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Universal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) online

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monk and writer, born at Sienna about 1740. He wrote
"Letters on the Fine Arts," (3 vols., 1782-86.) Died
in 1794.

Valle, della, (PlETRO.) a celebrated Italian traveller,
born at Rome in 1586, was surnamed IL PELLEGRINO,
(" the Pilgrim.") Having assumed the dress of a pilgrim,
he set out in 1614 for Palestine and the adjacent coun-
tries. He returned in 1626, having spent six years in
Persia. He died in 1652. His Travels in India and
Persia were published in 1662, (4 vols.) They have
been translated into several languages.

Vallee, vf la', (GF.OFFROI,) a French Deist, born at
Orleans, published " The Beatitude of Christians," (" La
Beatitude des Chretiens,") for which he was executed
in 1574.

Vallie, (Louis LEGER,) a French civil engineer, boiu

5. e. T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, J, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fill, fat; m?t; nftt; good: moon:


2 3 6 5


in 1794, was appointed inspector-general in 1848. He
published several professional works. Died in 1864.
Vallee, La. See LA VALLEE.
Valleix, vi'14', (FRANCOIS Louis,) a French med-
ical writer, born in Paris about 1820. He published a
"Treatise on Neuralgia," (1841,) and other works.
Died in 1855.

Vallemont, de, deh vaTm6N', (PIERRE Le Lorrain
leh lo'raN',) ABBE, a French priest, naturalist, and
writer, born at Pont-Audemer in 1649. He compiled
several mediocre works, among which is " The Elements
of History," (2 vols., 1696.) Died in 1721.

Valleriole, vaTre'ol', (FRANCOIS,) a French medical
writer, born at Montpellier about 1504 ; died in 1580.

Vallea, vil'yes, or Valesio, va-la'se-o, [Lat. VALLE'.
sius,] (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish medical writer, born in
Old Castile, lived in the sixteenth century. He was
physician to Philip II., and author of several esteemed

Vallet or Valet, vi'14', (GUILLAUME,) a French en-
graver, born about 1634. He engraved some works of
Raphael, Titian, and Poussin. Died about 1704.

Vallet de Viriville, vi'14' deh ve're'vel', (AUGUSTE,)
a French anttquary and writer, born in Paris in 1815. He
contributed to periodicals, and published, besides other
works, " Historical Iconography of France," (1853,) and
Researches on Jeanne Dare," (1855.) Died in 1868.

Valletta, val-let'ta, (NICCOL6,) an Italian jurist, born
at Arienza (Campania) in 1738, (or, as some say, 1750.)
He became professor of law in the University of Naples,
and published numerous legal works. Died November
21, 1814.

See ROSA. " Elogio storico di N. Valletta," 1815.
Valli, val'lee, (EusEBlo,) an Italian physician, born at
Pistoia in 1762, was the author of treatises on the yellow
fever, of which disease he died in 1816.

Val'll-a or WaMI-a, King of the Visigoths, began
to reign in 415 A.D., and formed an alliance with Hono-
rius, Emperor of Rome, in 416, after which he gained
victories over the Vandals in Spain. Toulouse was his
capital. Died about 420 A.D.

Valliere, de, deh vi'le-aiR', (JEAN FLORENT,) a
French general of artilleryT"was born in Paris in 1667.
He reorganized the artillery, and rendered Important
services in several campaigns. Died in 1759.

Valliere, de, (JOSEPH FLORENT,) MARQUIS, an able
French general, a son of the preceding, was born in
Paris in 1717. He became director-general of the artil-
lery and engineers in 1755, and distinguished himself at
Hastenbeck. Died in 1776.

Valliere, de la, deh It vfle^iR', (Louis C^SAR LA
BAUME LE BLANC,) DUKE, a French bibliophile, born
in Paris in 1708, was a grand-nephew of the following.
His library is stated to have been the richest that any
private person ever had in France. Died in 1780.

Valliere, de la, (LouiSE FRANCHISE DE LA BAUME
LE BLANC,) a beautiful and fascinating Frenchwoman,
born in Touraine in 1644. She became a maid of
honour to the Duchess of Orleans, and about 1661 the
mistress of Louis XIV., who gave her the title of duchess.
She had by him four children, one of whom, the Count
of Vermandois, was legitimated. In 1674 she retired to
a convent. Her virtues and piety are highly extolled,
Died in 1710.

See QUATREM&RK DR Rolssv, " Histoire de Madame de la Va.-
Here," 1823 : W. H. D. ADAMS, " Famous Beauties and Historic
Women," vol. ii.. 1865.

Vallisneri, val-les-na'ree, or Vallisnieri, val-les-ne-
a'ree, (ANTONIO,) an eminent Italian naturalist, born in
the duchy of Modena in May, 1661, was a pupil of Mai
pighi at Bologna. He began to practise medicine ai
Reggio about 1688, and married in 1692. Having ac
quired distinction by his researches in entomology am
the generation of insects, he became professor of practi
cal medicine at Padua in 1700. He opposed the doctrine
of spontaneous generation. About 1710 he obtained the
first chair of the theory of medicine at Padua. Amon;
his principal works is a "Treatise on the Generation o:
Men and Animals," ("Istoria della Generazione dell
Uomoe degli Animali," etc., 1721.) Ruffon regarded him
as an exact and profound investigator. Died Padua

n 1730. Vallisneria, a genus of plants, was named in his
lonour by Micheli.

See FABRONI, "Vitse Italorum doctrina excellentium," vol. vii. ;
flCRRON, " Me'moires :" TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italian] illam-
ri ;" "Nouvelle Biographic Ge'nerale."


Vallot, vi'lo', (ANTOINE,) a French physician, born
at Rheims or at Montpellier in 1594. He became first
>hysician to Louis XIV. in 1652, and cured him of a
ierious illness in 1658. Died in 1671.

Vallotti, val-lot'tee, (FRANCESCO ANTONIO,) an Ital-
an composer of sacred music, born at Vercelli in 1697;
died at Padua in 1780.

Valmlkl, vil'mi-ki, or ValmikI, vll-mee'kl, a Hindoo
)oet, of unknown date, to whom is ascribed the author-
ship of the " Ramayana," one of the two great Hindoo
epics. (See RAM^YANA.)

See WILSON, " Sanscrit-and-English Dictionary ;" " New Ameri-
can Cyclopaedia."

Valmont de Bomare, vaTmoN'deh bo'maV, (J. C.,)
a French naturalist, born at Rouen in 1731. He visited
various parts of Europe, including Lapland, and returned
with a large collection of objects in natural history. He

Raisonn^ Dictionary of Natural History," a work of
e;reat merit, which has obtained extensive popularity.
Died in 1807.



Valoifi, va"lwa', (YVES,) a French Jesuit and writer
on religion, born at Bordeaux in 1694; died after 1760.

Valois, de, (ADRIEN.) See VALESIUS.

Valois, de, (CHARLES.) See ANGOULEME.

Yaloia, de, deh vj'lwa', [Lat. VALE'SIUS,] (CHARLES,)
a French antiquary, born in Paris in 1671, was a son of
Adrien de Valois or Valesius. He published a curious
work, entitled " Valesiana," (1694,) which is composed
partly of his father's writings and sayings. Died in 1747.

Valori, va-lo'ree, (FRANCESCO,) an eminent Italian
statesman, born at Florence in 1439. He filled the
highest offices in the Florentine republic, and was a
friend of Savonarola and Macchiavelli. He was killed
by the populace during the excitement caused by the
reforms of Savonarola, in 1498.

Valori, (NiccoLb,) an Italian writer, who was prior
of the republic of Florence. He wrote, in Latin, a "Life
of Lorenzo de' Medici," (1492.)

Valperga di Caluso, vil-peVga de kl-loo'so, or
simply Valperga-Caluso, (ToMMASO,) an Italian lit-
tb-ateur and mathematician, born in Turin in 1737, was
an intimate friend of Alfieri. He became professor of
Oriental literature in Turin, and director of an observa-
tory in that city. He wrote poems, and numerous treat-
ises on mathematics, astronomy, etc. Among his works
is a "Gallery of Italian Poets," (1814.) Died in 1815.

Val'py, (EDWARD,) an English scholar and divine,
brother of Richard, noticed below, studied at Trinity
College, Cambridge, and subsequently became vicar of
Saint M.ary, at Walsham, Norfolk. He was the author
of " Elegantiae Latinae," (translated,) and other works.
Died in 1832.

Valpy, (RICHARD,) D.D., an eminent English scholar
and divine, born in the island of Jersey in 1754. Having
previously studied at the College of Valognes, in Nor-
mandy, he entered the University of Oxford, where he
took the degree of B.A., and in 1781 was chosen head-
master of the grammar-school at Reading, Berkshire.
He became rector of Stradishall, in Suffolk, in 1787. He
published " Elements of the Latin Language," (1784,)
and a "Greek Grammar," (1805,) which are highly
esteemed. Died in 1836. His son ABRAHAM JOHN,
born in 1786, published excellent editions of several of
the Latin classics. Died in 1854.

Valsalva, vil-sal'va, (ANTONIO MARIA.) a celebrated
Italian physician and anatomist, born at Imola in 1666.

as k; c as s; g hard: g as i; G, H, K, guttural: N, nasal; R, trilled; s as t; th as in this.

: Explanations, p. 23.)




He studied under Malpighi at Bologna, and in 1697
became professor of anatomy in the university of that
city. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London
and of other similar institutions. He made improve-
ments in practical surgery, and acquired a high reputa-
tion as an anatomist by his discoveries in the structure
of the ear, on which he wrote a work, " De Aure Hu-
mana," (1704.) He was a skilful physician, and invented
a method of treating aneurisms. Died in 1723.

See FABKONI, " Vitz Italorum doctrma excellentium ;" TIPALDO,
" Biografia degli Italian! Ulustri."

Valsecchi, val-sek'kee, (ViRGiNio,) an Italian anti-
quary, born at Brescia in 1681 ; died in 1739.
Valstain. See WALLENSTEIN.
Valturio, vil-too're-o, (ROBERTO,) an Italian writer
on the military art. born at Rimini, was author of a
work " De Re militari," (1472.) He lived about 1450-80.
Valvasone, di, de val-va-so'ni, (ERASMO,) an Italian
poet, born in Friuli in 1523, was proprietor of an estate
and a castle. He wrote the " Angeleida," a poem on
the war among the angels, (1590,) and "The Chase,"
(" Caccia,") an admired didactic poem on hunting,
(1591.) Died in 1593.

See TIRABOSCHI. " Storia della Letteratttra Italians '
Vaman. See V^MANA.

Vamana, va'ma-na, called also Vaman, va'man,
[i.e. a " dwarf,"] in the Hindoo mythology, the name of
the fifth avatar of Vishnu, when this god, to humble the
arrogance of Bali, (see BALI,) took the form of a pitiful
dwarf, and, when the tyrant promised him as much land
or space as he could pass over in three steps, revealed
himself in his real character, and with the first step
deprived Bali of earth, with the second, of heaven, but
(in consideration of Bali's good qualities) he generously
forbore to take the third step, (which would have left
that ruler no foothold in the universe,) and allowed him
the dominion of Patala, or the lower world. From
Vishnu's exploit on that occasion he has received one
of his proudest titles, that of TrTvik'rama, or the
" Three-Step-Taker." (See VISHNU.)

Vambery, vJm'ba-Re, (ARMINIUS,) a Jewish traveller,
born at Duna-Szerdah^ly, in Hungary, (on an island in
the Danube,) in 1832. A soldier in the revolution of
1848, he was seriously wounded at the siege of Comorn,
and after the war had to escape to Turkey, whence he
travelled over a large part of Central Asia. After his
return he became a professor of Oriental languages in the
University of Pesth. His principal works are " Travels
and Adventures in Central Asia," (1864,) " Wanderings
and Adventures in Persia," (1867,) "Sketches of Central
Asia," (1868,) "History of Bokhara," (1873,) and other
works, including a very readable account of his own
"Life and Adventures," (1883.) The accuracy of M.
Vambery's narratives has been much questioned, but in
England especially his writings are highly esteemed.
Vamuna. See VAMANA.
Van or Vana. See VANIR.
Van Achen. See ACHEN.

Van'a-dis, [Norse pron. va'na-dess', i.e. the " Vana
goddess," so called on account of her descent from the
Vanir,] one of the many names of FREYIA, which see.
Van Aelst See AELST.

Van Amburgh, van am'burg, (ISAAC,) called "the
Lion-Tamer," was born at Fishkill, New York, about
1815. He was a partner of a company that exhibited a
travelling menagerie, and was very successful in the
taming of lions. Died in Philadelphia in 1865.
Van Bene'den, (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a Belgian
naturalist, born at Mechlin in 1809. He became pro-
fessor of geology at Ghent in 1835, and at Louvain
in 1836, remaining there till his death. He established
in 1843 the first laboratory and aquarium for the study
of marine life, and gained wide reputation by his study
of various parasites. Died in 1894.

Vanbrugh, van-broo', (Sir JOHN,) a celebrated Eng
lish dramatist and architect, of Flemish extraction, born
in 1666, is supposed to have been a native of London.
He was educated in France, and, after his return, pub-

ished, in 1697, his comedy of " The Relapse," which was
bllowed by "The Confederacy" and "The Provoked
Wife." These plays were highly popular at the time ;
jut, owing to their profanity and licentiousness, they have
jeen long banished from the stage. Among his principal
architectural works we may name Castle Howard, the
seat of Charles, Earl of Carlisle, Duncombe Hall, Grims-
thorpe, in Yorkshire, and Blenheim, the magnificent
residence of the Duke of Marlborough. He was ap-
pointed in 1 703 Clarencieux king-at-arms. Died in 1 726.

See GIBBER, "Lives of the Poets:" BAKER, " Biographia Dra-
matica :" " Lives of the British Dramatists," by CAMPBELL, LEIGH
HUNT, etc

Van Buren, (MARTIN,) an American statesman, the
eighth President of the United States, was born at Kin-
derhook, Columbia county, New York, on the $th of
December, 1782. He was educated at the academy of
lis native village, studied law, and was admitted to the
Dar in 1803. He began at an early age to take an active
Dart in politics, as a member of the Democratic party,
ind was elected to the Senate of New York in 1812.
He advocated the war against England in 1812, became
attorney-general of New York in 1815, and was again
elected to the Senate in 1816. About this time he became
the master-spirit of the Albany Regency, an organization
which was formed to oppose De Witt Clinton, and which
controlled the politics of New York for many years. H?
was elected a Senator of the United States in 1821, sup-
ported William H. Crawford for the Presidency of the
United States in 1824, and was again elected a Senatoi
in 1827. He voted for the protective tariff of 1828. The
same year he was chosen Governor of New York for two
years, but before the expiration of his term he resigned
and entered the cabinet of President Jackson as secre-
tary of state. He resigned that office in April, 1831,
probably because General Jackson had expressed his
opinion that cabinet ministers should not be aspirants
for the Presidency, or should not obtain that office through
his influence. He was nominated as minister to Eng-
land, whither he went about September, 1831, but his
nomination was rejected by the Senate, in which the
Whigs had then a majority. To compensate him for
this repulse, the friends of General Jackson elected Mr.
Van Buren Vice-President of the United States in No-
vember, 1832. He was General Jackson's favourite candi-
date for the Presidency, and was nominated as such by
the Democratic Convention at Baltimore in May, 1835.
His Whig competitor was General W. H. Harrison.
Mr. Van Buren Was elected President in November, 1836,
receiving one hundred and seventy electoral votes out
of two hundred and ninety-four, which was the whole
number. His election was soon followed by a great
financial panic and a general prostration of business.
About May, 1837, all the banks suspended specie pay-
ments. In his message to Congress he recommended
the establishment of an independent treasury, which
measure was rejected by the House of Representatives
in the session of 1837-38, but afterwards passed both
houses of Congress and became a law about June, 1840.
In the session of 1838-39 an attempt was made to sup-
press the agitation against slavery, by a resolution that
Congress would not receive or react any petitions for
the abolition of slavery. All the political friends of the
President voted for this resolution, which was adopted.

He was again nominated for the Presidency by the
Democratic Convention in May, 1840, but, after a very
exciting canvass, in which the enthusiasm of the Whigs
was stimulated by mass-meetings, processions, songs,
etc., he was defeated by General Harrison, who received
two hundred and thirty-four electoral votes against sixty
for Mr. Van Buren. On the 4th of March, 1841, he re-
tired from the public service to his estate called Linden-
wald, near Kinderhook, New York. In the Democratic
National Convention which met in May, 1844, a majority
of the delegates were pledged or instructed to vote for
Mr. Van Buren ; but the Southern politicians opposed
his nomination, because he had written a letter against
the annexation of Texas. They therefore insisted th*t
the Convention should adopt a rule under which two-
thirds of the votes were necessary to a choice. Mr.
Van Buren had only one hundred and forty-six votes

a, e, i, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon;




out of two hundred and sixty-two, and therefore failed
to obtain the nomination.

According to Mr. Greeley, his renomination was
defeated by the "slave-traders, and the closely affiliated
class of gamblers and blacklegs." (" American Conflict,"
vol. i. p. 69.) He afterwards separated himself from the
Democratic party because it was committed to the ex-
tension of slavery. A convention of the Free-Soil party
which met at Buffalo in August, 1848, nominated Martin
Van Buren and Charles Francis Adams as candidates
for the offices of President and Vice-PresidenL They
received a popular vote of 291,342, but not any electoral
vote. It is stated that he voted for Mr. Pierce and Mr.
Buchanan in the Presidential elections of 1852 and 1856.
He had married a lady named Hoes about 1804, and had
several sons. Died at or near JCinderhook in July, 1862.

See the " National Portrait-Gallery of Distinguished Americans,"
vol iii.

Vance, (ZEBULON B.,) an American Senator, was
born in Buncombe county, North Carolina, May 13, 1830.
He was educated at Washington College, (in Tennessee,)
and at the University of North Carolina, and in 1852
was admitted to the bar. He was in Congress, 1858-61,
was Governor of North Carolina, 1862-66 and 1877-79,
and was United States senator from 1879 until his death,
which occurred April 14, 1894.

Van Ceulen. See KEULEN, VAN.

Van Cleemputte, vin kla'oN'put',(LuciEN TYRTE,)
a French architect, born in Paris in 1795. He obtained
the grand prize in 1816. Died August 18, 1871.

Van Cleve, vin kl|v, (CORNEILLE or JOSEPH,) a
French sculptor, born in 1644, worked in Paris. Died
in 1733-

Van Cleve, (HORATIO P.,) an American general,
born at Princeton, New Jersey, about 1810, graduated
at West Point in 1831. He was appointed a brigadier-
general about March, 1862, and commanded a division
at the battle of Chickamauga, September 19 and 20,
lS6?. Died at St. Paul, Minnesota, April 24, 1891.

Vancouver, vln-koo'ver, (GEORGE,) a English navi-
gator, born about 1755, entered the navy at an early age,
and accompanied Captain Cook, as midshipman, on his
second and third voyages. In 1791 he sailed as com-
mander of the Discovery to the northwest coast of
America, to receive the surrender of Nootka from the
Spaniards, who were instructed by their government to
give up that island to the British. He was also charged
to make a survey of the coast northwards from latitude
30 north. He returned in 1795, and applied himself
to the preparation of his narrative, which was not quite
completed at his death, in 1798. It was published soon
after by his brother, under the title of " Voyage of Dis-
covery to the North Pacific Ocean and round the
World," (3 vols. 410.) Vancouver gave his name to an
island off the coast of America between 48 20' and 51
north latitude.

See the " Monthly Review" for January, 1799.

Van Dale, vjn di'leh, (ANTOON,) a Dutch physician
and Mennonite preacher, born in 1638, was the author
of several learned works on theology and Greek and
Roman antiquities. Among these we may name his
treatise " On the Origin and Progress of Idolatry and
Superstition," (in Latin,) and "On the Oracles of the
Heathen," (" Dissertationes duas de Oraculis," etc.,
1700.) Died in 1708.

Van Dalen. See DALEN, VAN.

Vandamme, vdN'dim', (DOMINIQUE REN^,) Count
d'Unebourg, a French general, born at Cassel in 1770.
He became a general of division in 1799, after he had
rendered important services in Flanders and Germany.
For his conduct at Austerlitz he received from Napoleon
a gift of twenty thousand francs. He took part in several
actions against the Prussians in 1806, and commanded
a corps in the Austrian campaign of 1809. In the spring
of 1813 he captured Hamburg. He commanded a sepa-
rate army which was compelled to surrender to a superior
force near Kulm, in August, 1813. Having joined the
army of Napoleon in 1815, he had a high command at
the battle of Ligny. Died in 1830.

See THlHRSj " History of the French Revolution ;" JOMINI, "Vie
politique et militaire de Napuleon."

VandelU, vin-del'lee, (DoMENico,) an Italian phy.
sician and naturalist, born in the early part of the eigh-
teenth century, became superintendent of the botanic
garden at Lisbon. He published a treatise on marine
zoophytes, etc., and several botanical works. He was a
correspondent of Linnaeus, who named the genus of
plants Vandellia in his honour. Died in 1815.

Van Depoele, (CHARLES J.,) electrician, was
born in Belgium in 1846. He emigrated to the United
States in 1871, and continued the electrical experi-
ments he had long pursued. In 1881 he began light-
ing the streets of Chicago with a dynamo of his own
construction, and in 1885 made the first exhibition of
the overhead trolley system of street-car propulsion.
During the following years he took out numerous
patents for electrical inventions. Died in 1892.

Vanderanus. See AA, VAN DER.

Van'der-bilt, (CORNELIUS,) COMMODORE, an enter-
prising American navigator, born on Staten Island, New
York, in May, 1794. He was originally a poor boy, and
commenced business as master of a small sail-boat He
became captain of a steamboat in 1817, after which be
made improvements in the construction of steamers.
He built many steamboats and steamships, and in 1851
established a line from New York to California by way
of Nicaragua. In 1855 he built several steamships to ply
between New York and Havre. In 1862 he presented
as a gift to the Federal government his new steamer
called the Vanderbilt, which cost $800,000, and for which
Congress passed a resolution of thanks. In 1857 he
became president of the New York Central Railroad,
which in 1868 he consolidated with the Hudson River
road. He died January 4, 1877, leaving an estate valued
at many millions.

See a " Memoir of C. Vanderbilt," in the " Merchants' Magazine"
for January, 1865.

Vanderburch, voN'de'R'buRk', (MILE Louis,) a
French dramatist, born in Paris in 1794, wrote many
successful comedies and vaudevilles. Died in 1862.

Vanderburch, de, deh vtn'der-buRK, (FRANCIS,)
Flemish prelate, born at Ghent in 1567. He became
Archbishop of Cambray. Died in 1644.

Van der CabeL See CABEL, VAN DER.

Van der Does. See DOES, VAN DER.

Van der Goes. See GOES.

Vander Heist, vin'der-hSlsf , (BARTHOLOMEW,) an
eminent Dutch portrait-painter, born at Haarlem about
1610. Among his master-pieces is a picture in the town-
house of Amsterdam, containing twenty-four full-length
portraits. It is esteemed one of the finest productions
of the kind, and was highly commended by Sir Joshua
Reynolds. Died about 1670.

Van der Heydeu, (or Heyde.) See HEYDEN, VAN

Van der Linden. See LINDEN, VAN DER.

Van'der-lyX (JoHN,) a noted American painter, born
at Kingston, Ulster county, New York, in 1776. Having
studied law for a time under Gilbert Stuart, he visited
Europe, where he spent several years, and produced his
" Ariadne" and " Marius sitting among the Ruins of Car-
thage," which are esteemed his master-pieces. Among
his portraits we may name those of Washington, Mon-
roe, and Calhoun. Died in 1852.

See DUNLAP, " Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in Amer-
ica," vol. iii. ; " Recollections ot John Vanderlyn," in the "Atlantic
Monthly" for Februar/, 1867 : TUCKRRMAN, " Book of the Artists."

Vander Maelen, vin der ma'len, (PHILIPPE MARIE

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Online LibraryJoseph ThomasUniversal pronouncing dictionary of biography and mythology (Volume 2) → online text (page 365 of 425)