatise on the Incarnation of the Son of God," which
is accounted one of his greatest works. In 1640 he
quitted Ireland, to which he never returned, and came
to England. The Irish rebels attacked his house it

(L, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, c rtscure; far, fill, fat; mlt; nftt; good; m<5dn;


2 359


Armagh in 1641, and seized or destroyed his property.
He was a royalist in the civil war between Charles I.
and the Parliament The king gave him the bishopric
of Carlisle, to be held in commendam, (about 1641,) but
he derived little revenue from it. He officiated as

the Old and New Testament," (" Annales Veteris et Novi
Testament!," 2 vols., 1650-54,) in which he displays
great learning, and " Sacred Chronology," (" Chronologia
Sacra," 1660,) a work of high reputation. He died at
Reigate in March, 1656, leaving one child, named

See ELRINGTON, " Life of Archbishop James Usher," 1848 : R.
PARR, " Life of James Usher," prefixed to a collection of his Letter*,
1686; T. BERNARD, "Life and Death of James Usher," 1656;
AIKIN, "Lives of J. Selden and J. Usher," 1811 ; NIC*RON, "M<
moires ;" " Biographica Britannica. "

Usserius. See USHER.

Ussher. See USHER.

Ussieux, d', dii'se-uh', (Louis,) a French romance-
writer and rural economist, born at Angouleme in 1747 ;
died in 1805.

TJssiiig, oos'sing, QOHAN LUDWIG,) a Danish philolo-
gist, born at Copenhagen in 1820. He became professor
of philology in that city in 1849, ar >d published several

TTssing, (TAGB ALGREEN,) a Danish statesman and
jurist, born in Seeland in 1797. He became procurer-
general in 1841, councillor of state in 1846, and a deputy
to the Diet in 1848. He opposed the separation of
Sleswick and Holstein from the Danish monarchy. He
published a " Manual of Danish Penal Law." Died 1872.

Ustariz, oos-ta-reth', (JEROME,) a Spanish political
economist, born in Navarre about 1695. He published
in 1724 "The Theory and Practice of Commerce and
of the Marine," which was translated into English and
French. Died about 1750.

Usteri, oos'ta-ree, (JOHANN MARTIN,) a Swiss poet,
born at Zurich in 1763 ; died in 1827.

Usteri, (LEONARD,) a Swiss educational writer, born
at Zurich in 1741 ; died in 1789.

listen, (PAULUS,) son of the preceding, was born at
Zurich in 1768. He studied medicine at Gottingen, and
afterwards filled several important offices under the
government He published a number of medical and
political treatises. Died in 1831.

Usuard, u'zii'aR', or TJ-su-ar'dus, a French monk,
who, under the patronage of Charles the Bald, composed
a " Martyrology." Died about 877 A.D.
U-ten-ho'vI-us, [ Fr. UTENHOVK.u'ta'nov'] (CHARLES,)

a Flemish scholar and Latin poet, born at Ghent about
1536. He lived in Paris, and died at Cologne in 1600
He was a Protestant minister.

Utgard. See JOxuN.

Utrecht See VAN UTRECHT.

TJttoxeter, LORD. See GARDINER.

Uvedale, yoov'dal, (ROBERT,) an English scholar
and botanist, born in London in 1642, assisted Dryden
in the translation of Plutarch's "Lives."

U'wini, (DAVID,) an English physician, born in Lon-
don in 1780. He studied at Edinburgh, and in 1815
became physician to the City Dispensary, London. He
was subsequently editor of the " Medical Repository,'
and published, among other works, an "Essay on In-
sanity and Madhouses," which was very well received.
Died in 1837.

Uwins, (THOMAS,) an English painter, a brother of
the preceding, was born in London in 1783. Having
studied at the Royal Academy, he visited Italy in 1826,
and produced a number of pictures illustrating peasant-
life. Among these may be named " Neapolitan Peasantry
Returning from a Festa," and " Children Asleep in a
Vineyard." He became a Royal Academician in 1836,
and in 1847 keeper of the National Gallery. Died in

Uxelles, d', diik'sel', (NICOLAS de Ble deh bla,)
MARQUIS, a French general, born at Chalons in 1652. He
defended Mentz with ability against the Imperialists in
1689, but was forced by want of powder to surrender.
He became a marshal of France in 1703, and president
of the council of foreign affairs at the death of Louil
XIV. Died in 1730.

Uz, 66ts, (JOHANN PETER,) a German lyric poet, born
at Anspach in 1720. He published in 1729 a collection
entitled " Lyrische Gedichte," which was followed bv
" Theodicea," and " The Art of being always cheerful,"
("Die Kunst stets frohlich zu sein," 1760,) a didactic
poem in Alexandrines, which is greatly esteemed. He
was made a counsellor of justice in 1796, and died the
same year.

Uzzano, oot-sa'no, (Niccoi.6,) a Florentine states-
man of the Guelph party. He became chief magistrate
of the republic in 1417, and waged a war against Vis-
conti, Duke of Milan, from 1423 to 1428. His prudence
and moderation are praised by Sismondi. Died in 1432.

Uz-zi'ah, [Heb. mjr,] King of Judah, a son of
Amaziah, began to reign about 808 B.C. He defeated
the Philistines and Arabians. Having usurped the
priest's office, he was smitten with leprosy. He reigned
fifty-two years, and was succeeded by his son Jotham.
(See II. Chronicles xxvi.)


Vaart, van der, vin der vSRt, (JAN,) a Dutch painter
of landscapes and still life, was born at Haarlem in 1647.
He removed to England in 1674. Died in London in

Vaca, de, (CABEC.A.) See NUNKZ, (ALVAREZ.)

Va-ca'rI-U3, a jurist of the twelfth century, born in
Lombardy, was teacher of Roman law at Oxford. He
compiled an abstract of the Code and Digests, which
is still extant in manuscript He was the first teacher
of Roman law in England.


Vacca, vik'ka, (FLAMINIO,) an Italian sculptor of
the sixteenth century, was patronized by Sixtus V.

Vaccaro, vik'kl-ro, (ANDREA,) an Italian painter,
born at Naples in 1598. Among his works is a " Holy
Family." Died in 1670.

Vaccaro, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian engraver and
painter, born at Bologna about 1636 ; die'd about 1687.

Vacher. See LE VACHER.

Vacherot, vish'ro', (ETIENNE,) a French philoso-
pher, born at Langres in 1809. He was appointed
director of studias at the Normal School about 1838,
and acted as substitute of M. Cousin in the Sorbonne
in 1839. He published, besides other works, a " Criti-

cal History of the Alexandrian School," (3 vols., 1840-
50.) "The Democracy," (1859,) "La Religion," (iS6S,)
and "Science and Conscience," (1870.) Died in 1897.

Vachet, du, dii vi'shj', (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a French
priest and Latin poet, born at Beaune ; died about 1655.

Vachet, Le, leh vi'shj', (JEAN ANTOINE,) a benevo-
lent French priest and writer, born in Dauphine in 1603 ;
died in 1681.

Vacqu6rie, vi'ki're', ( AUGUSTE,) a French Httfratfur,
born in Paris about 1818. He was associated with Vic-
tor Hugo in the editorship of the " Evenement," a journal
founded in 1848. He also produced poems entitled
" Demi-Tints," (1845,) and other works. Died in 1895.

Va-cu'na, a goddess worshipped by the Sabines, and
afterwards by the Romans, was variously regarded as
identical with Victoria, Minerva, Ceres, or Diana.

Vadder, de, deh vid'der, (Louis,) a Flemish land
scape-painter, born at Brussels in 1560. His pictures
were highly prized. Died in 1623.

Vade, vi'dk', (JEAN JOSEPH,) a French dramatist, born
in Picardy in 1719, was the author of comic operas,
farces, and songs, which obtained great popularity. Died
in 1757.

Vadian, va'de-an, [Lat. VADIA'NUS,] (JOACHIM,) an

eas/5; {asj; gAard; gasyV G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; sasz; th as in this. (JJ^F'See Explanations, p.




eninent Swiss scholar, born at Saint Gall in 1484. His
t-.mily name was VON WATT. He became professor of
Delles-lettres at Vienna. About 1520 he returned to
Saint Gall, where he practised medicine and became a
disciple of Zwingle. He was ranked by Joseph Scaliger
among the most learned men of Germany. He wrote,
besides other works, a "Commentary on Pomponius
Mela," (1518,) and " Scholia on Pliny's Natural History,"
(1531.) Died in 1551.

Vadianus. See VADIAN.

Vadier, vS'de-i', (MARC GUILLAUME ALEXIS,) a
French Jacobin, b"orn in 1736, was a violent member of
the Convention, (1792-95.) He joined the enemies of
Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, 1794. In 1795 he
was denounced as a terrorist, and condemned to de-
portation, but he avoided that penalty by concealment
Uied in 1828.

Vaenius. See VAN VEEN.


Vahan, va'han, [from vHh, (written also vlh,) to
"carry," cognate with the Latin vlk-o,] a Sanscrit word,
signifying almost the same as the German Wagen, (i.e.
"vehicle," "carriage,") with which it nearly corresponds
in sound. In the Hindoo mythology it is applied to
those fabulous creatures which were supposed to bear
the gods in their journeys. Thus, the white bull Nandi
is said to be the vihan of Siva ; Garuda, the vslhan of
Vishnu ; and so on.

Vahl, vil, (MARTIN,) a Norwegian naturalist, born at
Bergen in 1749, studied at Copenhagen, and subse-
quently at Upsal under Linnaeus. Having visited Eng-
land and various parts of the continent, where he made
valuable collections of plants, he was appointed in 1785
professor of natural history in the University of Copen-
hagen. He published "Symbolae Botanicae," "Eclogae
Americanae," and a continuation of CEder's "Flora
Danica," (1810:) he also contributed to the "Zoologia
Danica." He died in 1804, leaving a valuable herbarium,
library, and manuscripts, which were bought by the King
of Denmark. A genus of plants has been named Vahlia
in his honour.

Vail, (THOMAS HUBBARD,) D.D., LL.D., an American
bishop, born in Richmond, Virginia, October 21, 1812,
but brought up in Norwich, Connecticut He gradu-
ated at Washington (now Trinity) College, Hartford, in
1831, and at the General Theological Seminary in 1835,
was ordained a presbyter of the Episcopal Church in
1837, held rectorships in New England and in Iowa,
and in 1864 was consecrated Bishop of Kansas. His
principal published work is "The Comprehensive
Church," (1841 ; 3d edition, 1883.) Died Oct 6, 1889.

Vaillant, vfyoN', (JEAN BAPTISTS PHILIBERT,) a
French marshal, born at Dijon in 1790, served in the
Russian campaign of 1812, accompanied the expedition
to Algiers in 1830, and attained the rank of colonel in
1833. Having become a lieutenant-general in 1845, ne
directed the operations of the siege of Rome in 1849,
and obtained the baton of marshal in 1851. He was
minister of war from March, 1854, to May, 1859. Died
June 4, 1872.

See " Nouvelle Biographic Genrale."

Vaillant, (JEAN FOY,) a French antiquary, celebrated
for his knowledge of numismatics, was born at Beauvais
in 1632. Having been charged by Colbert to make a
collection of ancient medals for the royal cabinet, he
visited Italy, Greece, and part of Asia, and returned in
1680 with a great number of rare and beautiful coins.
Among his chief works are a treatise on the coins of the
Roman emperors, entitled " Numismata Imperatorum
Roraanorum praestantigra," etc., (1674,) and "Seleuci-
darum Imperium, seu Historia Regum Syriae," etc., or
" History of the Syrian Kings derived from Coins."
T aillant was made a member of the Academy of Inscrip-
tions in 1702. Died in 1706.

See C DK LAFBUILLH, " D. J. F. Vaillant Doctoris Medici Vita,"
1745; NiciRON, "Memoires;" "Nouvelle Biographic Generate. "

Vaillant, QEAN FRANCOIS FOY,) a son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Rome in 1665. He was a member

* The more correct but les common form is VShana,

of the Academy of Inscriptions, and contributed to
the " Memoirs" of that institution several treatises on
numismatics. Died in 1708.

Vaillant, [Lat VAILLAN'TIUS,] (S^BASTIEN,) an emi-
nent French botanist, born near Pontoise ir. 1669. He
distinguished himself at an early age by his proficiency
in music, but subsequently studied medicine, and was
appointed surgeon to the royal fusileers. Having visited
Paris in 1691, he acquired the friendship of Tournefort,
and devoted himself henceforth to botanical studies.
In 1708 he succeeded Fagon as professor of botany and
sub-demonstrator of plants in the Jardin du Roi, and he
became a member of the Academy of Sciences in 1716.
He was the author of several valuable works, the most
important of which is his " Botanicon Parisiense," or
history of plants in the vicinity of Paris, (1727.) It was
illustrated by Aubriet, and published by Boerhaave after
the death of Vaillant which occurred in 1 722. The genus
Vaillantia was named by De Candolle in his honour.

See BOERHAAVB, " Vita VaUlantii," prefixed to his " Botanicon
Parisiense," 1727: "Biographic Medicale;" "Nouvelle Biographic

Vaillant, (WALLERANT,) a Flemish portrait-painter,
born at Lille in 1623. He was also a mezzotint engraver,
and is said to have been the first artist who executed
works in that department His engraved portrait of
Prince Rupert is one of his best productions. Died
in 1677.

Vaillant de Gueslia, vfyflN 7 den g&Hess', or Guelle,
gel, (GERMAIN,) a French bishop and poet, born at Or-
leans. He was patronized by Francis I., and became
Bishop of Orleans in 1586. He wrote an able com-
mentary on Virgil, (1575,) and a Latin poem at the age
of seventy. Died in 1587.

Vaillant, Le, leh vifyftN', (FRANCOIS,) a celebrated
traveller and naturalist, born at Paramaribo, in Dutch
Guiana, in 1753. He was taken to Europe about 1764,
and passed many years in France and Germany, where
he studied the habits of birds. In 1780 he sailed
to the Cape of Good Hope, and undertook to explore
Southern Africa. He made excursions among the Caf-
fres and other tribes, extended his researches northward
beyond the Orange River, and remained in Africa until
July, 1784. He returned to France with a large collec-
tion of birds, and published an interesting and graphic
narrative of his travels, "Journey in the Interior of
Africa," ("Voyage dans 1'Inte'rieur de 1'Afrique," a
vols., 1790-96,) which has a high reputation for veracity.
He was a diligent observer and an enthusiastic votary
of natural history. He was imprisoned in 1793, and
only saved from death by the fall of Robespierre. He
published a " Natural History of the Birds of Africa,"
(6 vols., 1796-1812,) and several minor works on birds.
Died near Sizanne in November, 1824. " His works
on birds," says Eyries, " are placed in the first rank."
("Biographic Universelle.")

Vair, du. See Du VAIR.

Vaishnava, vish'na-va, (English plural, Vaish-
navas,) the name given by the Hindoos to the worship-
pers of VISHNU, (which see.)

Vaissette or Vaiss&te, v^'sit', (Dom JOSEPH,) a
French Benedictine and historian, born at Gaillac in
1685. He wrote, besides other works, a " History of
Languedoc," (5 vols., 1730-45,) which is said to be very
exact, judicious, and well written. Died in 1756.

Vaj'ra, (pronounced by the modern Hindoos vuj'r?
or buj'ra,) a Sanscrit word, signifying "adamant," but
used in the Hindoo mythology to designate the " ada-
mantine thunderbolt" of Indra. (See INDRA.)

Vakh'tang I, King of Georgia in the fifth century,
was descended from the Persian king Sapor (Shapcor) I.
He was engaged in numerous wars, and greatly enlarged
his dominions.

VakhtangjVX became ruler over the province of
Kartli, in Georgia, in 1703. Having refused to embrace
Mohammedanism, he was deposed by the Shah of Persia,
but he was afterwards restored to power. While out-
wardly conforming to the religion of Mohammed, he was
active in promoting Christianity, and, having established
a printing-press, printed a Georgian version of a portion
of the Bible. Being compelled at length to resign in

a, e,i, 6, u, y, long; A, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, ?, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; n6t; g56d; mSon-




favour of his brother, he took refuge in Russia. He
was the author of a history of his country, entitled the
"Chronicle of Vakhtang the Sixth," (in manuscript.)
He died in 1734. His sons Bakar and Vakhusta com-
pleted the Georgian Bible in 1743.

Val, du, dii vtl, [Lat. VAL'LA,] (NICOLAS,) a French
jurist of the sixteenth century. He became secretary to
the king about 1542, and wrote a valuable work " On
Doubtful Causes and Questions Disputed in Law," (" De
Rebus dubiis et Quaestionibus in Jure controversis," 4th
edition, 1583.)

Valadares Gamboa, de, di va-la-da'rfe gam-bo'J,
(JOAQUIM FORTUNATO,) a Portuguese poet, born in the
latter part of the eighteenth century.

Valade, vi'lid', (L*ON,) a French poet of the cltuule
known as the " Parnasse." His first volume of verse,
" A mi-cote," was crowned by the Academy. His play
" Les Papillotes" (1883) was very successful. " Tableaux
venitiens" (poems) was his other principal work. Died
June 18, 1884.

Valart, vS'laV, (JOSEPH,) a French scholar and critic,
born near Hesdin, in Artois, in 1698. He became a
priest, and was employed as a school-teacher at various
places. He wrote several works on grammar, and pub-
lished editions of Horace, Ovid, and other Latin authors.
His character is represented as bizarre. Died in 1781.

Valaze, de, den vt'lS'za', (CHARLES ELEONORE du
Priche dii fResh,) a French Girondist, born at Alen9on
in 1751, became an advocate. He published an able
work " On Penal Laws," (1784,) and was elected to the
Convention in 1792. He voted for the death of the king
and the appeal to the people. Having been condemned
to death in October, 1793, he killed himself.

See Louis DUBOIS, "Notice sur Valaze"," 1802; I.AMARTIHM
" History of the Girondists."
Valbounais. See BOURCHENU, DE.
Valoarcel, val-kaR-thel', (JosK ANTONIO,) a Spanish
agriculturist, born at Valencia about 1720. He rendered
an important service to his countrymen by the publica-
tion of his " General Agriculture and Rural Economy,"
(7 vols. 4to, 1765-86.) Died after 1790.

Valcarcel, (Don Pio ANTONIO,) Count de Lunares,
a Spanish antiquary, born in 1740, published several
treatises on the inscriptions of Saguntum and other cities
of Spain. Died in 1800.

Valckenaer, val'keh-nlR, (JAN,) a Dutch diploma-
tist and lawyer, born at Franeker or Leyden in 1759.
He became professor of law at Utrecht in 1787, and
joined the party of patriots, i.e. those who sympathized
with the French republicans. He was Dutch ambassa-
dor at Madrid from 1796 till 1801, and was sent by King
Louis to Paris in 1810 to prevent the annexation of
Holland to France. Died in 1821.

Valckenaer, (LODEWIJCK CASPAR,) an eminenl
Dutch philologist, born at Leeuwarden in 1715, was the
father of the preceding. He became professor of Greek
at Franeker in 1741, and was professor of Greek and
archaeology at Leyden from 1766 until his death. H
edited, besides other classic works, the " Phoeniss*'
and the " Hippolytus" of Euripides, and the " Idyls" o:
Theocritus, (1773,) on which he wrote excellent com-
mentaries. Among his works is " Observationes Aca-
demicae," (1790,) which is highly prized. Died in 1785.
Valdegamas. See DoNoso-CoRTES.
Valdemar. See WALDEMAR.
Valdes, val-des', (Don ANTONIO,) a Spanish minister
of state, born in the Asturias about 1735. He became
minister of the marine in 1781, and greatly increased the
naval force of Spain. His ability and success were s(
conspicuous that the king in 1787 placed him at the heac
of the departments of finance, commerce, and war. In
1792 he was raised to the rank of chief admiral or cap
tain-general of the navy. By the agency of Godoy, h<
was removed in 1795. Died about 1811.

Valdes, (ARMANDO PALACIO,) a Spanish novelis
author of "The Marquis of Pinalba," "Froth,'
"The Grandee," etc., which were translated into
English after 1889.

Valdes. (CAIETANO,) a Spanish naval officer, wa:
a nephew of Don Antonio. He commanded a ship a

'rafalgar in 1805, after which he became a lieutenant-
eneral. Having revolted against Ferdinand VII., he
ras imprisoned from 1815 to 1820. Died after 1826.

Valdes, (DiEGO or JAGO,) a Spanish author and

irofessor of law, born in the Asturias in the sixteenth

entury. He published a work " On the Dignity of

Spanish Kings," (in Latin, 1602.)

Valdes, [It. VALDESSO, val-des'so,] (JUAN,) a Spanish

urist and reformer, born probably in Leon. He be-

ame a chamberlain of Pope Adrian VI. in 1522, and

eturned to Spain soon after the death of that pope.

ie removed to Naples about 1530, and, it is said, was

mployed there as secretary to the Spanish viceroy.

At wrote several religious works, in some of which he

attacked the corruptions of the Roman Church. He

lied at Naples, about middle age, in 1540. He adopted

he chief doctrines of the Protestant creed, but never

brmally separated from the Church of Rome. Among

lis works of a religious character is one entitled "One

rlundred and Ten Considerations," etc., (1550.)

" Valdes as a reformer," says Wiffen, " entered less
.han almost any thoughtful man of his time into the
>attle of hierarchies. He was less a destroyer of error
and evil than a builder-up of truth and goodness."

Se B B. WIFFEN, "Life of Juan ValdeV' 1865: HODGSON,
' Reformers and Martyrs," Philadelphia, 1867 ; TICKNOH, " History
of Spanish Literature :" N. ANTONIO, " Bibliotheca Hispana Nova. '

Valdes Leal, de, di val-deV la-al', QUAN,) an emi-
nent Spanish painter, born at C6rdova in 1630. He
worked at Seville, and was intimate with Murillo, after
whose death he was considered as the head of his pro-
Session. Among his works are several pictures of the
history of the prophet Elijah. He died in 1691. His
son LUCAS, born in 1661, was a painter and engraver.
Died in 1724.

Valdesso. See VALDES, (JUAN.)


Valdivia, de, da val-dee've-i, (Don PEDRO,) a Span-
.sh officer, who distinguished himself by the conquest
of Chili, was born about 1510. He accompanied Pizarro
in his expedition against Peru in 1532. About 1540,
under the orders of Pizarro, he invaded Chili with a
small force, founded Santiago, and gained victories
over the natives. He returned to Peru in 1547 or 1548,
and fought under La Gasca against Gonzalo Pizarro.
He was captured by the Araucanians, and put to death,
in 1559.

See CLAUDIO GAY, " Historia de Chile ;" " Nouvelle Biographia

Val'do or Wal'do, [Fr. pron. vSl'do',] (PETER or
PIERRE,) a French Reformer of the twelfth century,
born at Vaux, in Dauphine 1 , became a chief of the sect
of Waldenses, (or Vaudois.) He maintained the equal
right of the laity wilh the clergy to conduct the offices
of religion, and denounced the vices and ignorance of the
priests. His doctrine was condemned by the Roman
Church in 1179, and his followers cruelly persecuted.
He is said to have translated the Scriptures into Vaudois.
Many suppose that the name Waldenses was derived
from Valdo or Waldo; but it seems more probable
that he took his name Valdo as a surname because his
views corresponded with those of the Waldenses, who,

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 363 of 425)